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Detection Limits from the McDonald Observatory Planet Search Program
Based on the long-term radial velocity surveys carried out with theMcDonald Observatory 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope from 1988 to thepresent, we derive upper limits to long-period giant planet companionsfor 31 nearby stars. Data from three phases of the McDonald Observatory2.7 m planet-search program have been merged together, and for 17objects data from the pioneering Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope radialvelocity program have also been included in the companion-limitsdetermination. For those 17 objects, the baseline of observations is inexcess of 23 yr, enabling the detection or exclusion of giant planets inorbits beyond 8 AU. We also consider the possibility of eccentric orbitsin our computations. At an orbital separation of 5.2 AU, we can excludeon average planets of Msini>~(2.0+/-1.1)MJ (e=0) andMsini>~(4.0+/-2.8)MJ (e=0.6) for 25 of the 31 stars inthis survey. However, we are not yet able to rule out ``true Jupiters,''i.e., planets of Msini~1MJ in 5.2 AU orbits. These limits areof interest for the Space Interferometry Mission, Terrestrial PlanetFinder, and Darwin missions, which will search for terrestrial planetsorbiting nearby stars, many of which are included in this work.

Dwarfs in the Local Region
We present lithium, carbon, and oxygen abundance data for a sample ofnearby dwarfs-a total of 216 stars-including samples within 15 pc of theSun, as well as a sample of local close giant planet (CGP) hosts (55stars) and comparison stars. The spectroscopic data for this work have aresolution of R~60,000, a signal-to-noise ratio >150, and spectralcoverage from 475 to 685 nm. We have redetermined parameters and derivedadditional abundances (Z>10) for the CGP host and comparison samples.From our abundances for elements with Z>6 we determine the meanabundance of all elements in the CGP hosts to range from 0.1 to 0.2 dexhigher than nonhosts. However, when relative abundances ([x/Fe]) areconsidered we detect no differences in the samples. We find nodifference in the lithium contents of the hosts versus the nonhosts. Theplanet hosts appear to be the metal-rich extension of local regionabundances, and overall trends in the abundances are dominated byGalactic chemical evolution. A consideration of the kinematics of thesample shows that the planet hosts are spread through velocity space;they are not exclusively stars of the thin disk.

Sulphur abundances in disk stars as determined from the forbidden λ10821 [S I] line
Aims.In this paper we aim to study the chemical evolution of sulphur inthe galactic disk, using a new optimal abundance indicator: the [S i]line at 10821 Å. Similar to the optimal oxygen indicators, the [Oi] lines, the [S i] line has the virtues of being less sensitive to theassumed temperatures of the stars investigated and of likely being lessprone to non-LTE effects than other tracers.Methods.High-resolution, near-infrared spectra of the [S i] line arerecorded using the Phoenix spectrometer on the Gemini South telescope.The analysis is based on 1D, LTE model atmospheres using a homogeneousset of stellar parameters.Results.The λ10821 [S i] line issuitable for an abundance analysis of disk stars, and the sulphurabundances derived from it are consistent with abundances derived fromother tracers. We corroborate that, for disk stars, the trend ofsulphur-to-iron ratios with metallicity is similar to that found forother alpha elements, supporting the idea of a common nucleosyntheticorigin.

Bisectors of the cross-correlation function applied to stellar spectra. Discriminating stellar activity, oscillations and planets
Context: .Bisectors of strong, single spectral lines, usually the Fe I6252 line, have traditionally been used to examine the velocity fieldsin stellar atmospheres. This requires high S/N often achieved by summingmany individual spectra. Aims: .We investigate whether bisectorsderived from cross-correlation functions (CCF) of single-exposurespectra can be used to provide information on stellar atmospheres, andwhether they can be used to discriminate between radial velocity changescaused by planets, magnetic activity and oscillations. Methods:.Using a sample of bright stars observed with the HARPS spectrograph, weexamine the shapes of the bisectors of individual strong spectral linesin summed spectra, comparing with similar studies in the literature.Moreover, we examine four different quantitative CCF bisector measuresfor correlations with radial velocity and stellar parameters.Results: .We show that CCF bisector measures can be used forquantitative analysis, employing both the absolute values and thevariations. From absolute values, log g and absolute magnitude can beapproximated, and from the correlations with radial velocity one candistinguish between magnetic activity, oscillations and orbiting planetsas the probable cause of radial velocity variations. We confirm thatdifferent isolated spectral lines show different bisector shapes, evenbetween lines of the same element, calling for caution in trying toderive global stellar properties from the bisector of a CCF. For theactive star HR 1362 we suggest from the bisector shape an extraphotospheric heating caused by the chromosphere of several hundreddegrees. We confirm the fill-in of spectral lines of the Sun taken onthe daylight sky caused by Rayleigh-Brillouin and aerosol scattering,and we show for the first time that the fill-in has an asymmetriccomponent.

