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An Investigation of the Submillimeter Background Radiation Using SCUBA and Spitzer
We investigate the redshift dependence of the contribution to theextragalactic far-infrared/submillimeter background from galaxiesdetected by the Spitzer Space Telescope at 8 and 24 μm. Usingseven-band optical to mid-infrared photometry, we estimate photometricredshifts for the Spitzer sources that appear to be mostly L*galaxies at a median redshift of z=1.0. These sources, extracted fromdeep 8 and 24 μm mosaics of the CUDSS 14 hour field with 5 σlimits of 5.8 and 70 μJy, respectively, exhibit significant 850 and450 μm emission as observed by SCUBA. At 850 μm, after removing>=4 σ sources and those securely identified in our companioncross-matching paper, we measure stacked flux at the significance levelof 4.4 and 2.9 σ from the full 8 and 24 μm galaxy catalog,respectively. At 450 μm, flux is detected from all 8 μm galaxiesat the level of 3.5 σ, while there is no significant emission fromthe 24 μm galaxies. We find that the 850 μm flux is emitted almostexclusively at z>~1.3 from the Spitzer sources with 0.44 mJy (4.7σ) per 8 μm source, and 0.51 mJy (2.8 σ) per 24 μmsource. This corresponds to a contribution of (16+/-3)% toward the 850μm extragalactic background from the 8 μm sources, and(5.0+/-1.8)% from the 24 μm sources. At 450 μm, only the 8 μmsources within the redshift interval 1

Supernova 2005A in NGC 958
IAUC 8459 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.

Rotational Widths for Use in the Tully-Fisher Relation. I. Long-Slit Spectroscopic Data
We present new long-slit Hα spectroscopy for 403 noninteractingspiral galaxies, obtained at the Palomar Observatory 5 m Hale telescope,which is used to derive well-sampled optical rotation curves. Becausemany of the galaxies show optical emission features that aresignificantly extended along the spectrograph slit, a technique wasdevised to separate and subtract the night sky lines from the galaxyemission. We exploit a functional fit to the rotation curve to identifyits center of symmetry; this method minimizes the asymmetry in thefinal, folded rotation curve. We derive rotational widths using bothvelocity histograms and the Polyex model fit. The final rotational widthis measured at a radius containing 83% of the total light as derivedfrom I-band images. In addition to presenting the new data, we use alarge sample of 742 galaxies for which both optical long-slit and radioH I line spectroscopy are available to investigate the relation betweenthe H I content of the disks and the extent of their rotation curves.Our results show that the correlation between those quantities, which iswell established in the case of H I-poor galaxies in clusters, ispresent also in H I-normal objects: for a given optical size, starformation can be traced farther out in the disks of galaxies with largerH I mass.

The Canada-UK Deep Submillimetre Survey - VIII. Source identifications in the 3-hour field
We present optical, near-infrared (IR) and radio observations of the3-hour field of the Canada-UK Deep Submillimetre Survey (CUDSS). Of the27 submillimetre sources in the field, nine have secure identificationswith either a radio source or a near-IR source. We show that thepercentage of sources with secure identifications in the CUDSS isconsistent with that found for the bright `8-mJy' submillimetre survey,once allowance is made for the different submillimetre and radio fluxlimits. Of the 14 secure identifications in the two CUDSS fields, eightare very red objects (VROs) or extremely red objects (EROs), five havecolours typical of normal galaxies and one is a radio source that hasnot yet been detected at optical/near-IR wavelengths. 11 of theidentifications have optical/near-IR structures which are eitherdisturbed or have some peculiarity that suggests that the host galaxy ispart of an interacting system. One difference between the CUDSS resultsand the results from the 8-mJy survey is the large number oflow-redshift objects in the CUDSS. We give several arguments why theseare genuine low-redshift submillimetre sources rather than beinggravitational lenses that are gravitationally amplifying a high-zsubmillimetre source. We construct a K-z diagram for various classes ofhigh-redshift galaxy and show that the SCUBA galaxies are on averageless luminous than classical radio galaxies, but are very similar inboth their optical/IR luminosities and their colours to the hostgalaxies of the radio sources detected in μJy radio surveys.

