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Group, field and isolated early-type galaxies - II. Global trends from nuclear data
We have derived ages, metallicities and enhanced-element ratios[α/Fe] for a sample of 83 early-type galaxies essentially ingroups, the field or isolated objects. The stellar-population propertiesderived for each galaxy correspond to the nuclear re/8aperture extraction. The median age found for Es is 5.8+/-0.6 Gyr andthe average metallicity is +0.37+/-0.03 dex. For S0s, the median age is3.0+/-0.6 Gyr and [Z/H]= 0.53+/-0.04 dex. We compare the distribution ofour galaxies in the Hβ-[MgFe] diagram with Fornax galaxies. Ourelliptical galaxies are 3-4 Gyr younger than Es in the Fornax cluster.We find that the galaxies lie in a plane defined by [Z/H]= 0.99logσ0- 0.46 log(age) - 1.60, or in linear terms Z~σ0× (age) -0.5. More massive (largerσ0) and older galaxies present, on average, large[α/Fe] values, and therefore must have undergone shorterstar-formation time-scales. Comparing group against field/isolatedgalaxies, it is not clear that environment plays an important role indetermining their stellar-population history. In particular, ourisolated galaxies show ages differing by more than 8 Gyr. Finally weexplore our large spectral coverage to derive log(O/H) metallicity fromthe Hα and NIIλ6584 and compare it with model-dependent[Z/H]. We find that the O/H abundances are similar for all galaxies, andwe can interpret it as if most chemical evolution has already finishedin these galaxies.

Group, field and isolated early-type galaxies - I. Observations and nuclear data
This is the first paper of a series on the investigation of stellarpopulation properties and galaxy evolution of an observationallyhomogeneous sample of early-type galaxies in groups, field and isolatedgalaxies.Here we present high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) long-slit spectroscopyof 86 nearby elliptical and S0 galaxies. Eight of them are isolated,selected according to a rigorous criterion, which guarantees a genuinelow-density subsample. The present survey has the advantage of coveringa larger wavelength range than normally found in the literature, whichincludes [OIII]λ5007 and Hα, both lines important foremission correction. Among the 86 galaxies with S/N >= 15 (perresolution element, for re/8 central aperture), 57 have theirHβ-index corrected for emission (the average correction is 0.190Åin Hβ) and 42 galaxies reveal [OIII]λ5007 emission,of which 16 also show obvious Hα emission. Most of the galaxies inthe sample do not show obvious signs of disturbances nor tidal featuresin the morphologies, although 11 belong to the Arp catalogue of peculiargalaxies; only three of them (NGC 750, 751 and 3226) seem to be stronglyinteracting. We present the measurement of 25 central line-strengthindices calibrated to the Lick/IDS system. Kinematic information isobtained for the sample. We analyse the line-strength index versusvelocity dispersion relations for our sample of mainly low-densityenvironment galaxies, and compare the slope of the relations withcluster galaxies from the literature. Our main findings are that theindex-σ0 relations presented for low-density regionsare not significantly different from those of cluster E/S0s. The slopeof the index-σ0 relations does not seem to change forearly-type galaxies of different environmental densities, but thescatter of the relations seems larger for group, field and isolatedgalaxies than for cluster galaxies.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

A catalogue of spatially resolved kinematics of galaxies: Bibliography
We present a catalogue of galaxies for which spatially resolved data ontheir internal kinematics have been published; there is no a priorirestriction regarding their morphological type. The catalogue lists thereferences to the articles where the data are published, as well as acoded description of these data: observed emission or absorption lines,velocity or velocity dispersion, radial profile or 2D field, positionangle. Tables 1, 2, and 3 are proposed in electronic form only, and areavailable from the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (to130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.

A Spectrophotometric Survey of Merging Galaxies
We present long-slit spectrophotometry of 40 merging or stronglyinteracting galaxy systems in the wavelength range 3650-7100 A. Alongwith optically selected objects, the sample includes 10 ultraluminousIRAS galaxies with evidence of ongoing merger activity. The data show awide variety of phenomena, with spectra resembling those of isolatedelliptical galaxies, early and late-type spiral galaxies, activegalactic nuclei starbursts, and poststarburst systems.

A Catalog of Stellar Velocity Dispersions. II. 1994 Update
A catalog of central velocity dispersion measurements is presented,current through 1993 September. The catalog includes 2474 measurementsof 1563 galaxies. A standard set of 86 galaxies is defined, consistingof galaxies with at least three reliable, concordant measurements. It issuggested that future studies observe some of these standard galaxies sothat different studies can be normalized to a consistent system. Allmeasurements are reduced to a normalized system using these standards.