Shapes of Spectral Line Bisectors for Cool Stars
The shape of the line bisector for the prototype spectral line Fe Iλ6253 was measured for an array of 54 stars on the cool half ofthe HR diagram. These bisectors are given in tables along with theirerrors. The classic C shape is shown by only a rather restricted rangein effective temperature and luminosity. The detailed change in bisectorshape with effective temperature and luminosity is documented moreprecisely than in previous work. The most blueward point on the bisectorchanges its height systematically with luminosity and can be used as aluminosity or gravity discriminant. The wide range of bisector shapescontains significant information about the velocity fields in theatmospheres of these stars, but extracting that information may requireextensive modeling.

An Improved Infrared Passband System for Ground-based Photometry: Realization
We describe new simulations and field trials of the new infraredpassband system developed and discussed by Young, Milone, & Stagg,who discussed and illustrated the state of infrared photometry andsuggested ways in which it could be improved. In particular, theypresented a new set of passbands that minimize the dependence of thephotometry on the water vapor bands of the atmospheric windows, whichdefined the edges of many previous infrared passbands, especially whenused at sites and under conditions for which they were not designed. Inthis paper, we present numerical simulations for three atmosphericmodels, demonstrate a measure of the signal-to-noise ratio in the newpassbands for these models, and present observational data obtained at arelatively low-elevation site. The latter demonstrate the utility ofthis system for most astronomical sites where photometry can beperformed, and permit the transformation of observations to this system.Publications of the Rothney Astrophysical Observatory, No. 74.

Predicting accurate stellar angular diameters by the near-infrared surface brightness technique
I report on the capabilities of the near-infrared (near-IR) surfacebrightness technique to predict reliable stellar angular diameters asaccurate as <~2 per cent using standard broad-band Johnson photometryin the colour range -0.1 <= (V-K)O<= 3.7 includingstars of A, F, G, K spectral type. This empirical approach is fast toapply and leads to estimated photometric diameters in very goodagreement with recent high-precision interferometric diametermeasurements available for non-variable dwarfs and giants, as well asfor Cepheid variables. Then I compare semi-empirical diameters predictedby model-dependent photometric and spectrophotometric (SP) methods withnear-IR surface brightness diameters adopted as empirical referencecalibrators. The overall agreement between all these methods is withinapproximately +/-5 per cent, confirming previous works. However, on thesame scale of accuracy, there is also evidence for systematic shiftspresumably as a result of an incorrect representation of the stellareffective temperature in the model-dependent results. I also comparemeasurements of spectroscopic radii with near-IR surface brightnessradii of Cepheids with known distances. Spectroscopic radii are found tobe affected by a scatter as significant as >~9 per cent, which is atleast three times greater than the formal error currently claimed by thespectroscopic technique. In contrast, pulsation radii predicted by theperiod-radius (PR) relation according to the Cepheid period result aresignificantly less dispersed, indicating a quite small scatter as aresult of the finite width of the Cepheid instability strip, as expectedfrom pulsation theory. The resulting low level of noise stronglyconfirms our previous claims that the pulsation parallaxes are the mostaccurate empirical distances presently available for Galactic andextragalactic Cepheids.

Variability of Stars in the Pulkovo Spectrophotometric Catalog
We present the results of a statistical study of brightness variabilityfor 693 stars of the Pulkovo spectrophotometric database in fivespectral bands in the range λλ 320 1080 nm. Significantbrightness variations were detected in at least one spectral bandagainst the background of the random noise for one-third of the starsnot earlier believed to be variable. A comparison of the distributionsof these variations in amplitude and spectral band for the normal andvariable stars shows that variability is inherent to most stars to someextent and is often wavelength dependent.