The distribution of atomic gas and dust in nearby galaxies - III. Radial distributions and metallicity gradients
The radial distribution of dust and gas in 38 nearby galaxies isinvestigated, using a sample of galaxies for which matched resolution(25 arcsec) neutral hydrogen (HI) and 850-μm images are available.Most of these radial profiles are fitted well by an exponential model,and the derived 850-μm scalelengths are proportional to the HIscalelengths. From this relation, it is found that the metallicitygradients of these galaxies are much shallower than previous studies,unless the dust temperature is constant within the disc, or asignificant component of molecular gas exists at large radii that is nottraced by CO observations.

The distribution of atomic gas and dust in nearby galaxies - II. Further matched-resolution Very Large Array H I and SCUBA 850-μm images
We present Very Large Array (VLA) C-array 21-cm HI images of galaxiesfrom the SCUBA Local Universe Galaxy Survey which have been observed at850 μm with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Matched-resolution (~25 arcsec) HI images of 17 galaxies are presented and compared with850-μm images. HI or 850-μm images of an additional six galaxieswhich were detected at only one wavelength are presented. Additionally,lower resolution H I observations of nine galaxies are presented. Theobservations of these galaxies, along with results previously presented,do not show any obvious trends in the HI/dust or H2/dust massratios with morphological type.

Accurate Spectral Energy Distributions and Selection Effects for High-Redshift Dusty Galaxies: A New Hot Population to Discover with the Spitzer Space Telescope?
The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of dust-enshrouded galaxieswith powerful rest-frame far-infrared emission have been constrained bya range of ground-based and space-borne surveys. The IRAS catalogprovides a reasonably complete picture of the dust emission from nearbygalaxies (redshift z~=0.1) that are typically less luminous than about1012 Lsolar. However, at higher redshifts, theobservational coverage from all existing far-IR and submillimetersurveys is much less complete. Here we investigate the SEDs of a newsample of high-redshift submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) for whichredshifts are known, allowing us to estimate reliable luminosities andcharacteristic dust temperatures. We demonstrate that a wide range ofSEDs is present in the population, and that a substantial number ofluminous dusty galaxies with hotter dust temperatures could exist atsimilar redshifts (z~=2-3), but remain undetected in existingsubmillimeter surveys. These hotter galaxies could be responsible forabout a third of the extragalactic IR background radiation at awavelength of about 100 μm. The brightest of these galaxies wouldhave far-IR luminosities of the order of 1013Lsolar and dust temperatures of the order of 60 K. Galaxiesup to an order of magnitude less luminous with similar SEDs will be easyto detect and identify in the deepest Spitzer Space Telescopeobservations of extragalactic fields at 24 μm.

A Study of the Distribution of Star-forming Regions in Luminous Infrared Galaxies by Means of Hα Imaging Observations
We performed Hα imaging observations of 22 luminous infraredgalaxies to investigate how the distribution of star-forming regions inthese galaxies is related to galaxy interactions. Based on correlationdiagrams between Hα flux and continuum emission for individualgalaxies, a sequence for the distribution of star-forming regions wasfound: very compact (~100 pc) nuclear starbursts with almost nostar-forming activity in the outer regions (type 1), dominant nuclearstarbursts <~1 kpc in size with a negligible contribution from theouter regions (type 2), nuclear starbursts >~1 kpc in size with asignificant contribution from the outer regions (type 3), and extendedstarbursts with relatively faint nuclei (type 4). These classes ofstar-forming regions were found to be strongly related to globalstar-forming properties, such as star formation efficiency, far-infraredcolor, and dust extinction. There was a clear tendency for the objectswith more compact distributions of star-forming regions to show a higherstar formation efficiency and hotter far-infrared color. An appreciablefraction of the sample objects were dominated by extended starbursts(type 4), which is unexpected in the standard scenario ofinteraction-induced starburst galaxies. We also found that thedistribution of star-forming regions was weakly but clearly related togalaxy morphology: severely disturbed objects had a more concentrateddistribution of star-forming regions. This suggests that the propertiesof galaxy interactions, such as dynamical phase and orbital parameters,play a more important role than the internal properties of progenitorgalaxies, such as dynamical structure or gas mass fraction. We alsodiscuss the evolution of the distribution of star-forming regions ininteracting galaxies.

