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Supernovae in isolated galaxies, in pairs and in groups of galaxies
In order to investigate the influence of environment on supernova (SN)production, we have performed a statistical investigation of the SNediscovered in isolated galaxies, in pairs and in groups of galaxies. 22SNe in 18 isolated galaxies, 48 SNe in 40 galaxy members of 37 pairs and211 SNe in 170 galaxy members of 116 groups have been selected andstudied. We found that the radial distributions of core-collapse SNe ingalaxies located in different environments are similar, and consistentwith those reported by Bartunov, Makarova & Tsvetkov. SNe discoveredin pairs do not favour a particular direction with respect to thecompanion galaxy. Also, the azimuthal distributions inside the hostmembers of galaxy groups are consistent with being isotropics. The factthat SNe are more frequent in the brighter components of the pairs andgroups is expected from the dependence of the SN rates on the galaxyluminosity. There is an indication that the SN rate is higher in galaxypairs compared with that in groups. This can be related to the enhancedstar formation rate in strongly interacting systems. It is concludedthat, with the possible exception of strongly interacting systems, theparent galaxy environment has no direct influence on SN production.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Supernova Type Ia Luminosities, Their Dependence on Second Parameters, and the Value of H0
A sample of 35 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with good to excellentphotometry in B and V, minimum internal absorption, and1200

The Southern Sky Redshift Survey
We report redshifts, magnitudes, and morphological classifications for5369 galaxies with m_B <= 15.5 and for 57 galaxies fainter than thislimit, in two regions covering a total of 1.70 sr in the southerncelestial hemisphere. The galaxy catalog is drawn primarily from thelist of nonstellar objects identified in the Hubble Space TelescopeGuide Star Catalog (GSC). The galaxies have positions accurate to ~1"and magnitudes with an rms scatter of ~0.3 mag. We compute magnitudes(m_SSRS2) from the relation between instrumental GSC magnitudes and thephotometry by Lauberts & Valentijn. From a comparison with CCDphotometry, we find that our system is homogeneous across the sky andcorresponds to magnitudes measured at the isophotal level ~26 magarcsec^-2. The precision of the radial velocities is ~40 km s^-1, andthe redshift survey is more than 99% complete to the m_SSRS2 = 15.5 maglimit. This sample is in the direction opposite that of the CfA2; incombination the two surveys provide an important database for studies ofthe properties of galaxies and their large-scale distribution in thenearby universe. Based on observations obtained at Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories,operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation;Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between theConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile, partially under the bilateral ESO-ObservatórioNacional agreement; Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory;Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil; and the SouthAfrican Astronomical Observatory.

Kinematics of the local universe. VII. New 21-cm line measurements of 2112 galaxies
This paper presents 2112 new 21-cm neutral hydrogen line measurementscarried out with the meridian transit Nan\c cay radiotelescope. Amongthese data we give also 213 new radial velocities which complement thoselisted in three previous papers of this series. These new measurements,together with the HI data collected in LEDA, put to 6 700 the number ofgalaxies with 21-cm line width, radial velocity, and apparent diameterin the so-called KLUN sample. Figure 5 and Appendices A and B forcorresponding comments are available in electronic form at thehttp://www.edpsciences.com

An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.

The Hubble Diagram for Supernovae of Type Ia. II. The Effect on the Hubble Constant of a Correlation between Absolute Magnitude and Light Decay Rate
New Hubble diagrams in B and V are derived for supernovae of type Ibased on light curves from the archive literature plus 13 new lightcurves with superior modern photometry observed in the CerroTololo/University of Chile program (Hamuy et al, 1995). The sample isrestricted to SNe Ia whose light curves are defined by photometrybeginning 5 days or less after maximum light and with (B - V)max <0.5 mag. Supernovae of known type Ib or Ic are also excluded. Theresulting Hubble diagrams, extending to redshifts of 30,00 km s^- 1^,have dispersions in absolute magnitude of 0.34 mag in B and 0.33 mag inV, confirming that spectroscopically "normal" (Branch et al. 1993) SNeIa are among the best standard candles known. A solution for the slopeof the Hubble diagram gives n(B) = 0.977 +/- 0.025 and n(V) = 1.020 +/-0.024 for the exponent in ν~D^n^, proving linearity of the expansionfield to a high level. The residuals in magnitude from the ridge line ofthe Hubble diagram are compared with the light decay rate during thefirst 15 days to test the correlation between the two suggested byPskovskii and by Phillips. The strongest possible correlation using theextant data has a slope 3 times smaller than that derived by Phillips,and 2 times smaller than suggested by Hamuy et al., leading to adecrease of less than 10% in the distance scale based on the present(1995) SNe Ia calibration by means of three supernovae whose distancesare known from Cepheids in their parent galaxies. Applying the maximumpossible correction to M(max) for a Psko'vskii- Phillips effect wouldgive Hubble constants of H_0_(B)<= 54 +/- 4 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^, andH_0_(V) <= 59 +/- 4 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^, where the errors are internal.It is argued that the absence of measurable bias effects in the Hubblediagrams shows that the three local (nearest) SNe Ia presentlycalibrated via Cepheid distances cannot all be overluminous relative tothe average of more distant SNe. If they are underluminous, which mustbe the case by the statistics of the Malmquist effect if the largedispersion in M(max) for SNe Ia claimed by Hamuy et al. applies to thecalibrators, then the value of H_0_ = 52 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^ given by Sahaet al. is an upper limit to the Hubble constant.