Spectrophotometric Properties of Merging Galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...450..547L&db_key=AST

The surface distortion caused by the tides in galactic binary system.
Not Available

Stellar dynamics in E+E pairs of galaxies. 2: Simulations and interpretation
We have presented in a companion article a kinematic study of three E+Egalaxy pairs, NGC741/742, 1587/1588 (CPG 99) and 2672/2673 (CPG 175). Wefind some evidence for perturbed velocity dispersion profiles. Theseperturbation features are now reported for 14 galaxies in theliterature. They occur, or require observations for detection, at largeradii where the S/N in the data is low. While observations of individualgalaxies are sometimes uncertain, the large number of objects where suchfeatures are suspected gives confidence that they are real. Theseperturbations can be attributed to projection effects contaminationalong the line of sight, or directly to the tidal interaction. We reportthe results of several self-gravitating simulations of unbound pairs inan effort to better understand these perturbations another genericfeatures of close E+E pairs reported in the literature. The modelsfrequently show off-center envelopes created by the asymmetry of tidalforces during interpenetrating encounters. The envelopes last for a few108 yrs, which explains the frequency of such features inobserved pairs. This phenomenon is stronger in the self-gravitatingsimulations than in the MTBA runs. U-shaped (and an equal number ofinverse U shaped velocity profiles are seen in the simulations, a resultof ablation in the outer envelopes. Simulations including inner galaxyrotation also preserve this feature, irrespective of the spin vectordirection in each galaxy. U-shape velocity structure is found to be arobust indicator of the ongoing interaction. All simulations showevidence for enhanced velocity dispersion between the galaxies even inthe case of simple superposition of two non interacting objects. Wetherefore conclude that this cannot be considered an unambiguousindicator of the interaction.

Interacting binary galaxies. 7: Kinematic data for 12 disturbed ellipticals
We have analyzed long-slit spectroscopic data for a sample of 12 tidallydisturbed elliptical galaxies. The spectra were obtained with the KittPeak National Observatory (KPNO) 4 m RC spectrograph. Rotation curvesand velocity dispersion profiles have been measured at a variety ofposition angles in these galaxies and have been used to analyze thedynamical response and internal kinematics of stellar systems involvedin strong gravitational encounters. We have confirmed with these dataour previous observation that such galaxies often reveal U-shaped'rotation' profiles, indicative of a strong resonant tidal effect amongthose stars that are moving prograde with respect to the galacticencounter. Additional kinematic peculiarities, including U-shaped andW-shaped velocity dispersion profiles, are also revealed in these data.The observed morphologies of the tidal features seen in some of thesample galaxies are consistent with the idea that elliptical galaxiesoften contain an embedded disk component. Our velocity profiles alongnew position angles confirm the validity of tidal interaction modelsthat we previously derived for specific pairs in our sample using only asingle slit position angle per galaxy. Additional insight into possiblerefinements of those collision models has also resulted from this study.

A survey of the Pisces-Perseus supercluster. V - The declination strip +33.5 deg to +39.5 deg and the main supercluster ridge
Measurements of 544 radial velocities, 229 optical and 315 in the 21 cmH I line, are presented for galaxies, mostly in the declination stripbetween +33.5 and +39.5 deg in the region of the Pisces-Perseussupercluster. These are combined with other available data toinvestigate the linear structure identified as the main superclusterridge. The main ridge of the supercluster extends at least 50/h Mpcbefore it disappears into the zone of avoidance east of Perseus.Confinement both on the plane of the sky and in the velocity dimensionimply an axial ratio of greater than 10:1 and an inclination withrespect to the plane of the sky of less than about 12 degrees. Therelative proximity, low inclination to the plane of the sky, and highcontrast relative to the foreground and background, help to make thePisces-Perseus filament one of the most prominent features in theextragalactic sky on large scales.

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

Models and observations of starbursts. II - Starbursts in interacting galaxies
Evolutionary models are applied here to starburst galaxies in a sampleof 30 interacting or merged systems in order to determine the durationof the starbursts. The time delay between bursts in both components ofinteracting pairs of disk galaxies is investigated and it is found thatstarbursts in the minor galaxies of these pairs started earlier thanthose in the major galaxies. While strong starbursts are found to beactive for only about 2 x 10 exp 7 yrs, the time delay between thebursts in both components of the interacting pairs can be significantlylarger. Delays of up to 2 x 10 exp 8 yrs are found in the sample. Modelfits show that the mass-to-luminosity ratios of strong centralstarbursts indicate a deficiency of low-mass stars in the starburstinitial mass function. The required low-mass-star deficiency is smallerthan previously believed.