Dust masses and star formation in bright IRAS galaxies. Application of a physical model for the interpretation of FIR observations
We address the problem of modeling the far-infrared (FIR) spectrum andderiving the star-formation rate (SFR) and the dust mass of spiralgalaxies. We use the realistic physical model of Popescu et al.(\cite{popescu}) to describe the overall ultra-violet (UV), optical andFIR spectral energy distribution (SED) of a spiral galaxy. The modeltakes into account the 3-dimensional old and young stellar distributionsin the bulge and the disk of a galaxy, together with the dust geometry.The geometrical characteristics of the galaxy and the intrinsic opticaland near-infrared spectra are determined by the galaxy's observed K-bandphotometry. The UV part of the spectrum is assumed to be proportional tothe SFR through the use of population synthesis models. By solving theradiative transfer equation, we are able to determine the absorbedenergy, the dust temperature and the resulting FIR spectrum. The modelhas only three free parameters: SFR, dust mass, and the fraction of theUV radiation which is absorbed locally by dense dust in the HII regions.Using this model, we are able to fit well the FIR spectra of 62 brightIRAS galaxies from the ``SCUBA Local Universe Galaxy Survey" of Dunne etal. (\cite{dunne1}). As a result, we are able to determine, amongothers, their SFR and dust mass. We find that, on average, the SFR (inabsolute units), the star-formation efficiency, the SFR surface densityand the ratio of FIR luminosity over the total intrinsic luminosity, arelarger than the respective values of typical spiral galaxies of the samemorphological type. We also find that the mean gas-to-dust mass ratio isclose to the Galactic value, while the average central face-on opticaldepth of these galaxies in the V band is 2.3. Finally, we find a strongcorrelation between SFR or dust mass and observed FIR quantities liketotal FIR luminosity or FIR luminosity at 100 and 850 μm. Thesecorrelations yield well-defined relations, which can be used todetermine a spiral galaxy's SFR and dust-mass content from FIRobservations.

SCUBA observations of the sources detected in the MAMBO 1200-μm survey
We have observed 23 sources from the Max-Planck Millimetre Bolometer(MAMBO) array 1200-μm survey with SCUBA at 850 μm, detecting 19 ofthe sources. The sources generally have low values for the ratio of 850-to 1200-μm flux. Two possible explanations for the low values areeither that the sources are at very high redshifts or that the globalproperties of the dust in the MAMBO sources are different from theglobal properties of dust in low-redshift galaxies. If the formerexplanation is correct, we estimate that 15 of the MAMBO sources lie atz > 3.

Cirrus models for local and high-z SCUBA galaxies
We present a model for the ultraviolet to submillimetre emission fromstars embedded in the general interstellar dust in galaxies (the`infrared cirrus' component). Such emission is characterized byrelatively low optical depths of dust and by cool (<30 K) dusttemperatures. The model incorporates the stellar population synthesismodel of Bruzual & Charlot and the dust model of Siebenmorgen &Krügel which includes the effects of small grains/polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons. We apply the model to fit the optical tosubmillimetre spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of nearby galaxies,which are dominated by cirrus emission, and we find that our simplemodel is quite adequate to explain the observed SEDs.We also, more controversially, apply this cirrus model to the SEDs ofhigh redshift sources detected in blank-field submillimetre surveys withthe Submillimetre Common User Bolometer Array (SCUBA). Surprisingly, anexcellent fit is found for many of these sources, with typical valuesfor the optical depth AV and the surface brightness of thestellar radiation field ψ being only a factor of 2-3 higher than fornearby galaxies. This increase is not unreasonable given the expectedevolution of dust optical depth in currently favoured star-formationhistory models.We conclude that the tendency to interpret the high-z SCUBA galaxies asvery highly obscured starbursts may be premature and that these galaxiesmay be more closely linked to optically selected high redshift galaxiesthan previously assumed.

Submillimetre and far-infrared spectral energy distributions of galaxies: the luminosity-temperature relation and consequences for photometric redshifts
The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of dusty high-redshift galaxiesare poorly sampled in frequency and spatially unresolved. Their form iscrucially important for estimating the large luminosities of thesegalaxies accurately, for providing circumstantial evidence concerningtheir power sources, and for estimating their redshifts in the absenceof spectroscopic information. We discuss the suite of parametersnecessary to describe their SEDs adequately without introducingunnecessary complexity. We compare directly four popular descriptions,explain the key degeneracies between the parameters in each whenconfronted with data, and highlight the differences in theirbest-fitting values. Using one representative SED model, we show thatfitting to even a large number of radio, submillimetre and far-infrared(far-IR) continuum colours provides almost no power to discriminatebetween the redshift and dust temperature of an observed galaxy, unlessan accurate relationship with a tight scatter exists between luminosityand temperature for the whole galaxy population. We review our knowledgeof this luminosity-dust temperature relation derived from three galaxysamples, to better understand the size of these uncertainties. Contraryto recent claims, we stress that far-IR-based photometric redshifts areunlikely to be sufficiently accurate to impose useful constraints onmodels of galaxy evolution: finding spectroscopic redshifts for distantdusty galaxies will remain essential.

