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The Relation between Galaxy Activity and the Dynamics of Compact Groups of Galaxies
Using a sample of 91 galaxies distributed over 27 compact groups (CGs)of galaxies, we define an index that allows us to quantify their levelof activity due to an active galactic nucleus (AGN) or star formation.By combining the mean activity index with the mean morphological type ofthe galaxies in a group, we are able to quantify the evolutionary stateof the groups. We find that they span an evolutionary sequence thatcorrelates with the spatial configuration of the galaxies in the CG. Wedistinguish three main configuration types: A, B, and C. Type A CGs showpredominantly low velocity dispersions and are rich in late-type spiralsthat show active star formation or harbor an AGN. Type B groups haveintermediate velocity dispersions and contain a large fraction ofinteracting or merging galaxies. Type C comprises CGs with high velocitydispersions, which are dominated by elliptical galaxies that show noactivity. We suggest that evolution proceeds A==>B==>C. Mappingthe groups with different evolution levels in a diagram of radius versusvelocity dispersion does not reveal the pattern expected based on theconventional fast merger model for CGs, which predicts a direct relationbetween these two parameters. Instead, we observe a trend contrary toexpectation: the evolutionary state of a group increases with velocitydispersion. This trend seems to be related to the masses of thestructures in which CGs are embedded. In general, the evolutionary stateof a group increases with the mass of the structure. This suggestseither that galaxies evolve more rapidly in massive structures or thatthe formation of CGs embedded in massive structures predated theformation of CGs associated with lower mass systems. Our observationsare consistent with the structure formation predicted by the CDM model(or ΛCDM), only if the formation of galaxies is a biased process.

Dynamical Effects of Interactions and the Tully-Fisher Relation for Hickson Compact Groups
We investigate the properties of the B-band Tully-Fisher (T-F) relationfor 25 compact group galaxies, using Vmax derived fromtwo-dimensional velocity maps. Our main result is that the majority ofthe Hickson Compact Group galaxies lie on the T-F relation. However,about 20% of the galaxies, including the lowest-mass systems, havehigher B luminosities for a given mass, or alternatively, a mass that istoo low for their luminosities. We favor a scenario in which outliershave been brightened because of either enhanced star formation ormerging. Alternatively, the T-F outliers may have undergone truncationof their dark halo due to interactions. It is possible that in somecases both effects contribute. The fact that the B-band T-F relation issimilar for compact group and field galaxies tells us that thesegalaxies show common mass-to-size relations and that the halos ofcompact group galaxies have not been significantly stripped insideR25. We find that 75% of the compact group galaxies studied(22 out of 29) have highly peculiar velocity fields. Nevertheless, acareful choice of inclination, position angle, and center, obtained fromthe velocity field, and an average of the velocities over a large sectorof the galaxy enabled the determination of fairly well-behaved rotationcurves for the galaxies. However, two of the compact group galaxies HCG91a and HCG 96a, which are the most massive members in M51-like pairs,have very asymmetric rotation curves, with one arm rising and the otherone falling, indicating most probably a recent perturbation by the smallclose companions.

Gas kinematics of a sample of five Hickson Compact Groups. The data
We present Fabry Perot observations of galaxies in five Hickson CompactGroups: HCG 10, HCG 19, HCG 87, HCG 91 and HCG 96. We observed a totalof 15 galaxies and we have detected ionized gas for 13 of them. We wereable to derive 2D velocity, monochromatic, continuum maps and rotationcurves for the 13 objects. Almost all galaxies in this study arelate-type systems; only HCG 19a is an elliptical galaxy. We can see atrend of kinematic evolution within a group and among different groups -from strongly interacting systems to galaxies with no signs ofinteraction - HCG 10 exhibits at least one galaxy strongly disturbed;HCG 19 seems to be quite evolved; HCG 87 does not show any sign ofmerging but a possible gas exchange between two galaxies; HCG 91 couldbe accreting a new intruder; HCG 96 exhibits past and presentinteractions.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile and at the Canada-France-Hawaii Observatory, Hawaii, USA.Tables 1 and 2, Figs. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 23 are only availablein electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