KISO survey for ultraviolet-excess galaxies. XIII.
Not Available

Morphology and kinematics of the interacting elliptical galaxies NGC750 and NGC751 = ARP 166 - Velocity fields of tidally distorted elliptical galaxies
The interacting galaxies NGC750 and 751 are investigated by means ofphotometric and spectroscopic observations and compared to the galaxypair NGC4782 and 4783. The morphological and kinematical properties ofthe pair are discussed, and the examination of the dynamical propertiesof both pairs is used to develop a scenario to describe the encounter of750 and 751. The luminosity profiles of both galaxies deviate from the rexp 1/4 law at all radii, and the shapes of near-central isophotessuggest the slow evolution of their time-varying potentials. NGC750exhibits radial velocity curves that are almost flat while those of 751have large variations; both galaxies have asymmetric and radiallyincreasing velocity-dispersion curves. Both galaxies, therefore, arecharacterized by strong tidal perturbations, and a scenario is developedto describe the galactic encounter as deeply penetrating andlow-velocity. Violent tidal interaction is related to tidal couplingbetween stars on prograde orbits and the bulk orbital motion.

The dumb-bell galaxy NGC 750/751
A quantitative analysis of this system from BVR CCD photometry and longslit spectroscopy is presented. The results indicate that theyconstitute a physically interacting system. The presence of a duststructure along the line joining the nuclei and the members showisophotal distortion is detected, indicating a nonelliptical component,which is also seen in the surface brightness profiles.

Galaxies possibly resembling M82-type galaxies
A list of 298 galaxies with possible features of M82 galaxies ispresented. This list contains those Irr II candidates whose images onPalomar photographs shown no trace of dust although the objects are redand suspected to be peculiar.

The dynamics of dumb-bell galaxies
This paper presents theoretical models for a particular class of closebinary galaxies, the 'dumb-bell galaxies'. In these models twocomponents of equal size orbit each other on bound, circular orbitswithin a common envelope of adjustable extent. A series ofself-consistent equilibria is constructed for such dumb-bell systems.These equilibria are based on distribution functions that depend on theJacobian energy E(j) only, and as a result they all rotate as solidbodies. N-body experiments indicate that the presence of a commonenvelope per se does not cause violent dynamical instabilities, and thattherefore binary systems with a common envelope of limited extent do notnecessarily coalesce within a few orbital periods. However, mass andangular momentum loss through the Lagrangian point L3 can lead to arapid merging of the two subsystems. An application of these results tobinary stars suggests that the initial merging of a double white dwarfwill not produce a massive enough remnant to ignite a supernova. Apreliminary investigation of the orbital structure within the presentdumb-bell potential reveals the presence of two additional integrals ofmotion for particles that remain within one half of the dumb-bell.

Morphology of interacting elliptical galaxy pairs
The effect of galaxy interaction on the morphology of a galaxy pair wasinvestigated using the results of CCD-photometry of 20 elliptical galaxypairs. Deviations from undisturbed brightness profiles were interpretedin terms of ongoing tidal interaction. It was found that the morphologyof the interacting galaxy pairs deviates obviously from the morphologyof isolated elliptical galaxies, indicating a stage of efficientinteraction, with nonconcentric isophotes providing strong evidence ofongoing interaction. Brightness profiles of the brighter components ingalaxy pairs were usually extended in comparison with brightnessprofiles of isolated galaxies. Truncated brightness profiles, prevalentin most of the smaller components of galaxy pairs, are interpreted as aconsequence of a tidally limited galaxy radius imposed by the moremassive component.

Observations of galaxies in groups at 102 MHz
Observations of 325 galaxies in groups were carried out at a frequencyof 102 MHz via the scintillation method. Radio emission was found in 42of these components. Eleven of these have a meridional component.

Observations of binary galaxies at a frequency of 102 MHz
A total of 93 double galaxies from the Karachentsev list was observedwith the large phased array at the Lebedev Physical Institute at 102MHz. The interplanetary oscillation method was used. Two of the galaxieswere found to contain scintillating components with angular dimensionsof less than 1 arcsec and flux densities of more than 1 Jy. Theobservations of double galaxies at low radio frequencies indicate thatgalaxies in pairs are more active than single galaxies.

A search for features in early-type galaxies
Using data from the CCD surface-photometry survey of Djorgovski (1985),images of 159 galaxies were examined for the presence of dust lanes,incipient stellar disks, bars, shells, and other features that signifydeviations from elliptical symmetry. The sample contained 116 ellipticalgalaxies, 33 SO galaxies and 10 intermediate galaxies. It was found thatforty-two of the ellipticals either definitely or very likely containdust, either in patches or in well-defined lanes or rings. Five of theE/SO galaxies also show possible or definite dust, as do 15 of the SOs.Three of the elliptical galaxies definitely contain stellar disks, withseveral more possible candidates. The presence of these features inalmost half of the elliptical galaxies studied demonstrates thatelliptical galaxies are not the featureless objects they were oncethought to be. Moreover, the finding of weak stellar disks in some ofthem further blurs the distinction between ellipticals and SOs.