Spectroscopic Properties of Cool Stars (SPOCS). I. 1040 F, G, and K Dwarfs from Keck, Lick, and AAT Planet Search Programs
We present a uniform catalog of stellar properties for 1040 nearby F, G,and K stars that have been observed by the Keck, Lick, and AAT planetsearch programs. Fitting observed echelle spectra with synthetic spectrayielded effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, projectedrotational velocity, and abundances of the elements Na, Si, Ti, Fe, andNi, for every star in the catalog. Combining V-band photometry andHipparcos parallaxes with a bolometric correction based on thespectroscopic results yielded stellar luminosity, radius, and mass.Interpolating Yonsei-Yale isochrones to the luminosity, effectivetemperature, metallicity, and α-element enhancement of each staryielded a theoretical mass, radius, gravity, and age range for moststars in the catalog. Automated tools provide uniform results and makeanalysis of such a large sample practical. Our analysis method differsfrom traditional abundance analyses in that we fit the observed spectrumdirectly, rather than trying to match equivalent widths, and wedetermine effective temperature and surface gravity from the spectrumitself, rather than adopting values based on measured photometry orparallax. As part of our analysis, we determined a new relationshipbetween macroturbulence and effective temperature on the main sequence.Detailed error analysis revealed small systematic offsets with respectto the Sun and spurious abundance trends as a function of effectivetemperature that would be inobvious in smaller samples. We attempted toremove these errors by applying empirical corrections, achieving aprecision per spectrum of 44 K in effective temperature, 0.03 dex inmetallicity, 0.06 dex in the logarithm of gravity, and 0.5 kms-1 in projected rotational velocity. Comparisons withprevious studies show only small discrepancies. Our spectroscopicallydetermined masses have a median fractional precision of 15%, but theyare systematically 10% higher than masses obtained by interpolatingisochrones. Our spectroscopic radii have a median fractional precisionof 3%. Our ages from isochrones have a precision that variesdramatically with location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We planto extend the catalog by applying our automated analysis technique toother large stellar samples.

Radial Velocities of Late-Type Field Subgiant Stars
High-dispersion coudé spectra were observed and measured for 43field subgiants of the G and K spectral types, with the intent ofsearching for hitherto undiscovered spectroscopic binaries. Statisticalanalysis of the measurements revealed no definite but two possible newbinaries. We present the data and discuss the statistical analysis usedto test for new binaries. Additionally, we discuss the techniques forhigh precision of radial-velocity measurement, and the systematic errorsthat interfere with that goal.

Can Life Develop in the Expanded Habitable Zones around Red Giant Stars?
We present some new ideas about the possibility of life developingaround subgiant and red giant stars. Our study concerns the temporalevolution of the habitable zone. The distance between the star and thehabitable zone, as well as its width, increases with time as aconsequence of stellar evolution. The habitable zone moves outward afterthe star leaves the main sequence, sweeping a wider range of distancesfrom the star until the star reaches the tip of the asymptotic giantbranch. Currently there is no clear evidence as to when life actuallyformed on the Earth, but recent isotopic data suggest life existed atleast as early as 7×108 yr after the Earth was formed.Thus, if life could form and evolve over time intervals from5×108 to 109 yr, then there could behabitable planets with life around red giant stars. For a 1Msolar star at the first stages of its post-main-sequenceevolution, the temporal transit of the habitable zone is estimated to beseveral times 109 yr at 2 AU and around 108 yr at9 AU. Under these circumstances life could develop at distances in therange 2-9 AU in the environment of subgiant or giant stars, and in thefar distant future in the environment of our own solar system. After astar completes its first ascent along the red giant branch and the Heflash takes place, there is an additional stable period of quiescent Hecore burning during which there is another opportunity for life todevelop. For a 1 Msolar star there is an additional109 yr with a stable habitable zone in the region from 7 to22 AU. Space astronomy missions, such as proposed for the TerrestrialPlanet Finder (TPF) and Darwin, that focus on searches for signatures oflife on extrasolar planets, should also consider the environments ofsubgiants and red giant stars as potentially interesting sites forunderstanding the development of life. We performed a preliminaryevaluation of the difficulty of interferometric observations of planetsaround red giant stars compared to a main-sequence star environment. Weshow that pathfinder missions for TPF and Darwin, such as Eclipse andFKSI, have sufficient angular resolution and sensitivity to search forhabitable planets around some of the closest evolved stars of thesubgiant and red giant class.