Compact groups in the UZC galaxy sample
Applying an automatic neighbour search algorithm to the 3D UZC galaxycatalogue (Falco et al. \cite{Falco}) we have identified 291 compactgroups (CGs) with radial velocity between 1000 and 10 000 kms-1. The sample is analysed to investigate whether Tripletsdisplay kinematical and morphological characteristics similar to higherorder CGs (Multiplets). It is found that Triplets constitute lowvelocity dispersion structures, have a gas-rich galaxy population andare typically retrieved in sparse environments. Conversely Multipletsshow higher velocity dispersion, include few gas-rich members and aregenerally embedded structures. Evidence hence emerges indicating thatTriplets and Multiplets, though sharing a common scale, correspond todifferent galaxy systems. Triplets are typically field structures whilstMultiplets are mainly subclumps (either temporarily projected orcollapsing) within larger structures. Simulations show that selectioneffects can only partially account for differences, but significantcontamination of Triplets by field galaxy interlopers could eventuallyinduce the observed dependences on multiplicity. Tables 1 and 2 are onlyavailable in electronic at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/391/35

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Effects of Interaction-induced Activities in Hickson Compact Groups: CO and Far-Infrared Study
A study of 2.6 mm CO J = 1 --> 0 and far-infrared (FIR) emission in adistance-limited (z < 0.03) complete sample of Hickson compact group(HCG) galaxies was conducted in order to examine the effects of theirunique environment on the interstellar medium of component galaxies andto search for a possible enhancement of star formation and nuclearactivity. Ubiquitous tidal interactions in these dense groups wouldpredict enhanced activities among the HCG galaxies compared to isolatedgalaxies. Instead, their CO and FIR properties (thus, "star formationefficiency") are surprisingly similar to isolated spirals. The CO datafor 80 HCG galaxies presented here (including 10 obtained from theliterature) indicate that the spirals globally show the same H2 contentas the isolated comparison sample, although 20% are deficient in COemission. Because of their large optical luminosity, low metallicity isnot likely the main cause for the low CO luminosity. The CO deficiencyappears linked with the group evolution, and gas exhaustion through paststar formation and removal of the external gas reserve by tidalstripping of the outer H I disk offer a possible explanation. The IRASdata for the entire redshift-limited complete sample of 161 HCG galaxieswere reanalyzed using ADDSCAN/SCANPI, improving the sensitivity by afactor of 3-5 over the existing Point Source Catalog (PSC) and resolvingbetter the contribution from individual galaxies. The new analysis ofthe IRAS data confirms the previous suggestion that FIR emission in HCGgalaxies is similar to isolated, Virgo Cluster, and weakly interactinggalaxies. Their H2 and FIR characteristics yield a star formationefficiency that is similar to that of these comparison samples. A factor2 enhancement in the 25-100 mu m flux ratio among the HCG spirals isfound, which suggests intense localized nuclear starburst activitysimilar to that of H II galaxies. A number of early-type galaxies inHCGs are detected in CO and FIR, lending further support to the ideathat tidal interactions and tidally induced evolution of the groups andmember galaxies are important in our sample.

The Universality of the Fundamental Plane of E and S0 Galaxies: Spectroscopic Data
We present central velocity dispersion measurements for 325 early-typegalaxies in eight clusters and groups of galaxies, including newobservations for 212 galaxies. The clusters and groups are the A262,A1367, Coma (A1656), A2634, Cancer, and Pegasus Clusters and the NGC 383and NGC 507 Groups. The new measurements were derived frommedium-dispersion spectra that cover 600 Å centered on the Mg I btriplet at lambda ~ 5175 Å. Velocity dispersions were measuredusing the Tonry & Davis cross-correlation method, with a typicalaccuracy of 6%. A detailed comparison with other data sources is made.

The Universality of the Fundamental Plane of E and S0 Galaxies: Sample Definition and I-Band Photometric Data
As part of a project to compare the fundamental plane and Tully-Fisherdistance scales, we present here I-band CCD photometry for 636early-type galaxies in eight clusters and groups of galaxies. These arethe A262, A1367, Coma (A1656), A2634, Cancer and Pegasus Clusters, andthe NGC 383 and NGC 507 Groups. Sample selection, cluster properties,and cluster membership assignment criteria are discussed. We presentphotometric parameters that are used in the fundamental plane relation,the effective radius r_e, and the effective surface brightness mu_e, asderived from a r^1/4 fit to the observed radial photometric profile ofeach galaxy. A comparison with similar data found in the literature forthe Coma Cluster shows that large systematic uncertainties can beintroduced in the measurement of r_e and mu_e by the particular methodused to derive those parameters. However, the particular combination ofthese two parameters that enters in the fundamental plane relation is aquantity that can be measured with high accuracy.

