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|Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups|
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.
|Near-infrared probing of embedded structures in starburst and Seyfert galaxies|
Surface photometry in the J and K' bands of 15 southernSeyfert or starburst galaxies is presented. The detailed centralmorphology and structural properties of these objects were analyzed byfitting ellipses to isophotes. New central peculiar structures have beenidentified like, for instance, three double-barred systems (ESO215-G031; ESO 320-G030; ESO 443-G017), one object with a nested nuclearspiral structure at the center of a primary bar (NGC 5135), one objectwith a nuclear bar without evidence of a large-scale bar (NGC 4941), andone galaxy with a likely dissolved secondary bar within a primary one(ESO 508-G005). The J-K' radial profile proved to bereasonably well linked with the presence of a starburst, but not withthe Seyfert activity. For significant starbursts, the centralJ-K' value is 0.3 - 1.5 magnitude larger than the disc one.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile (ESO programme 59.A--0773).
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|Velocity differences in binary galaxies. I - Suggestions for a nonmonotonic, two-component distribution|
A compilation of published high-precision velocities for 107 isolatedgalaxies is presented and used to obtain the distribution function oftheir velocity differences. The distribution shows a peak at the zerodifference as expected, but it also exhibits a preference for valuesnear 72 km/2. The distribution function declines smoothly beyond about72 km/s, with no significant peaks at multiples of 72 km/s, as claimedby Tifft (1977, 1980, 1982). It is argued that criteria for selectionprocedures on binary galaxy samples which are defined on the basis oftoo narrow a projected separation in the sky can produce a nonmonotonicdistribution if the orbits are eccentric. Such orbits can produce astrong secondary peak only if the level of incompleteness inbinary-galaxy samples is quite high, suggesting that the presentstatistical estimates of the masses of binary galaxies should bereevaluated.
|Quantization of redshift differences in isolated galaxy pairs|
Improved 21 cm data on isolated galaxy pairs are presented whicheliminate questions of inhomogeneity in the data on such pairs andreduce observational error to below 5 km/s. Quantization is sharpened,and the 'zero' peak is shown to be displaced from zero to a locationnear 24 km/s. An exclusion principle is suggested whereby identicalredshifts are forbidden in limited volumes. The radio data and data fromSchweizer (1987) are combined with the best optical data on closeKarachentsev pairs to provide a cumulative sample of 84 of the bestdifferentials now available. New 21 cm observations are used to test forthe presence of small differentials in very wide pairs, and thedeficiency near zero is found to continue to very wide spacings. A lossof wide pairs by selection bias cannot produce the observed zerodeficiency. A new test using pairs selected from the Fisher-Tullycatalog is used to demonstrate quantization properties of thirdcomponents associated with possible pairs.
|Star burst activity in high surface brightness galaxies|
High surface brightness galaxies are also galaxies with highstar-forming activity. About a half of them omit, on the average, twiceas much energy in the IR than in the blue. The rates of star formationare 10-30 times higher than those in normal galaxies. On average 100-300solar masses gas are converted into stars every year and 10-30 aremassive stars.
|Uncertainties in 21 centimeter redshifts. I - Data|
High-precision data on the 21-cm redshifts, profile widths, and shapesfor 625 galaxies are presented. Each galaxy is listed in across-identification and morphology table. High-resolution spectra arealso given for each galaxy. Internal redshift consistency is roughly 1km/s for galaxies for which the S/N is above 15. No systematic effectshave been found which might influence the observed redshift quantizationat 72.5 km/s or its submultiples.
|New galaxies with high surface brightness in the Nilson system|
Using Arkelian's criteria (1974, 1975), data for 47 new High SurfaceBrightness Galaxies (HSBG) in the system of the Uppsala GeneralCatalogue of Galaxies are presented. Of the 193 Arkelian galaxies listedin the catalog, 46 were also found to be HSBGs in the Nilson system(1973). The present list contains 19 Zwicky (1971) compact galaxies (40percent), two of which are listed as HSBGs by Nilson.
|Recognition and classification of galaxies with optical jets|
Deep images and spectra are presented for galaxies reported in variouscatalogs to have jets, as well as in a search of the SRC J survey platesin a region near the south galactic pole. Most of these are shown to besuperpositions, polar rings, tidal features, or artifacts of theoriginal plate material. Examples are shown of ten ways that false jetscan be produced, with more detailed case studies for several systems.Based on this experience, several criteria for the brightness, location,and symmetry of genuine optical jets are suggested, which should yieldsurvey samples much less contaminated by 'false alarms' than existingones. Among the objects that remain as optical-jet candidates, ESO0610-23 shows a linear, radial chain of H II regions on the outskirts ofan amorphous system with complex internal structure, UGC 3995 is a closepair of spirals, one of which has a type 2 Seyfert nucleus and apparentknotty jet, and NGC 1598 has the radial features previously reported,but considerable chaotic outer structure as well. Several systems (suchas AM 0207-49 and ESO 2330-38) illustrate the intrinsic difficulty ofseparating jets and tidal tails on morphological grounds alone incertain cases.
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