UVBLUE: A New High-Resolution Theoretical Library of Ultraviolet Stellar Spectra
We present an extended ultraviolet-blue (850-4700 Å) library oftheoretical stellar spectral energy distributions computed at highresolution, λ/Δλ=50,000. The UVBLUE grid, as wenamed the library, is based on LTE calculations carried out with ATLAS9and SYNTHE codes developed by R. L. Kurucz and consists of nearly 1800entries that cover a large volume of the parameter space. It spans arange in Teff from 3000 to 50,000 K, the surface gravityranges from logg=0.0 to 5.0 with Δlogg=0.5 dex, while sevenchemical compositions are considered:[M/H]=-2.0,-1.5,-1.0,-0.5,+0.0,+0.3, and +0.5 dex. For its coverageacross the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, this library is the mostcomprehensive one ever computed at high resolution in theshort-wavelength spectral range, and useful application can be foreseenfor both the study of single stars and in population synthesis models ofgalaxies and other stellar systems. We briefly discuss some relevantissues for a safe application of the theoretical output to ultravioletobservations, and a comparison of our LTE models with the non-LTE (NLTE)ones from the TLUSTY code is also carried out. NLTE spectra are found,on average, to be slightly ``redder'' compared to the LTE ones for thesame value of Teff, while a larger difference could bedetected for weak lines, which are nearly wiped out by the enhanced coreemission component in case of NLTE atmospheres. These effects seem to bemagnified at low metallicity (typically [M/H]<~-1). A match with aworking sample of 111 stars from the IUE atlas, with availableatmosphere parameters from the literature, shows that UVBLUE modelsprovide an accurate description of the main mid- and low-resolutionspectral features for stars along the whole sequence from the B to ~G5type. The comparison sensibly degrades for later spectral types, withsupergiant stars that are in general more poorly reproduced than dwarfs.As a possible explanation of this overall trend, we partly invoke theuncertainty in the input atmosphere parameters to compute thetheoretical spectra. In addition, one should also consider the importantcontamination of the IUE stellar sample, where the presence of binaryand variable stars certainly works in the sense of artificiallyworsening the match between theory and observations.

Chromospherically Active Stars. XXIV. The Giant, Single-lined Binaries HD 37824, HD 181809, and HD 217188
We have obtained spectroscopy and photometry of three chromosphericallyactive, single-lined spectroscopic binaries, HD 37824 (V1149 Ori), HD181809 (V4138 Sgr), and HD 217188 (AZ Psc). HD 37824 has a circularorbit with a period of 53.57 days. Its primary is a K0 III star, whilethe secondary is likely a G or K dwarf. HD 181809 has an orbit with aperiod of 13.04667 days and a low eccentricity of 0.040. The primary hasa spectral type of K0 III-IV, and its secondary is probably an M dwarf.The orbit of HD 217188 has a period of 47.1209 days and a moderatelyhigh eccentricity of 0.470. The spectral type of the primary is K0 III,while the secondary is likely an M dwarf. All three systems areestimated to have near solar iron abundances. Photometric observationsspanning 15-16 years for all three stars yield mean photometric periodsof 53.12, 59.85, and 90.89 days for HD 37824, HD 181809, and HD 217188,respectively. Thus, HD 37824 is rotating synchronously with the orbitalperiod, while HD 181809 and HD 217188 are both rotating considerablyslower than synchronously. All three stars show long-term variations inmean brightness and photometric amplitude, but no correlations areobserved between the seasonal mean brightness, photometric amplitude,and seasonal photometric period in any of the stars. No clear evidencefor long-term periodic variations in any of these parameters is present.The circular orbit of HD 37824 and the synchronous rotation of its Kgiant argue that the star is in the core helium-burning phase of itsevolution. The giant components of HD 181809 and HD 217188 areasynchronous rotators, and both systems have eccentric orbits. Thus,those two stars are likely first-ascent giants.

Stars within 15 Parsecs: Abundances for a Northern Sample
We present an abundance analysis for stars within 15 pc of the Sunlocated north of -30° declination. We have limited our abundancesample to absolute magnitudes brighter than +7.5 and have eliminatedseveral A stars in the local vicinity. Our final analysis list numbers114 stars. Unlike Allende Prieto et al. in their consideration of a verysimilar sample, we have enforced strict spectroscopic criteria in thedetermination of atmospheric parameters. Nevertheless, our results arevery similar to theirs. We determine the mean metallicity of the localregion to be <[Fe/H]>=-0.07 using all stars and -0.04 when interlopersfrom the thick disk are eliminated.

Abundance trends in kinematical groups of the Milky Way's disk
We have compiled a large catalogue of metallicities and abundance ratiosfrom the literature in order to investigate abundance trends of severalalpha and iron peak elements in the thin disk and the thick disk of theGalaxy. The catalogue includes 743 stars with abundances of Fe, O, Mg,Ca, Ti, Si, Na, Ni and Al in the metallicity range -1.30 < [Fe/H]< +0.50. We have checked that systematic differences betweenabundances measured in the different studies were lower than randomerrors before combining them. Accurate distances and proper motions fromHipparcos and radial velocities from several sources have been retreivedfor 639 stars and their velocities (U, V, W) and galactic orbits havebeen computed. Ages of 322 stars have been estimated with a Bayesianmethod of isochrone fitting. Two samples kinematically representative ofthe thin and thick disks have been selected, taking into account theHercules stream which is intermediate in kinematics, but with a probabledynamical origin. Our results show that the two disks are chemicallywell separated, they overlap greatly in metallicity and both showparallel decreasing alpha elements with increasing metallicity, in theinterval -0.80 < [Fe/H] < -0.30. The Mg enhancement with respectto Fe of the thick disk is measured to be 0.14 dex. An even largerenhancement is observed for Al. The thick disk is clearly older than thethin disk with tentative evidence of an AMR over 2-3 Gyr and a hiatus instar formation before the formation of the thin disk. We do not observea vertical gradient in the metallicity of the thick disk. The Herculesstream has properties similar to that of the thin disk, with a widerrange of metallicity. Metal-rich stars assigned to the thick disk andsuper-metal-rich stars assigned to the thin disk appear as outliers inall their properties.