The blue anbd visual absolute magnitude distributions of Type IA supernovae
Tully-Fisher (TF), surface brightness fluctuation (SBF), and Hubble lawdistances to the parent galaxies of Type Ia supernovae (SNs Ia) are usedin order to study the SN Ia blue and visual peak absolute magnitude(MB and MV) distributions. We propose twoobjective cuts, each of which produces a subsample with small intrinsicdispersion in M. One cut, which can be applied to either band,distinguishes between a subsample of bright events and a smallersubsample of dim events, some of which were extinquished in the parentgalaxy and some of which were intrinsically subluminous. The brightevents are found to be distributed with an observed dispersions of 0.3less than or approximately = Sigmaobs less than orapproximately = 0.4 about a mean absolut magnitude (M-barB orM-barV). Each of the dim SNs was spectroscopically peculiarand/or had a red B-V color; this motivates the adoption of analternative cut that is based on B-V rather than on M. To wit, SNs Iathat are both known to have -0.25 less than B-V less than + 0.25 and notknown to be spectroscopically peculiar show observational dispersion ofonly Sigmaobs(MB) =Sigmaobs(MV) = 0.3. Because characteristicsobservational errors produce Sigmaerr(M) greater than 0.2,theintrinsic dispersion among such SNs Ia is Sigmaint(M) lessthan or approximately = 0.2. The small observational dispersionindicates that SNs Ia, the TF relation, and SBFs all good relativedistances to those galaxies that produce SNs Ia. The conflict betweenthose who use SNs Ia in order to determine the value of the Hubbleconstant (H0) and those who use TF and SBF distances todetermine H0 results from discrepant calibrations.

The Hubble diagram in V for supernovae of Type IA and the value of H(0) therefrom
The Hubble diagram for Type I supernovae is derived in V and issummarized from the literature in B and in m(pg). The ridge lineequation of the diagram in V and the calibration of the absolutemagnitudes at maximum are presented. The intrinsic (B - V) color at Bmaximum light is 0.09 +/- 0.04 mag. The Virgo Cluster distance isderived and found to be 23.9 +/- 2.4 Mpc. This Virgo distance gives thecosmic value of the Hubble constant to be H(0) = 47 +/- 5 km/sec perMpc.

Type IA supernovae as standard candles
The distribution of absolute blue magnitudes among Type Ia supernovae(SNs Ia) is studied. Supernovae were used with well determined apparentmagnitudes at maximum light and parent galaxies with relative distancesdetermined by the Tully-Fisher or Dn - sigma techniques. The meanabsolute blue magnitude is given and the observational dispersion isonly sigma(MB) 0.36, comparable to the expected combined errors indistance, apparent magnitude, and extinction. The mean (B-V) color atmaximum light is 0.03 +/- 0.04, with a dispersion sigma(B-V) = 0.20. TheCepheid-based distance to IC 4182, the parent galaxy of the normal andunextinguished Type Ia SN 1937C, leads to a Hubble constant of H(0) + 51+/- 12 km/s Mpc. The existence of a few SNs Ia that appear to have beenreddened and dimmed by dust in their parent galaxies does not seriouslycompromise the use of SNs Ia as distance indicators.

The morphological catalogue of galaxies equatorial survey
We present 865 redshifts of galaxies located in the equatorial stripdelta between -17.5 deg and -2.5 deg in the right ascension rangebetween 20 h and 5 h. Redshifts have been obtained for the completesample of all 833 galaxies in the Morphological Catalog of Galaxies withmagnitudes brighter than m = 14.5 (corresponding approximately tom(Zwicky) = 15.0). This sample also includes three galaxies from othersources with more reliable magnitudes, satisfying this limit, and 29fainter galaxies, usually companions of the galaxies in the magnitudelimited sample. Our maps of a very large volume of nearby spacedemonstrate a variety of coherent large scale structures which includelarge voids, 20-50/h Mpc in diameter and large walls at least 70/h Mpcacross.