COLA. II. Radio and Spectroscopic Diagnostics of Nuclear Activity in Galaxies
We present optical spectroscopic observations of 93 galaxies taken fromthe infrared-selected COLA (compact objects in low-power AGNs) sample.These are all galaxies for which we have previously obtainedlow-resolution radio observations and high-resolution (<0.05")Australian Long Baseline Array snapshots. The sample spans the range offar-IR luminosities from normal galaxies to luminous infrared galaxiesand contains a significant number of galaxies involved in galaxy-galaxyinteractions. Of the galaxies observed, 78 (84%) exhibit emission linesindicating that they are either AGNs or actively forming stars(starburst galaxies). Using a newly developed, theoretically based,optical emission line scheme to classify the spectra, we find that 15%of the emission-line galaxies are Seyfert galaxies, 77% are starbursts,and the rest are either borderline AGN/starburst or show ambiguouscharacteristics. We find little evidence for an increase in the fractionof AGNs in the sample as a function of far-IR (FIR) luminosity, incontrast to previous studies, but our sample covers only a small rangein infrared luminosity(1010.5Lsolar<=LFIR<=1011.7 Lsolar), and thus a weak trend may be masked. Instead,as the infrared luminosity increases, so does the fraction of metal-richstarbursts, objects that on more traditional diagnostic diagrams wouldhave been classified as weak, low-ionization, narrow emission lineregions. As a whole the Seyfert galaxies exhibit a small, butstatistically significant, radio excess on the radio-FIR correlationcompared to the galaxies classified as starbursts. Compact (<0.05")radio cores are detected in 55% of the Seyfert galaxies, and thesegalaxies exhibit a significantly larger radio excess than the Seyfertgalaxies in which compact cores were not detected. Our results indicatethat there may be two distinct populations of Seyfert galaxies,``radio-excess'' Seyfert galaxies, which exhibit extended radiostructures and compact radio cores, and ``radio-quiet'' Seyfertgalaxies, in which the majority of the radio emission can be attributedto star formation in the host galaxy. No significant difference is seenbetween the IR and optical spectroscopic properties of Seyfert galaxieswith and without radio cores.

The IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample
IRAS flux densities, redshifts, and infrared luminosities are reportedfor all sources identified in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample(RBGS), a complete flux-limited survey of all extragalactic objects withtotal 60 μm flux density greater than 5.24 Jy, covering the entiresky surveyed by IRAS at Galactic latitudes |b|>5°. The RBGS includes629 objects, with median and mean sample redshifts of 0.0082 and 0.0126,respectively, and a maximum redshift of 0.0876. The RBGS supersedes theprevious two-part IRAS Bright Galaxy Samples(BGS1+BGS2), which were compiled before the final(Pass 3) calibration of the IRAS Level 1 Archive in 1990 May. The RBGSalso makes use of more accurate and consistent automated methods tomeasure the flux of objects with extended emission. The RBGS contains 39objects that were not present in the BGS1+BGS2,and 28 objects from the BGS1+BGS2 have beendropped from RBGS because their revised 60 μm flux densities are notgreater than 5.24 Jy. Comparison of revised flux measurements forsources in both surveys shows that most flux differences are in therange ~5%-25%, although some faint sources at 12 and 25 μm differ byas much as a factor of 2. Basic properties of the RBGS sources aresummarized, including estimated total infrared luminosities, as well asupdates to cross identifications with sources from optical galaxycatalogs established using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Inaddition, an atlas of images from the Digitized Sky Survey with overlaysof the IRAS position uncertainty ellipse and annotated scale bars isprovided for ease in visualizing the optical morphology in context withthe angular and metric size of each object. The revised bolometricinfrared luminosity function, φ(Lir), forinfrared-bright galaxies in the local universe remains best fit by adouble power law, φ(L)~Lα, withα=-0.6(+/-0.1) and α=-2.2(+/-0.1) below and above the``characteristic'' infrared luminosityL*ir~1010.5Lsolar,respectively. A companion paper provides IRAS High Resolution (HIRES)processing of over 100 RBGS sources where improved spatial resolutionoften provides better IRAS source positions or allows for deconvolutionof close galaxy pairs.