First results from the ESO VLTI calibrators program
The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) is one of the leadinginterferometric facilities. It is equipped with several 8.2 and 1.8 mtelescopes, a large number of baselines up to 200 m, and with severalsubsystems designed to enable high quality measurements and to improvesignificantly the limits of sensitivities currently available tolong-baseline interferometry. The full scientific potential of the VLTIcan be exploited only if a consistent set of good quality calibrators isavailable. For this, a large number of observations of potentialcalibrators have been obtained during the commissioning phase of theVLTI. These data are publicly available. We briefly describe theinterferometer, the VINCI instrument used for the observations, the dataflow from acquisition to processed results, and we present and commenton the volume of observations gathered and scrutinized. The result is alist of 191 calibrator candidates, for which a total of 12 066observations can be deemed of satisfactory quality. We present a generalstatistical analysis of this sample, using as a starting point theangular diameters previously available in the literature. We derive thegeneral characteristics of the VLTI transfer function, and its trendwith time in the period 2001 through mid-2004. A second paper will bedevoted to a detailed investigation of a selected sample, aimed atestablishing a VLTI-based homogeneous system of calibrators.

Identification of a complete sample of northern ROSAT All-Sky Survey X-ray sources. VIII. The late-type stellar component
We present results of an investigation of the X-ray properties, agedistribution, and kinematical characteristics of a high-galacticlatitude sample of late-type field stars selected from the ROSAT All-SkySurvey (RASS). The sample comprises 254 RASS sources with opticalcounterparts of spectral types F to M distributed over six study areaslocated at |b|  20 °, and Dec ≥ -9 °. A detailed studywas carried out for the subsample of ~200 G, K, and M stars. Lithiumabundances were determined for 179 G-M stars. Radial velocities weremeasured for most of the 141 G and K type stars of the sample. Combinedwith proper motions these data were used to study the age distributionand the kinematical properties of the sample. Based on the lithiumabundances half of the G-K stars were found to be younger than theHyades (660 Myr). About 25% are comparable in age to the Pleiades (100Myr). A small subsample of 10 stars is younger than the Pleiades. Theyare therefore most likely pre-main sequence stars. Kinematically the PMSand Pleiades-type stars appear to form a group with space velocitiesclose to the Castor moving group but clearly distinct from the LocalAssociation.Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish AstronomicalCentre, Calar Alto, operated by the Max-Planck-Institut fürAstronomie, Heidelberg, jointly with the Spanish National Commission forAstronomy, and at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.Tables A2-A4 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
We present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773

The Ca II Infrared Triplet as a stellar activity diagnostic . I. Non-LTE photospheric profiles and definition of the RIRT indicator
This work is part of a larger project on the study of activity in starsof spectral type similar to, or later than the Sun, from PMS to ZAMS,based on the analysis of the high resolution Ca II InfraRed Triplet (CaII IRT: λ= 8498, 8542, 8662 Å) observed profiles. Here, apreliminary study on the diagnostic power of these calcium lines hasbeen performed by means of NLTE calculations of the line profiles withan approximate treatment of UV line-blanketing, for a grid ofphotospheric models with Teff = 4200, 5200, 6200 K, log g =4.0, 4.5, 5.0 and [A/H] = 0.0, -1.0, -2.0. We used these calculations toestimate the sensitivity of the profiles to changes in stellarparameters and the effect of departures from LTE. As found by otherauthors, the Ca II triplet NLTE EQW s (equivalent widths) are quitesensitive to photospheric parameters, in particular to Teffand [A/H]. On the other hand, we find that the dependence of the Ca IItriplet lines central depression (CD = 1-central relative flux) on log gand Teff, and to a lesser extent to [A/H], is very weak. Thedeparture from LTE is negligible when we consider EQW s, unless verymetal-poor atmospheres are considered, while CD s can be affected byNLTE by more than 20%. This analysis indicates that in the use of theselines as activity indicators (where the details of the line profile inthe core are important), a NLTE treatment is required. Furthermore, weshow that a new chromospheric indicator, which we denoteRIRT, can be derived from measurements of Ca II IRT linecentral depressions, provided that rotational broadening is taken intoproper account. In order to facilitate the use of the Ca II IRT lines asactivity diagnostics, we give interpolation formulae for estimating lineCD s within the range of stellar parameters of our NLTE calculations.