Environments of Redshift Survey Compact Groups of Galaxies
Redshift survey compact groups (RSCGs) are tight knots of N >= 3galaxies selected from the CfA2+SSRS2 redshift survey. The selection isbased on physical extent and association in redshift space alone. Wemeasured 300 new redshifts of fainter galaxies within 1 h^-1 Mpc of 14RSCGs to explore the relationship between RSCGs and their environments.Thirteen of 14 RSCGs are embedded in overdense regions of redshiftspace. The systems range from a loose group of five members to an Abellcluster. The remaining group, RSCG 64, appears isolated. RSCGs areisolated and distinct from their surroundings to varying degrees, as arethe Hickson compact groups. Among the 13 embedded RSCGs, three aredistinct from their general environments (RSCG 9, RSCG 11, and RSCG 85).

Galaxy Alignments in the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Revisited
A search for preferential galaxy alignments in the Pisces-PerseusSupercluster (PPS) is made using the Minnesota Automated Plate ScannerPisces-Perseus Survey (MAPS-PP). The MAPS-PP is a catalog of ~1400galaxies with a (roughly) isophotal diameter greater than 30"constructed from digitized scans of the blue and red plates of thePalomar Observatory Sky Survey covering the PPS. This is the largestsample of galaxies applied to a search of galaxy alignments in thissupercluster, and it has been used in combination with previouslypublished redshifts to construct the deepest PPS galaxy luminosityfunction to date. While previous studies have relied extensively oncatalogs with visually estimated parameters for both sample selectionand determination of galaxy orientation, the MAPS-PP uses selectioncriteria and measurements that are entirely machine and computer based.Therefore, it is not susceptible to some of the biases, such as thediameter inclination effect, known to exist in some other galaxycatalogs. The presence of anisotropic galaxy distributions is determinedby use of the Kuiper statistic, a robust alternative to the chi^2statistic more traditionally used in these studies. Three statisticallysignificant anisotropic distributions are observed. The reddest galaxiesare observed to be oriented preferentially perpendicular to the locallarge-scale structure. The bluest galaxies near the supercluster planeare observed to have an anisotropic position angle distribution.Finally, a weak trend for the median position angle of color-selectedgalaxy subsamples to ``twist'' with increasing distance from the PPSplane is observed. These position angle distribution anisotropies areweak and are not consistent with any single primordial or modern-eragalaxy alignment mechanism, although a mixture of such mechanisms is notruled out.

Molecular gas in galaxies of Hickson compact groups
We have observed 70 galaxies belonging to 45 Hickson compact groups inthe \CO{1}{0} and \CO{2}{1} lines, in order to determine their molecularcontent. We detected 57 galaxies, corresponding to a detection rate of81%. We compare the gas content relative to blue and L_FIR luminositiesof galaxies in compact groups with respect to other samples in theliterature, including various environments and morphological types. Wefind that there is some hint of enhanced MH_2/L_B andM_dust/L_B ratios in the galaxies from compact group with respect to ourcontrol sample, especially for the most compact groups, suggesting thattidal interactions can drive the gas component inwards, by removing itsangular momentum, and concentrating it in the dense central regions,where it is easily detected. The molecular gas content in compact groupgalaxies is similar to that in pairs and starburst samples. However, thetotal L_FIR luminosity of HCGs is quite similar to that of the controlsample, and therefore the star formation efficiency appears lower thanin the control galaxies. However this assumes that the FIR spatialdistributions are similar in both samples which is not the case at radiofrequencies. Higher spatial resolution FIR data are needed to make avalid comparison. Given their short dynamical friction time-scale, it ispossible that some of these systems are in the final stage beforemerging, leading to ultra-luminous starburst phases. We also find forall galaxy samples that the H_2 content (derived from CO luminosity andnormalised to blue luminosity) is strongly correlated to the L_FIRluminosity, while the total gas content (H_2+HI) is not.

Observing Hickson galaxy groups.
Not Available

Far infrared properties of Hickson compact groups of galaxies. I. High resolution IRAS maps and fluxes.
The Far Infrared (FIR) properties of galaxies which are members ofcompact groups bear relevant information on the dynamical status and thephysical properties of these structures. All studies published so farhave been undermined by the poor sensitivity and spatial resolution ofthe IRAS-PSC and IRAS Sky Survey data. We used the HIRAS softwareavailable at the IRAS server at the Laboratory for Space Research inGroningen to fully exploit the redundancy of the IRAS data and toapproach the theoretical diffraction limit of IRAS. Among the 97 groupswhich were observed by IRAS, 62 were detected in at least one band,while reliable upper limits were derived for all the others. Among thedetected groups, 49 were fully or partially resolved, i.e. it waspossible to discriminate which member or members emit most of the FIRlight. At 60μm, for instance, 87 individual sources were detected in62 groups. In order to ease the comparison with data obtained at otherwavelengths - and in particular in the X and radio domains - we giveco-added and HIRAS maps for all the detected groups.