The H I Line Width/Linear Diameter Relationship as an Independent Test of the Hubble Constant
The relationship between corrected H I line widths and linear diameters(LW/LD) for spiral galaxies is used as an independent check on the valueof the Hubble constant. After calibrating the Tully-Fisher (TF) relationin both the B and I bands, the B-band relation is used for galaxies ofmorphological/luminosity types Sc I, Sc I.2, Sc I.3, Sab, Sb, Sb I-II,and Sb II to derive the LW/LD relation. We find that for this sample thescatter in the LW/LD is smallest with a Hubble constant of 90-95 kms-1 Mpc-1. Lower values of the Hubble constantproduce a separation in the LW/LD relation that is a function ofmorphological type. Since a Hubble constant of 90-95 is significantlylarger than the final Key Project value of 72 km s-1Mpc-1, a comparison of TF, surface brightness fluctuation(SBF), and fundamental plane (FP) is made. This comparison indicatesthat the Key Project TF distances to 21 clusters may be too large. For asample of 11 clusters, the Key Project TF distances provide anunweighted mean Hubble constant of 77 km s-1Mpc-1, while a combination of the FP, SBF, and our TFdistances for the same 11 clusters gives H0=91 kms-1 Mpc-1. A more subtle result in our data is amorphological dichotomy in the Hubble constant. The data suggest that ScI galaxies follow a Hubble constant of 90-95 while Sb galaxies follow aHubble constant closer to 75 km s-1 Mpc-1.Possible explanations for this result are considered, but it is shownthat this Sb/Sc I Hubble flow discrepancy is also present in the VirgoCluster and is consistent with previous investigations that indicatethat some galaxies carry a component of age-related intrinsic redshift.

First Results from the COLA Project: The Radio-Far-Infrared Correlation and Compact Radio Cores in Southern COLA Galaxies
We present the first results from the COLA (compact objects in low-powerAGNs) project, which aims to determine the relationship between onefacet of AGN activity, the compact radio core, and star formation in thecircumnuclear region of the host galaxy. This will be accomplished bythe comparison of the multiwavelength properties of a sample of AGNswith compact radio cores to those of a sample of AGNs without compactcores and a matched sample of galaxies without AGNs. In this paper wediscuss the selection criteria for our galaxy samples and present theinitial radio observations of the 107 southern(δ<0deg) galaxies in our sample. Low-resolution ATCAobservations at 4.8, 2.5, and 1.4 GHz and high-resolution,single-baseline snapshots at 2.3 GHz with the Australian Long BaselineArray (LBA) are presented. We find that for the majority of the galaxiesin our sample, the radio luminosity is correlated with the far-infrared(FIR) luminosity. However, a small number of galaxies exhibit a radioexcess causing them to depart from the FIR-radio correlation. Compactradio cores are detected at fluxes greater than 1.5 mJy in nine of the105 galaxies observed with the LBA. The majority (8/9) of these galaxiesexhibit a radio excess, and 50% (7/14) of the galaxies that lie abovethe radio-FIR correlation by more than 1 σ have compact radiocores. The emission from the compact cores is too weak to account forthis radio excess, implying that there are radio structures associatedwith the compact cores that extend farther than the 0.05" resolution(corresponding to a linear scale 11-22 pc) of the LBA. There is noevidence that the radio luminosity of the compact cores is correlatedwith the FIR galaxy luminosity, indicating that the core contributeslittle to the overall FIR emission of the galaxy. The galaxies withcompact cores tend to be classified optically as AGNs, with two-thirds(6/9) exhibiting Seyfert-like optical emission line ratios, and theremaining galaxies classified either as composite objects (2/9) orstarburst (1/9). The galaxies classified optically as AGNs also exhibitthe largest radio excesses, and we therefore conclude that a large radioexcess on the radio-FIR correlation is a strong indication of an AGNwith a compact radio core.

Bar Galaxies and Their Environments
The prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment.