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

The rate of supernovae. I - The data base, the recipe and the uncertainties
Because the determination of SN rates is vulnerable to the small numberstatistics of homogeneous samples, the data bases of two independent SNsearches were merged in order to build up the largest data base everused for SN rate determinations. Using a software specially developedfor the analysis of these materials, the individual control times wereestimated for each galaxy and in turn the SN rates for samples ofgalaxies extracted from different catalogs were estimated. Theuncertainties in the input parameters were quantitatively estimated byseveral tests. It is found that the assumption of the limiting discoverymagnitude is crucial. Contrary to previous belief, it is shown that thedispersion of the absolute SN magnitude at maximum is not particularlyimportant for the SN rates determined from the samples, whereasuncertainties about the shape of the light curve are more serious. Therate of SNe was computed for four galaxy samples extracted fromdifferent catalogs. It is shown that the SNe rate reflects thedifferences among the galaxy parameters reported by different catalogs.

The absolute magnitude at maximum of type IA supernovae in late type galaxies
The color excess data for the best photometrically studied type Iasupernovae (SNIa) which occurred in late type galaxies have beengathered and analyzed. A ratio of the B-band to selective extinction inthe parent galaxies of R(B) = A(B)/E(B-V) = 3.35 +/- 0.25 (1-sigma).This indicates that the extinction curves in late type galaxies havesimilar properties to that of the Galaxy. A new calibration for theabsolute magnitude at maximum of SNIa in late type galaxies of M(B) =-19.24 +/- 0.18 (1-sigma) + 5log(H(0)/75) is obtained, which ismarginally brighter that the recent determinations for type Iasupernovae observed in elliptical (dust-free) galaxies, and appears toconfirm the potential of SNIa as standard candles for distancedeterminations.

Type IA supernovae in late type galaxies - Reddening correction, scale height, and absolute maximum magnitude
The color excess data for the best photometrically studied type Iasupernova (SNIa) which occurred in late-type galaxies are analyzed.These data are used to derive a ratio of the B band to selectiveextinction in the parent galaxies of 3.35 +/-0.25 (1 sigma), whichindicates that the extinction curves in late-type galaxies have similarproperties to that of the Milky Way. A new calibration for the absolutemagnitude at maximum of SNIa in late-type galaxies is obtained; it ismarginally brighter than the recent determinations for type Iasupernovae observed in elliptical (dust-free) galaxies, and confirms thepotential of SNIa as standard candles for distance determinations. It isinferred that SNIa have a considerably broader distribution than thedust disk, and it is confirmed that they are older than old diskpopulation objects, i.e., age greater than 1-2 billion yr. It isconcluded that the total extinction thickness of late-type galaxies isvery similar to that of the Milky Way.

Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members
This paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent.

Supernova studies. I - A catalogue of magnitude observations of supernovae I
A catalog of photometric observations (UBV or pg) of 81 supernovae oftype I is presented. Only supernovae with multiple data were included.

The Asiago Supernova Catalogue
A Catalogue of Supernovae (SNe) is presented which tabulates the maindata relative to all extragalactic SNe discovered up to 1988 December31, and to their parent galaxies. In total 661 SNe are listed of which267 are classified. For an easier consultation, two lists are givenwhere the SNe are ordered chronologically and by Right Ascension,respectively. The overall distribution of classified supernovae over themorphological types of their parent galaxies is also presented in asummary table.

A Checklist of Supernovae in the NGC and IC Galaxies Through 1985
This Checklist of Supernovae in the NGC and IC Galaxies Through 1985 ispresented to assist those interested in undertaking a visual orphotographic search for extragalactic supernovae. Some galaxies appearto have had more than one or two supernovae, and these should bemonitored closely for any new outbursts.

Redshifts of parent galaxies of supernovae
Redshifts of twenty-five parent galaxies of supernovae have beenmeasured on spectra taken with the Shechtman Reticon spectrograph at the250 cm telescope of Las Campanas. This new list raises the sample ofparent galaxies with known velocities up to 55%. A detailed discussionof the observed features is provided for each spectrum.

Observations of ten SN (1973-1977).
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1978A&AS...34..387C&db_key=AST

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Right ascension:02h33m03.40s
Aparent dimensions:1.82′ × 1.23′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 977

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