A morphological effect in pairs of elliptical galaxies
A morphological signature of gravitational interaction has been found ina sample of 50 close pairs of elliptical galaxies. The halos of bothgalaxies in five, and possibly more, pairs are off-center and thisoffset is symmetric with respect to the center of the pair. Among thephysical mechanisms that could be responsible for this morphologicaleffect, the displacement of the nucleus with respect to the halo in eachgalaxy or the formation of an asymmetric tidal bulge are the mostlikely. The observation of this effect should provide constraints on theinternal dynamics of elliptical galaxies, as well as on the dynamics ofpairs.

Spectroscopy and photometry of elliptical galaxies. III - UBV aperture photometry, CCD photometry, and magnitude-related parameters
Photoelectric aperture photometry of nearly 2000 individual observationsof 449 elliptical galaxies combined with published measurements usingthe self-consistent UVB color catalog developed by Burstein et al.(1987) are presented. The data are placed on a standard magnitude andcolor system, and 'total' magnitudes and effective diameters are derivedby comparison with the standard elliptical magnitude growth curve. Agraphical representation of the standard growth curve and the residualsfrom it for each galaxy are given, and a new diameter measurement Dn ispresented which can be measured reliably for elliptical galaxies andserves as an accurate distance indicator when combined with centralvelocity dispersion. Individual magnitudes, surface brightnesses,effective diameters, and values of Dn are summarized for each galaxy incatalog form.

Spectroscopy and photometry of elliptical galaxies. II - The spectroscopic parameters
Radial velocities, velocity dispersions, and Mg line-strength indicesare measured for 469 elliptical galaxies using four telescope/detectorconfigurations. The data have been put on a common scale; the scatter ofrepeat measurements indicates an uncertainty of + or - 10 percent and +or - 0.01 mag for single determinations of sigma and Mg2, respectively.A correction for the change in linear aperture size as a function ofdistance has been derived, and mean corrected values of sigma and Mg2are adopted. The galaxies have been assigned to groups by combining thepresent velocities with those in the redshift catalog of Huchra et al.(1983) and using the algorithm of Huchra and Geller (1982).

Fundamental properties of elliptical galaxies
The global properties of elliptical galaxies, such as luminosity,radius, projected velocity dispersion, projected luminosity, etc., forma two-dimensional family. This 'fundamental plane' of ellipticalgalaxies can be defined in observable terms by the velocity dispersionand mean surface brightness. Its thickness is given by the presentmeasurement error bars, and there are no significant indications ofnonlinearity or higher dimensionality. This is indicative of a strongregularity in the process of galaxy formation. The equations of theplane can be used as new, substantially improved distance indicators forelliptical galaxies. However, all morphological parameters whichdescribe the shape of the light distribution (ellipticity, elippticitygradient, isophotal twist rate, slope of the surface brightness profile)and reflect dynamical anisotropies of stars are completely independentof this fundamental plane. Thus, the elliptical galaxies are actually a'2 + N' parameter family. The M/L ratios correlate only with thevelocity dispersions and show a small intrinsic scatter, perhaps onlyabout 30 percent, in a luminosity range spanning some four orders ofmagnitude; this suggests a constant fraction of the dark mattercontribution in elliptical galaxies.

Mapping dark nebulae in elliptical galaxies
The Kitt Peak National Observatory video camera has been used on the2.1-m telescope to provide imaging data for a survey of dark nebulae in15 classical elliptical galaxies. Dark nebulae in ellipticals tracecool, dense interstellar matter and are potential sites for starformation. Spatial filtering techniques allow previously known darknebulae in NGC 404, NGC 708, NGC 1052, NGC 4374, NGC 5363, and NGC 7052to be readily mapped from the digital images. An extended dark nebularcomponent is also found in NGC 5363. The majority of classicalellipticals in the sample, however, do not contain large dark nebulae.These observations are discussed in terms of processes which mightcontrol the amount and distribution of cool gas in elliptical galaxies.In particular, the presence of dust suggests that some of the gas hasnot been heated to the high temperatures characteristic of the X-rayemitting atmospheres that are found in many elliptical galaxies.

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Right ascension:01h57m32.90s
Aparent dimensions:1.738′ × 1.38′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 751

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