The SCUBA Local Universe Galaxy Survey - II. 450-μm data: evidence for cold dust in bright IRAS galaxies
This is the second in a series of papers presenting results from theSCUBA Local Universe Galaxy Survey. In our first paper we provided850-μm flux densities for 104 galaxies selected from the IRAS BrightGalaxy Sample and we found that the 60-, 100-μm (IRAS) and 850-μm(SCUBA) fluxes could be adequately fitted by emission from dust at asingle temperature. In this paper we present 450-μm data for thegalaxies. With the new data, the spectral energy distributions of thegalaxies can no longer be fitted with an isothermal dust model - twotemperature components are now required. Using our 450-μm data andfluxes from the literature, we find that the 450/850-μm flux ratiofor the galaxies is remarkably constant, and this holds from objects inwhich the star formation rate is similar to our own Galaxy, toultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) such as Arp 220. The onlypossible explanation for this is if the dust emissivity index for all ofthe galaxies is ~2 and the cold dust component has a similar temperaturein all galaxies [formmu3](Tc~20-21K). The 60-μmluminosities of the galaxies were found to depend on both the dust massand the relative amount of energy in the warm component, with a tendencyfor the temperature effects to dominate at the highest L60.The dust masses estimated using the new temperatures are higher by afactor of ~2 than those determined previously using a singletemperature. This brings the gas-to-dust ratios of the IRAS galaxiesinto agreement with those of the Milky Way and other spiral galaxieswhich have been intensively studied in the submm.

Homogenization of the Stellar Population along Late-Type Spiral Galaxies
We present a study of the broadband UBV color profiles for 257 Sbcbarred and nonbarred galaxies, using photoelectric aperture photometrydata from the literature. Using robust statistical methods, we haveestimated the color gradients of the galaxies, as well as the total andbulge mean colors. A comparative photometric study using CCD images wasdone. In our sample, the color gradients are negative (reddish inward)in approximately 59% of the objects, are almost null in 27%, and arepositive in 14%, considering only the face-on galaxies, which representapproximately 51% of the sample. The results do not change, essentially,when we include the edge-on galaxies. As a consequence of this study wehave also found that barred galaxies are overrepresented among theobjects having null or positive gradients, indicating that bars act as amechanism of homogenization of the stellar population. This effect ismore evident in the U-B color index, although it can also be detected inthe B-V color. A correlation between the total and bulge colors wasfound that is a consequence of an underlying correlation between thecolors of bulges and disks found by other authors. Moreover, the meantotal color is the same irrespective of the gradient regime, whilebulges are bluer in galaxies with null or positive gradients, whichindicates an increase of the star formation rate in the central regionsof these objects. We have also made a quantitative evaluation of theamount of extinction in the center of these galaxies. This was doneusing the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and the Near InfraredCamera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) Hubble Space Telescope(HST) archival data, as well as CCD B, V, and I images. We show thatalthough the extinction in the V-band can reach values up to 2 mag inthe central region, it is unlikely that dust plays a fundamental role inglobal color gradients. We found no correlation between color and O/Habundance gradients. This result could suggest that the color gradientsare more sensitive to the age rather than to the metallicity of thestellar population. However, the absence of this correlation may becaused by dust extinction. We discuss this result by considering apicture in which bars are a relatively fast, recurrent phenomenon. Theseresults are not compatible with a pure classical monolithic scenario forbulge and disk formation. On the contrary, they favor a scenario inwhich both these components are evolving in a correlated process inwhich stellar bars play a crucial role. Based partly on observationsmade at the Pico dos Dias Observatory (PDO/LNA-CNPq), Brazil.

The SCUBA Local Universe Galaxy Survey - I. First measurements of the submillimetre luminosity and dust mass functions
This is the first of a series of papers presenting results from theSCUBA Local Universe Galaxy Survey (SLUGS), the first statistical surveyof the submillimetre properties of the local Universe. As the initialpart of this survey, we have used the SCUBA camera on the James ClerkMaxwell Telescope to observe 104 galaxies from the IRAS Bright GalaxySample. We present here the 850-μm flux measurements. The 60-, 100-,and 850-μm flux densities are well fitted by single-temperature dustspectral energy distributions, with the sample mean and standarddeviation for the best-fitting temperature beingTd=35.6+/-4.9K and for the dust emissivity indexβ=1.3+/-0.2. The dust temperature was found to correlate with60-μm luminosity. The low value of β may simply mean that thesegalaxies contain a significant amount of dust that is colder than thesetemperatures. We have estimated dust masses from the 850-μm fluxesand from the fitted temperature, although if a colder component ataround 20K is present (assuming a β of 2), then the estimated dustmasses are a factor of 1.5-3 too low. We have made the first directmeasurements of the submillimetre luminosity function (LF) and of thedust mass function. Unlike the IRAS 60-μm LF, these are well fittedby Schechter functions. The slope of the 850-μm LF at lowluminosities is steeper than -2, implying that the LF must flatten atluminosities lower than we probe here. We show that extrapolating the60-μm LF to 850μm using a single temperature and β does notreproduce the measured submillimetre LF. A population of `cold' galaxies(Td<25K) emitting strongly at submillimetre wavelengthswould have been excluded from the 60-μm-selected sample. If suchgalaxies do exist, then this estimate of the 850-μm flux is biased(it is underestimated). Whether such a population does exist is unknownat present. We correlate many of the global galaxy properties with theFIR/submillimetre properties. We find that there is a tendency for lessluminous galaxies to contain hotter dust and to have a greater starformation efficiency (cf. Young). The average gas-to-dust ratio for thesample is 581+/-43 (using both the atomic and molecular hydrogen), whichis significantly higher than the Galactic value of 160. We believe thatthis discrepancy is probably due to a `cold dust' component atTd<=20K in our galaxies. There is a surprisingly tightcorrelation between dust mass and the mass of molecular hydrogen,estimated from CO measurements, with an intrinsic scatter of ~=50percent.

Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. I. Statistics
We present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of ~ 1350edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue ofBright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al. \cite{rc3}). A visualclassification of the bulges using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) inthree types of b/p bulges or as an elliptical type is presented andsupported by CCD images. NIR observations reveal that dust extinctiondoes almost not influence the shape of bulges. There is no substantialdifference between the shape of bulges in the optical and in the NIR.Our analysis reveals that 45% of all bulges are box- and peanut-shaped(b/p). The frequency of b/p bulges for all morphological types from S0to Sd is > 40%. In particular, this is for the first time that such alarge frequency of b/p bulges is reported for galaxies as late as Sd.The fraction of the observed b/p bulges is large enough to explain theb/p bulges by bars. Partly based on observations collected at ESO/LaSilla (Chile), DSAZ/Calar Alto (Spain), and Lowell Observatory/Flagstaff(AZ/U.S.A.). Tables 6 and 7 are only available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

The Supernova Rate in Starburst Galaxies
We conducted an optical CCD search for supernovae in a sample of 142bright [m(B) <= 16 mag], nearby (z<=0.03) starburst galaxies overthe period 1988 December to 1991 June, to a limiting R-band magnitude of18. Five supernovae were found, in all cases outside the host galaxy'snucleus. We determine supernova rates (in supernova units or SNU) in theextranuclear regions to be 0.7 h^2 SNU for Type Ia, 0.7 h^2 SNU for TypeIb/c, and ~0.6 h^2 SNU for Type II, with large uncertainties but upperlimits of 2.2 h^2, 2.5 h^2, and 1.7 h^2 SNU, respectively. These ratesare similar to those measured in ``normal'' galaxies. We found noevidence for a supernova-induced brightening in any galactic nucleusand, with a few reasonable assumptions, can place upper limits of 9 h^2,12 h^2, and 7 h^2 SNU on the rates of unobscured supernovae Types Ia,Ib/c, and II, respectively, inside the nuclei.

The Southern Sky Redshift Survey
We report redshifts, magnitudes, and morphological classifications for5369 galaxies with m_B <= 15.5 and for 57 galaxies fainter than thislimit, in two regions covering a total of 1.70 sr in the southerncelestial hemisphere. The galaxy catalog is drawn primarily from thelist of nonstellar objects identified in the Hubble Space TelescopeGuide Star Catalog (GSC). The galaxies have positions accurate to ~1"and magnitudes with an rms scatter of ~0.3 mag. We compute magnitudes(m_SSRS2) from the relation between instrumental GSC magnitudes and thephotometry by Lauberts & Valentijn. From a comparison with CCDphotometry, we find that our system is homogeneous across the sky andcorresponds to magnitudes measured at the isophotal level ~26 magarcsec^-2. The precision of the radial velocities is ~40 km s^-1, andthe redshift survey is more than 99% complete to the m_SSRS2 = 15.5 maglimit. This sample is in the direction opposite that of the CfA2; incombination the two surveys provide an important database for studies ofthe properties of galaxies and their large-scale distribution in thenearby universe. Based on observations obtained at Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories,operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation;Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between theConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile, partially under the bilateral ESO-ObservatórioNacional agreement; Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory;Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil; and the SouthAfrican Astronomical Observatory.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