Increased Multiplicity of 77 Cygni, V815 Herculis, and HD 140122
High-dispersion spectroscopic observations of 77 Cygni, V815 Herculis,and HD 140122 have resulted in the detection of at least one additionalcomponent in each system. The newly identified component of 77 Cyg has aperiod of 35.48 days. V815 Her is a triple system with periods of 1.810and 2300 days or 6.3 yr. The two visual binary components of HD 140122are short-period spectroscopic binaries with periods of 10.879 and15.770 days.

Improved Baade-Wesselink surface brightness relations
Recent, and older accurate, data on (limb-darkened) angular diameters iscompiled for 221 stars, as well as BVRIJK[12][25] magnitudes for thoseobjects, when available. Nine stars (all M-giants or supergiants)showing excess in the [12-25] colour are excluded from the analysis asthis may indicate the presence of dust influencing the optical andnear-infrared colours as well. Based on this large sample,Baade-Wesselink surface brightness (SB) relations are presented fordwarfs, giants, supergiants and dwarfs in the optical and near-infrared.M-giants are found to follow different SB relations from non-M-giants,in particular in V versus V-R. The preferred relation for non-M-giantsis compared to the earlier relation by Fouqué and Gieren (basedon 10 stars) and Nordgren et al. (based on 57 stars). Increasing thesample size does not lead to a lower rms value. It is shown that theresiduals do not correlate with metallicity at a significant level. Thefinally adopted observed angular diameters are compared to thosepredicted by Cohen et al. for 45 stars in common, and there isreasonable overall, and good agreement when θ < 6 mas.Finally, I comment on the common practice in the literature to average,and then fix, the zero-point of the V versus V-K, V versus V-R and Kversus J-K relations, and then rederive the slopes. Such a commonzero-point at zero colour is not expected from model atmospheres for theV-R colour and depends on gravity. Relations derived in this way may bebiased.

Determination of fundamental characteristics for stars of the F, G, and K spectral types. The surface gravities and metallicity parameters.
Not Available

A Spectral Atlas of F and G Stars
We present an atlas of a group of bright stars in the range of spectralclasses F--G and luminosity classes I--V. The spectra were obtainedwith spectral resolution R ˜ 15,000 within spectral region4500--6620 Å. Typical spectra of stars with different metallicity[Fe/H] are included. We also show the digital version of the spectraldata in FITS format.

Stars of Extragalactic Origin in the Solar Neighborhood
For 77 main-sequence F-G stars in the solar neighborhood with publishediron, magnesium, and europium abundances determined from high-dispersionspectra and with the ages estimated from theoretical isochrones, wecalculated the spatial velocities using Hipparcos data and the Galacticorbital elements. A comparison with the orbital elements of the globularclusters that are known to have been accreted by our Galaxy in the pastreveals stars of extragalactic origin. We show that the abundance ratiosof r- and alpha-elements in all the accreted stars differ sharply fromthose in the stars that are genetically associated with the Galaxy.According to current theoretical models, europium is produced mainly inlow-mass type-II supernovae (SNe II), while magnesium is synthesized inlarge quantities in high-mass SN II progenitors. Since all the oldaccreted stars of our sample exhibit a significant Eu overabundancerelative to Mg, we conclude that the maximum masses of the SN IIprogenitors outside the Galaxy were much lower than those inside it. Onthe other hand, only a small number of young accreted stars exhibit lownegative ratios [Eu/Mg] < 0. This can be explained by the delay ofprimordial star formation and the explosions of high-mass SNe II in arelatively small part of extragalactic space. We provide evidence thatthe interstellar medium was weakly mixed at the early evolutionarystages of the Galaxy formed from a single protogalactic cloud, and thatthe maximum mass of the SN II progenitors increased in it with timesimultaneously with the increase in mean metallicity.

