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Photometry of the Globular Cluster NGC 5466: Red Giants and Blue Stragglers
We present wide-field BVI photometry for about 11,500 stars in thelow-metallicity cluster NGC 5466. We have detected the red giant branchbump for the first time, although it is at least 0.2 mag fainter thanexpected relative to the turnoff. The number of red giants (relative tomain-sequence turnoff stars) is in excellent agreement with stellarmodels from the Yonsei-Yale and Teramo groups, and slightly highcompared to Victoria-Regina models. This adds to evidence that anabnormally large ratio of red giant to main-sequence stars is notcorrelated with cluster metallicity. We discuss theoretical predictionsfrom different research groups and find that the inclusion or exclusionof helium diffusion and strong limit Coulomb interactions may be partlyresponsible. We also examine indicators of dynamical history: the massfunction exponent and the blue straggler frequency. NGC 5466 has a veryshallow mass function, consistent with large mass loss and recentlydiscovered tidal tails. The blue straggler sample is significantly morecentrally concentrated than the HB or RGB stars. We see no evidence ofan upturn in the blue straggler frequency at large distances from thecenter. Dynamical friction timescales indicate that the stragglersshould be more concentrated if the cluster's present density structurehas existed for most of its history. NGC 5466 also has an unusually lowcentral density compared to clusters of similar luminosity. In spite ofthis, the specific frequency of blue stragglers puts it right on thefrequency-cluster MV relation observed for other clusters.

A δ Scuti Distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud
We present results from a well-studied δ Scuti star discovered inthe Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The absolute magnitude of the variablewas determined from the period-luminosity (P-L) relation for Galacticδ Scuti stars and from theoretical modeling of the observed B,V,Ilight curves with nonlinear pulsation models. The two methods givedistance moduli for the LMC of 18.46+/-0.19 and 18.48+/-0.15,respectively, for a consistent value of the stellar reddening ofE(B-V)=0.08+/-0.02. We have also analyzed 24 δ Scuti candidatesdiscovered in the OGLE II survey of the LMC, and seven variablesidentified in the open cluster LW 55 and in the galaxy disk by Kaluznyand coworkers . We find that the LMC δ Scuti stars define a P-Lrelation whose slope is very similar to that defined by the Galacticδ Scuti variables, and yield a distance modulus for the LMC of18.50+/-0.22 mag. We compare the results obtained from the δ Scutivariables with those derived from the LMC RR Lyrae stars and Cepheids.The corresponding distance moduli are as follows: δ Scuti stars,18.48+/-0.02 mag (standard deviation of the weighted average of thethree above solutions); RR Lyrae stars, 18.49+/-0.06 mag; and Cepheids,18.53+/-0.02 mag. We have assumed an average color excess ofE(B-V)=0.08+/-0.02 mag for both δ Scuti stars and Cepheids. Withinthe observational uncertainties, the three groups of pulsating starsyield very similar distance moduli. These moduli are all consistent withthe ``long'' astronomical distance scale for the Large Magellanic Cloud.Based on data collected at the European Southern Observatory, proposalnumbers 62.N-0802 and 66.A-0485.

A Wide-Field Kinematic Survey for Tidal Tails around Five Globular Clusters
Using the AAOmega instrument of the Anglo-Australian Telescope, we haveobtained medium-resolution near-infrared spectra of 10,500 stars in2° fields centered on the galactic globular clusters 47 Tuc, NGC288, M12, M30, and M55. Radial velocities and equivalent widths of theinfrared Ca II triplet lines have been determined to constrain clustermembership, which in turn has been used to study the angular extent ofthe clusters. From the analysis of 140-1000 member stars in eachcluster, we do not find extended structures that go beyond the tidalradii. For three cluster we estimate a 1% upper limit of extratidal redgiant branch stars. We detect systemic rotation in 47 Tuc and M55.

The ACS Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. I. Overview and Clusters without Previous Hubble Space Telescope Photometry
We present the first results of a large Advanced Camera for Surveys(ACS) survey of Galactic globular clusters. This Hubble Space Telescope(HST) Treasury project is designed to obtain photometry with S/N(signal-to-noise ratio) >~10 for main-sequence stars with masses>~0.2 Msolar in a sample of globulars using the ACS WideField Channel. Here we focus on clusters without previous HST imagingdata. These include NGC 5466, NGC 6779, NGC 5053, NGC 6144, Palomar 2,E3, Lyngå 7, Palomar 1, and NGC 6366. Our color-magnitude diagrams(CMDs) extend reliably from the horizontal branch to as much as 7 magfainter than the main-sequence turnoff and represent the deepest CMDspublished to date for these clusters. Using fiducial sequences for threestandard clusters (M92, NGC 6752, and 47 Tuc) with well-knownmetallicities and distances, we perform main-sequence fitting on thetarget clusters in order to obtain estimates of their distances andreddenings. These comparisons, along with fitting the cluster mainsequences to theoretical isochrones, yield ages for the target clusters.We find that the majority of the clusters have ages that are consistentwith the standard clusters at their metallicities. The exceptions areE3, which appears ~2 Gyr younger than 47 Tuc, and Pal 1, which could beas much as 8 Gyr younger than 47 Tuc.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated byAURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555, under program GO-10775 (PI:A. Sarajedini).

