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|Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups|
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|The distribution of ionised gas in early-type galaxies.|
|Candidates for a southern extension of the Karachentsev catalogue of isolated pairs of galaxies.|
|The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies|
The Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies (CSRG) is a comprehensivecompilation of diameters, axis ratios, relative bar position angles, andmorphologies of inner and outer rings, pseudorings, and lenses in 3692galaxies south of declination -17 deg. The purpose of the catalog is toevaluate the idea that these ring phenomena are related to orbitalresonances with a bar or oval in galaxy potentials. The catalog is basedon visual inspection of most of the 606 fields of the Science ResearchCouncil (SRC) IIIa-J southern sky survey, with the ESO-B, ESO-R, andPalomar Sky surveys used as auxiliaries when needed for overexposed coreregions. The catalog is most complete for SRC fields 1-303 (mostly southof declination -42 deg). In addition to ringed galaxies, a list of 859mostly nonringed galaxies intended for comparison with other catalogs isprovided. Other findings from the CSRG that are not based on statisticsare the identification of intrinsic bar/ring misalignment; bars whichunderfill inner rings; dimpling of R'1pseudorings; pointy, rectangular, or hexagonal inner or outer ringshapes; a peculiar polar-ring-related system; and other extreme examplesof spiral structure and ring morphology.
|Photoionization in elliptical galaxies by old stars|
In an effort to explain the ionization of gas in elliptical galaxies, wehave computed the Lyman continuum output from an ageing starburst, usingisochrone synthesis spectral evolution techniques. We have shown thatpost-AGB stars provide sufficient ionizing radiation to account for theobserved H-alpha luminosity and equivalent width in very early typegalaxies. Photoionization models using the radiation field from thesestars are shown to easily reproduce the excitation level of the ionizedgas. Thus, we argue that the ionization observed in normal ellipticalgalaxies is provided by their old stellar populations.
|The distribution of ionized gas in early-type galaxies|
We present and discuss H-alpha+(N II) imaging observations of fifteennearby elliptical and SO galaxies with extended optical emission lines.The morphology of the emitting regions suggests that the ionized gasusually lies in a disk which is often geometrically decoupled from thestellar body, as expected in a triaxial galaxy. The presence of agaseous disk makes these galaxies suitable for testing theirgravitational field in a straightforward way. The presence of dust inmany of the disks, together with the observed morphological properties,suggests that the ionized gas in most of these galaxies is more closelyassociated with the cold Interstellar Medium (ISM) than with the hotX-ray component. The mass of ionized gas in the galaxies studied here istypically 10-100 times that in a 'normal' early-type galaxy of similaroptical luminosity. These appear to be galaxies where an unusually highfraction of the cold gas has been ionized, rather than unusuallygas-rich systems in an overall sense. The extra ionizing source may berelated to an active nucleus, since the continuum radio emission fromthese galaxies is typically 10-15 times more powerful than in 'normal'ellipticals of the smae optical luminosity.
|Southern Sky Redshift Survey - The catalog|
The catalog of radial velocities for galaxies which comprise thediameter-limited sample of the Southern Sky Redshift Survey ispresented. It consolidates the data of observations carried out at theLas Campanas Observatory, Observatorio Nacional, and South AfricanAstronomical Observatory. The criteria used for the sample selection aredescribed, as well as the observational procedures and the techniqueutilized to obtain the final radial velocities. The intercomparisonbetween radial velocity measurements from different telescopes indicatesthat the final data base is fairly homogeneous with a typical error ofabout 40 km/s. The sample is at present 90 percent complete, and themissing galaxies are predominantly objects with very low surfacebrightness for which it is very difficult to obtain optical redshifts.
|The surface brightness test for the expansion of the universe. II - Radii, surface brightness, and absolute magnitude correlations for nearby E galaxies|
Data for elliptical galaxies in the Virgo, Fornax, and Coma clusters andin the general field are analyzed in order to determine the dispersionin average surface brightness. The data are discussed using measures ofboth the effective radius and the Petrosian r(eta) radii. The dispersionis found to be about 0.5 mag after reducing the data to absolutemagnitude M(B) = -22. This value is smaller than the 1.8 mag Tolman (1 +z) exp 4 factor, even at the modest redshift of z = 0.5, showing thatthe Tolman test is feasible in practice as well as in principle.