Radio properties of spiral galaxies in high-density groups
Radio-continuum observations with the Very Large Array (VLA) of 133spiral galaxies in 68 Hickson Compact Groups are used to investigatepossible enhancement of the effects of interactions among galaxies insuch high-density groups. In most of the 56 HCG spirals that weredetected the radio radiation is confined to slightly extended nuclearregions suggestive of starburst activity. It is found that the totalradio radiation from compact group spirals is significantly lower thanfrom a comparison sample of isolated spirals. However, the radioradiation from the nuclear regions is more than 10 times that fromcomparable regions in the comparison sample. This effect is moredominant in late-type spirals than it is in early-type spirals. Theobservations are interpreted in a scenario, suggested by numericalsimulation studies by a number of authors, in which galaxy interactionsare shown to cause both massive inflows of gas towards the centres ofgalaxies and outflows from the outer regions. The resultant starformation activity at the centre leads to the formation of supernovaeand the subsequent radio radiation. On the other hand, the outflow fromthe outer regions may be expected to remove the gas and magnetic fieldsfrom the disc, resulting in reduced disc radio emission. Observations ofgaseous and molecular line distributions may be expected to providekinematic information for modelling of specific interacting systems.

ROSAT observations of compact groups of galaxies
We have systematically analyzed a sample of 13 new and archival ROSATPosition Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) observations of compactgroups of galaxies: 12 Hickson compact groups plus the NCG 2300 group.We find that approximately two-thirds of the groups have extended X-rayemission and, in four of these, the emission is resolved into diffuseemission from gas at a temperature of kT approximately 1 keV in thegroup potential. All but one of the groups with extended emission have aspiral fraction of less than 50%. The baryon fraction of groups withdiffuse emission is 5%-19%, similar to the values in clusters ofgalaxies. However, with a single exception (HCG 62), the gas-to-stellarmass ratio in our groups has a median value near 5%, somewhat greaterthan the values for individual early-type galaxies and two orders ofmagnitude than in clusters of galaxies. The X-ray luminosities ofindividual group galaxies are comparable to those of similar fieldgalaxies, although the LX-LB relation forearly-type galaxies may be flatter in compact groups than in the field.

Morphology of galaxies in compact groups
We present the results of an isophotal analysis of 140 early-typegalaxies and a visual inspection of images of an additional 202 galaxiesin compact groups. This is essentially the entire sample of galaxies inthe subset of 92 Hickson compact groups which have at least threeaccordant members. About 12% of the elliptical galaxies have largercharacteristic radii and shallower surface brightness profiles thangalaxies of the same luminosity in less dense environments. The averageellipticity of elliptical galaxies in compact groups is a slowlyincreasing function of the metric radius, as it is for field andloose-group galaxies. No alignment is found among the major axes of thegalaxies and the major axis of the group. When combined with previouslypublished morphological, kinematic, radio, infrared, and colorinformation on the same galaxies, our data show that 43% of the galaxiesin the compact group sample show morphological and/or kinematicaldistortions indicative of interactions and/or mergers. About 32% of thegroups have three or more galaxies which show some sign of interaction.This is a lower limit, since for the great majority of the galaxies inthe groups, only imaging and low-resolution spectra are available. Forthe subsample of 16 groups for which published detailed kinematical dataare also available, the fraction of groups with three or more galaxiesin interaction is 75%. No correlation is found between the number ofinteracting galaxies in a group and the group velocity dispersion orcrossing time. These observations strongly support the view that compactgroups are systems of physically associated galaxies and not chancealignments of field, loose-group, or cluster galaxies. They also confirmthe importance of compact groups for studies of interactions and galaxyevolution. While the lack of a good control sample makes it difficult tomake quantitative comparisons for some aspects of this study, it isclear that the fraction of galaxies showing evidence of interactions ismuch higher in compact groups than in other environments.