Neutron-Capture Elements in Halo, Thick-Disk, and Thin-Disk Stars: Neodymium
We have derived the LTE neodymium abundances in 60 cool stars withmetallicities [Fe/H] from 0.25 to -1.71 by applying a synthetic-spectrumanalysis to spectroscopic observations of NdII lines with a resolutionof λ/Δλ⋍60 000 and signal-to-noise ratios of100 200. We have improved the atomic parameters of NdII and blendinglines by analyzing the corresponding line pro files in the solarspectrum. Neodymium is overabundant with respect to iron in halo stars,[Nd/Fe]=0.33±0.09, with the [Nd/Fe] ratio decreasingsystematically with metallicity when [Fe/H]>-1. This reflects anonset of efficient iron production in type I supernovae during theformation of the thick disk. The [Nd/Ba] and [Nd/Eu] abundance ratiosbehave differently in halo, thick-disk, and thin-disk stars. Theobserved abundance ratios in halo stars, [Nd/Ba]=0.34±0.08 and[Nd/Eu]=-0.27±0.05, agree within the errors with the ratios ofthe elemental yields for the r-process. These results support theconclusion of other authors based on analyses of other elements that ther-process played the dominant role in the synthesis of heavy elementsduring the formation of the halo. The [Nd/Ba] and [Nd/Eu] ratios forthick-disk stars are almost independent of metallicity([Nd/Ba]=0.28(±0.03)-0.01(±0.04) [Fe/H] and[Nd/Eu]=-0.13(±0.03)+0.05(±0.04) [Fe/H]) but are smallerin absolute value than the corresponding ratios for halo stars,suggesting that the synthesis of s-process nuclei started during theformation of the thick disk. The s-process is estimated to havecontributed ⋍30% of the neodymium produced during this stage ofthe evolution of the Galaxy. The [Nd/Ba] ratio decreases abruptly by0.17 dex in the transition from the thick to the thin disk. Thesystematic decrease of [Nd/Ba] and increase of [Nd/Eu] with increasingmetallicity of thin-disk stars point toward a dominant role of thes-process in the synthesis of heavy elements during this epoch.

Chromospheric Ca II Emission in Nearby F, G, K, and M Stars
We present chromospheric Ca II H and K activity measurements, rotationperiods, and ages for ~1200 F, G, K, and M type main-sequence stars from~18,000 archival spectra taken at Keck and Lick Observatories as a partof the California and Carnegie Planet Search Project. We have calibratedour chromospheric S-values against the Mount Wilson chromosphericactivity data. From these measurements we have calculated medianactivity levels and derived R'HK, stellar ages,and rotation periods from general parameterizations for 1228 stars,~1000 of which have no previously published S-values. We also presentprecise time series of activity measurements for these stars.Based on observations obtained at Lick Observatory, which is operated bythe University of California, and on observations obtained at the W. M.Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the University ofCalifornia and the California Institute of Technology. The KeckObservatory was made possible by the generous financial support of theW. M. Keck Foundation.

Synthetic Lick Indices and Detection of α-enhanced Stars. II. F, G, and K Stars in the -1.0 < [Fe/H] < +0.50 Range
We present an analysis of 402 F, G, and K solar neighborhood stars, withaccurate estimates of [Fe/H] in the range -1.0 to +0.5 dex, aimed at thedetection of α-enhanced stars and at the investigation of theirkinematical properties. The analysis is based on the comparison of 571sets of spectral indices in the Lick/IDS system, coming from fourdifferent observational data sets, with synthetic indices computed withsolar-scaled abundances and with α-element enhancement. We useselected combinations of indices to single out α-enhanced starswithout requiring previous knowledge of their main atmosphericparameters. By applying this approach to the total data set, we obtain alist of 60 bona fide α-enhanced stars and of 146 stars withsolar-scaled abundances. The properties of the detected α-enhancedand solar-scaled abundance stars with respect to their [Fe/H] values andkinematics are presented. A clear kinematic distinction betweensolar-scaled and α-enhanced stars was found, although a one-to-onecorrespondence to ``thin disk'' and ``thick disk'' components cannot besupported with the present data.