|Low-luminosity radio sources in early-type galaxies|
A sensitive radio continuum survey of 114 nearby E and S0 galaxies hasbeen made to search for weak sources. The radio detection rate is 42percent, with a flux limit of 0.8 mJy at 5 GHz. By deriving the radioluminosity function for a complete sample, it is shown that most brightearly-type galaxies have low-luminosity nonthermal radio sources.Galaxies of similar optical luminosity vary widely in radio luminosity,but a characteristic radio power rises roughly as the optical luminositysquared. S0 galaxies have weaker radio sources on average thanelliptical galaxies, but this can be explained by the low luminosity ofmost S0 bulges relative to ellipticals. No correlation is found betweenradio power and axial ratio for galaxies with radio luminosities below10 to the 23rd W/Hz.
|On the relationship between radio emission and optical properties in early-type galaxies|
To study the origin of radio activity in early-type galaxies, thepossible dependence of their radio emission on basic optical parameters,such as the absolute magnitude, the central velocity dispersion sigma,and the mean surface brightness mu is explored. A sample of 743 E and SOgalaxies is used which is based on three independent radio surveys ofoptically selected galaxies with virtually complete information onmagnitudes, morphological types, redshift distances, diameters, andradio fluxes. For both E and SO galaxies, only the absolute magnitudeappears to be directly related to the radio activity, while sigma and mudo not. Also, a significant dependence of the apparent flattening onradio power is confirmed for E galaxies. Some relevant implications ofthese results are discussed.
|Surface photometry of southern elliptical galaxies|
The results of a surface photometry survey for 131 elliptical galaxiesin the southern hemisphere are presented. In this paper isophotal mapsand major-axis profiles are shown, deriving for each galaxy in thesample structural parameters using the de Vaucouleurs law as usefulparametric descriptor of the light distribution of elliptical galaxies.
|A catalogue of early-type galaxies with emission lines|
Spectroscopic and photometric data on 289 early-type galaxies (E and S0)with optical emission lines are presented and possible correlationsamong properties of the galaxies in the sample are investigated. Theoccurrence of phenomena as radio emission, presence of neutral hydrogenand dust shows an increase in comparison with the occurrence of the samephenomena in these morphological classes as a whole. There is noevidence of a relationship between apparent shape and presence ofionized gas in the central regions.
|Ionized gas in elliptical and S0 galaxies. I - A survey for H-alpha and forbidden N II emission|
A spectroscopic survey of a large sample of southern E and S0 galaxiesin order to detect ionized gas in the nuclei is reported. The strongestline in the 6000-7000 A range was nearly always forbidden N II 6584 A,followed by H-alpha and forbidden S II 6716, 6731 A. Identical detectionrates of about 50 percent were obtained for the forbidden N II line inboth E and S0 galaxies. The mass of ionized gas in early-type galaxieswas very small, with values typically in the range 1000-10,000 solarmasses. The relative emission-line strengths in virtually every casewere indistinguishable from those of LINER nuclei. The observed valuesof the forbidden N II 6584 A/H-alpha ratios fell mostly between one andthree and seem correlated with galaxy absolute magnitude. The existenceof such a correlation may be indicative of metallicity differences.
|Southern Galaxy Catalogue.|
|Radio and optical observations of a complete sample of E and SO galaxies. III. A radio continuum survey at 2.7 and 5.0 GHz.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1984AJ.....89...53S&db_key=AST
|Radio and optical observations of a complete sample of E and SO galaxies. II. UBV aperture photometry.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1984AJ.....89...34S&db_key=AST
|Radio and optical observations of a complete sample of E and S0 galaxies. I - Radial velocities. II - UBV aperture photometry. III - A radio continuum survey at 2.7 and 5.0 GHz|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1984AJ.....89...23S&db_key=AST
|A catalog of southern groups and clusters of galaxies|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1977ApJS...35..209D&db_key=AST
|A List of Peculiar Galaxies, Interacting Pairs, Groups and Clusters South of Declination -43°|
The coordinates, dimensions and short descriptions of 186 objects aregiven after a search of the Maksutov plate collection in theObservatorio AstronÃ³mico, Universidad de Chile, Santiago
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