A survey of the Pisces-Perseus supercluster. V - The declination strip +33.5 deg to +39.5 deg and the main supercluster ridge
Measurements of 544 radial velocities, 229 optical and 315 in the 21 cmH I line, are presented for galaxies, mostly in the declination stripbetween +33.5 and +39.5 deg in the region of the Pisces-Perseussupercluster. These are combined with other available data toinvestigate the linear structure identified as the main superclusterridge. The main ridge of the supercluster extends at least 50/h Mpcbefore it disappears into the zone of avoidance east of Perseus.Confinement both on the plane of the sky and in the velocity dimensionimply an axial ratio of greater than 10:1 and an inclination withrespect to the plane of the sky of less than about 12 degrees. Therelative proximity, low inclination to the plane of the sky, and highcontrast relative to the foreground and background, help to make thePisces-Perseus filament one of the most prominent features in theextragalactic sky on large scales.

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

Dynamical properties of compact groups of galaxies
Radial velocities are presented for 457 galaxies in the 100 Hicksoncompact groups. More than 84 percent of the galaxies measured havevelocities within 1000 km/s of the median velocity in the group.Ninety-two groups have at least three accordant members, and 69 groupshave at least four. The radial velocities of these groups range from1380 to 42,731 km/s with a median of 8889 km/s, corresponding to amedian distance of 89/h Mpc. The apparent space density of these systemsranges from 300 to as much as 10 exp 8 sq h/sq Mpc, which exceeds thedensities in the centers of rich clusters. The median projectedseparation between galaxies is 39/h kpc, comparable to the sizes of thegalaxies themselves. A significant correlation is found between crossingtime and the fraction of gas-rich galaxies in the groups, and a weakanticorrelation is found between crossing time and the luminositycontrast of the first-ranked galaxy.

Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members
This paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent.

Optical properties and dynamics of galaxies in the Hickson compact groups
The way in which galaxy properties in dense galaxy environments comparewith the properties isolated in the field is presently evaluated inlight of broadband R and H-alpha images, as well as H-alpha long-slitspectroscopy, for a set of galaxies (in 21 Hickson compact groups) whoseobserved velocity patterns range from too peculiar for rotation-curveformation, to abnormal, to normal. A surprisingly high correlation isnoted between absolute magnitude and (log) maximum rotation velocity,especially in the case of galaxies with normal rotation curves. Theseobservations support a model in which the compact-group galaxies haveonly recently accumulated from the general galaxy distribution, and inwhich tidal interactions are frequent and persisting.

Galaxies possibly resembling M82-type galaxies
A list of 298 galaxies with possible features of M82 galaxies ispresented. This list contains those Irr II candidates whose images onPalomar photographs shown no trace of dust although the objects are redand suspected to be peculiar.

A photometric catalog of compact groups of galaxies
The paper presents astrometry, photometry, and morphological types,derived from CCD images, for 463 galaxies in the 100 compact groupsselected by Hickson. Some minor revisions to the membership of theoriginal catalog are made, based on these new images. The completenessof the catalog is considered as a function of group magnitude andGalactic latitude. At high Galactic latitude the catalog is estimated tobe 90 percent complete for groups with total B(T) magnitude 13.0 orless. It is less complete at lower Galactic latitude because ofobscuration and high stellar density.

Determination of the relative spectrophotometric gradients of galaxies. IV
Relative spectrophotometric gradients of continua are determined for 195galaxies. The spectra have been obtained with the 70-cm meniscustelescope of the Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory using a 2-degpreobjective prism (the reverse linear dispersion was 1200 A/mm inH-gamma). The gradient values were reduced to the AO spectral class andcorrected for light absorption in the Galaxy.

Neutral hydrogen in compact groups of galaxies
Integrated H I profiles were detected for 34 of 51 Hickson compactgroups (HCGs) of galaxies, and sensitive upper limits to the H I fluxdensity were measured for the other 17. About 60 percent of the galaxieswithin compact groups are spirals, and a significant tendency exists forthe fraction of elliptical galaxies to increase with group surfacebrightness. The amount of dark matter within the compact group region isnegligibly small. An HCG on average contains half as much neutralhydrogen as a loose group with a similar spectrum of galaxy luminositiesand morphological types, implying that compact groups are independentdynamical entities and not transient or projected configurations ofloose groups. The observed fraction of galaxies which are luminousenough to be possible merger products of compact groups is smallcompared with the fraction required by the theory of dynamical friction.A clear discrepancy thus exists between solid empirical evidence and astraightforward prediction of Newtonian dynamical theory in a settingwhich does not permit a dark matter explanation.

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Right ascension:01h26m19.00s
Aparent dimensions:1.778′ × 0.447′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 531

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