Nearby stars of the Galactic disk and halo. III.
High-resolution spectroscopic observations of about 150 nearby stars orstar systems are presented and discussed. The study of these and another100 objects of the previous papers of this series implies that theGalaxy became reality 13 or 14 Gyr ago with the implementation of amassive, rotationally-supported population of thick-disk stars. The veryhigh star formation rate in that phase gave rise to a rapid metalenrichment and an expulsion of gas in supernovae-driven Galactic winds,but was followed by a star formation gap for no less than three billionyears at the Sun's galactocentric distance. In a second phase, then, thethin disk - our ``familiar Milky Way'' - came on stage. Nowadays ittraces the bright side of the Galaxy, but it is also embedded in a hugecoffin of dead thick-disk stars that account for a large amount ofbaryonic dark matter. As opposed to this, cold-dark-matter-dominatedcosmologies that suggest a more gradual hierarchical buildup throughmergers of minor structures, though popular, are a poor description forthe Milky Way Galaxy - and by inference many other spirals as well - if,as the sample implies, the fossil records of its long-lived stars do notstick to this paradigm. Apart from this general picture that emergeswith reference to the entire sample stars, a good deal of the presentwork is however also concerned with detailed discussions of manyindividual objects. Among the most interesting we mention the bluestraggler or merger candidates HD 165401 and HD 137763/HD 137778, thelikely accretion of a giant planet or brown dwarf on 59 Vir in itsrecent history, and HD 63433 that proves to be a young solar analog at\tau˜200 Myr. Likewise, the secondary to HR 4867, formerly suspectednon-single from the Hipparcos astrometry, is directly detectable in thehigh-resolution spectroscopic tracings, whereas the visual binary \chiCet is instead at least triple, and presumably even quadruple. Withrespect to the nearby young stars a complete account of the Ursa MajorAssociation is presented, and we provide as well plain evidence foranother, the ``Hercules-Lyra Association'', the likely existence ofwhich was only realized in recent years. On account of its rotation,chemistry, and age we do confirm that the Sun is very typical among itsG-type neighbors; as to its kinematics, it appears however not unlikelythat the Sun's known low peculiar space velocity could indeed be thecause for the weak paleontological record of mass extinctions and majorimpact events on our parent planet during the most recent Galactic planepassage of the solar system. Although the significance of thiscorrelation certainly remains a matter of debate for years to come, wepoint in this context to the principal importance of the thick disk fora complete census with respect to the local surface and volumedensities. Other important effects that can be ascribed to this darkstellar population comprise (i) the observed plateau in the shape of theluminosity function of the local FGK stars, (ii) a small thoughsystematic effect on the basic solar motion, (iii) a reassessment of theterm ``asymmetrical drift velocity'' for the remainder (i.e. the thindisk) of the stellar objects, (iv) its ability to account for the bulkof the recently discovered high-velocity blue white dwarfs, (v) itsmajor contribution to the Sun's ˜220 km s-1 rotationalvelocity around the Galactic center, and (vi) the significant flatteningthat it imposes on the Milky Way's rotation curve. Finally we note ahigh multiplicity fraction in the small but volume-complete local sampleof stars of this ancient population. This in turn is highly suggestivefor a star formation scenario wherein the few existing single stellarobjects might only arise from either late mergers or the dynamicalejection of former triple or higher level star systems.

Chromospherically Active Stars. XXIII. The Triple System HD 7205=QU Andromedae
HD 7205 is a recently discovered visual binary. The primary star is achromospherically active, single-lined binary, making the system triple.From spectroscopic observations, the orbit of the primary has a periodof 18.01335 days and a moderate eccentricity of 0.197. The primary'sspectral type is G8 IV-V. The unseen secondary of the short-periodbinary is likely an M dwarf, while the visual binary secondary isprobably a K3 dwarf. From solar-abundance evolutionary tracks, theprimary has a mass of ~1.0 Msolar and an age of about 10. Ithas evolved off the main sequence and is approaching the base of the redgiant branch. Its rotation period of 21.3 days is significantlydifferent from its pseudosynchronous rotation period of 14.6 days,making it an asynchronous rotator.

Chromospherically Active Stars. XXII. HD 18955, A Massive K Dwarf Binary
HD 18955 is a double-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 43.3214days and a high eccentricity of 0.761. The spectral types of thecomponents are K0 V and K2-K3 V. The secondary is a typical early Kdwarf, although its minimum mass is greater than canonical values.However, this larger mass is consistent with other early K dwarf,spectroscopic binary results. The primary is anomalous, beingsubstantially underluminous for its radius and mass, which are equal toor slightly greater than solar values. A lack of lithium argues that thecomponents are not pre-main-sequence stars. The large minimum masses ofboth components suggest that the system has a high orbital inclination.Our photometric observations around the times of conjunction show noevidence of eclipses, but considering the uncertainties in theephemerides, there is only a 50% chance that our photometricobservations would have detected the primary eclipse and almost nochance that we covered the secondary eclipse. Hence, eclipses remain areal possibility in this system. Photometric variations with anamplitude of 0.02 mag reveal a period of 7.55 days, which is assumed tobe the primary star's rotation period. Thus, given the spectral types ofthe stars, this system is a BY Draconis type variable. With vsini valuesof 5 km s-1 for both components, the two stars are rotatingmore rapidly than typical K dwarf field stars, but the observed rotationperiod is still substantially longer than the predictedpseudosynchronous rotation period of 4.6 days for the primary.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:19h55m18.80s
Apparent magnitude:3.71
Distance:13.708 parsecs
Proper motion RA:45.8
Proper motion Dec:-481.6
B-T magnitude:4.789
V-T magnitude:3.807

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesAlshain
Beta Aquilae, Al Unuk al Ghurab   (Edit)
Bayerβ Aql
Flamsteed60 Aql
HD 1989HD 188512
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 493-3355-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0900-17077058
BSC 1991HR 7602
HIPHIP 98036

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