Molecular Gas, Morphology, and Seyfert Galaxy Activity
We probe the cause of the elevated star formation in host galaxies ofSeyfert 2 nuclei compared with Seyfert 1 hosts and with field galaxies.12CO (1--0) observations of a large sample of Seyfert galaxies indicateno significant difference in the total amount of molecular gas as afunction of the Seyfert nuclear type, nor are Seyfert galaxiessignificantly different in this regard from a sample of field galaxiesonce selection effects are accounted for. Therefore, the total amount ofmolecular gas is not responsible for the enhanced star-forming activityin Seyfert 2 hosts. To probe how this gas is being converted moreefficiently into stars in Seyfert 2 hosts than in the other galaxies, weinvestigate the occurrence of bars, interactions, and distortedmorphologies among Seyfert galaxies. We find a significantly higher rateof asymmetric morphologies for Seyfert 2 galaxies with respect toSeyfert 1 galaxies and field galaxies. Relative to field galaxies, theeffect is at a greater than 99.9% confidence level. The presence ofasymmetric morphologies in individual Seyfert galaxies is correlatedwith their tendency to exhibit enhanced star-forming activity. Theseresults suggest that asymmetric morphologies are an important cause forthe link between Seyfert type and star-forming activity: bars anddistortions in Seyfert 2 hosts are likely both to enhance star-formingactivity and to funnel gas into the nuclear region, thus obscuring andpossibly contributing to the feeding of the active nucleus.

Bias Properties of Extragalactic Distance Indicators. VI. Luminosity Functions of M31 and M101 Look-alikes Listed in the RSA2: H0 Therefrom
Galaxies whose morphologies are similar to M 101 (Sc I) and M3 1 (Sb I-II) are listed in two tables. The selection is made by inspecting directimages of Shapley-Ames galaxies in the recent Carnegie Atlas ofGalaxies. Absolute magnitudes, calculated from redshifts, give meanvalues of

The bar-enhanced star-formation activities in spiral galaxies.
We use the ratio L_FIR_/L_B_ and the IRAS color index S_25_/S_12_ (bothwidely used as indices of relative star formation rates in galaxies) toanalyse subsets (containing no known AGNs or merging/interactinggalaxies) of: (a) the IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample, (b) galaxies from theoptically complete RSA sample which have IRAS detections in all fourbands, and (c) a volume-limited IR-unselected sample. We confirm thatIR-bright barred (SB) galaxies do, on average, have very significantlyhigher values of the FIR-optical and S_25_/S_12_ ratios (and presumably,higher relative star formation rates, SFR) than that do unbarred ones;the effect is most obvious in the IR colors. We also confirm that thesedifferences are confined to early-type (S0/a-Sbc) spirals and are notevident among late-type systems (Sc-Sdm). Unlike others, we see noenhancement of the SFR in weakly-barred (SAB) galaxies. We furtherconfirm that the effect of bars on the SFR is associated with therelative IR luminosity and show that it is detectable only in galaxieswith L_FIR_/L_B_>1/3, suggesting that as soon as they have anyeffect, bars translate their host galaxies into this relativelyIR-luminous group. Conversely, for galaxies with L_FIR_/L_B_ below ~0.1this luminosity ratio is lower among barred than unbarred systems, againconfirming and quantifying an earlier result. Although there is nosimple physical relation between H I content and star formation, astrong correlation of H I content with the presence of bars has beenfound for early-type spirals with L_FIR_/L_B_>1/3. This suggests thatthe availability of fuel is the factor determining just which galaxiesundergo bar-induced starbursts.

Multiwavelength Energy Distributions and Bolometric Luminosities of the 12 Micron Galaxy Sample
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...453..616S&db_key=AST

A Preliminary Classification Scheme for the Central Regions of Late-Type Galaxies
The large-scale prints in The Carnegie Atlas of Galaxies have been usedto formulate a classification scheme for the central regions oflate-type galaxies. Systems that exhibit small bright central bulges ordisks (type CB) are found to be of earlier Hubble type and of higherluminosity than galaxies that do not contain nuclei (type NN). Galaxiescontaining nuclear bars, or exhibiting central regions that are resolvedinto individual stars and knots, and galaxies with semistellar nuclei,are seen to have characteristics that are intermediate between those oftypes CB and NN. The presence or absence of a nucleus appears to be auseful criterion for distinguishing between spiral galaxies andmagellanic irregulars.

Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV system
The photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3.

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Right ascension:02h30m42.70s
Aparent dimensions:2.754′ × 0.813′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 958

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