New catalogue of blue stragglers in open clusters
We present a catalogue of blue-straggler candidates in galactic openclusters. It is based on the inspection of the colour-magnitude diagramsof the clusters, and it updates and supersedesthe first version(Ahumada & Lapasset 1995). A new bibliographical search was made foreach cluster, and the resulting information is organised into twotables. Some methodological aspects have been revised, in particularthose concerning the delimitation of the area in the diagrams where thestragglers are selected.A total of 1887 blue-straggler candidates have been found in 427 openclusters of all ages, doubling the original number. The catalogued starsare classified into two categories mainly according to membershipinformation.The whole catalogue (Tables 8, 9, notes, and references) is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/463/789

Discovery of a Tidal Stream Extending from NGC 5053
Here we report the discovery of a 6° tidal stream related to NGC5053 using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. A matched-filter analysishas been employed to optimize the contrast between the cluster andbackground noise. The stream of tidal debris associated with NGC 5053corresponds to a projected length of approximately 1.7 kpc at thecluster's distance. The tidal detection is also seen in photometric dataobtained at McDonald Observatory. Our result adds further observationalevidence that low-concentration clusters are more likely to exhibitstellar tidal extensions.

Atmospheres, Chemical Compositions, and Evolutionary Histories of Very Metal-Poor Red Horizontal-Branch Stars in the Galactic Field and in NGC 7078 (M15)
We have conducted spectrum analyses of 24 field metal-poor([Fe/H]<-2) red horizontal-branch (RHB) stars identified in the HKobjective-prism survey and 6 such stars in the globular cluster M15,based on high-quality spectra (R~40,000, S/N~100) obtained with theMagellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph at the Clay 6.5 mtelescope at Las Campanas Observatory. The atmospheric parameters of theRHB stars provide interesting bridges between turnoff stars of similartemperature and red giant branch (RGB) stars of similar gravity, andthey permit investigations of abundance trends [X/Fe] versus [Fe/H] in arelatively unexplored region of the temperature-gravity plane. We findthat the Teff, logg, vt, and [Fe/H] valuesdetermined from our spectra are consistent with expectations fromliterature spectroscopic studies of other evolved metal-poor stellarclasses. We show that the RHB stars have abundance distributions thatare consistent with typical halo stars of similar metallicities. Thephotometric and spectroscopic gravities of the M15 stars differ byamounts that grow with declining temperature. We use a regressionderived from these differences to calculate photometric gravities forthe field RHB stars. Then we use the locations of the field RHB starsamong the evolutionary tracks of Cassisi et al. in the logg versuslogTeff plane to estimate their masses and lifetimes as RHBstars. We use these lifetimes to estimate the size of the metal-poor HBpopulation from which they arise. Then, using counts of HB and RGB starsin metal-poor globular clusters, we conclude that the number ofmetal-poor RGB stars at high latitudes (|b|>30deg)brighter than V=15 exceeds those identified in extant objective-prismsurveys by more than an order of magnitude. Finally, we deduce theeffective temperature of the fundamental red edge of the metal-poor RRLyrae instability strip, logTeff(FRE)=3.80+/-0.01, from theinterface between the temperature distributions of metal-poor field RHBstars and the RR Lyrae stars of similar [Fe/H] in five metal-poorglobular clusters.This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All SkySurvey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts andthe Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute ofTechnology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administrationand the National Science Foundation. This paper includes data gatheredwith the 6.5 m Magellan telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory,Chile.

Globular cluster system and Milky Way properties revisited
Aims.Updated data of the 153 Galactic globular clusters are used toreaddress fundamental parameters of the Milky Way, such as the distanceof the Sun to the Galactic centre, the bulge and halo structuralparameters, and cluster destruction rates. Methods: .We build areduced sample that has been decontaminated of all the clusters youngerthan 10 Gyr and of those with retrograde orbits and/or evidence ofrelation to dwarf galaxies. The reduced sample contains 116 globularclusters that are tested for whether they were formed in the primordialcollapse. Results: .The 33 metal-rich globular clusters([Fe/H]≥-0.75) of the reduced sample basically extend to the Solarcircle and are distributed over a region with the projected axial-ratiostypical of an oblate spheroidal, Δ x:Δ y:Δz≈1.0:0.9:0.4. Those outside this region appear to be related toaccretion. The 81 metal-poor globular clusters span a nearly sphericalregion of axial-ratios ≈1.0:1.0:0.8 extending from the central partsto the outer halo, although several clusters in the external regionstill require detailed studies to unravel their origin as accretion orcollapse. A new estimate of the Sun's distance to the Galactic centre,based on the symmetries of the spatial distribution of 116 globularclusters, is provided with a considerably smaller uncertainty than inprevious determinations using globular clusters, R_O=7.2±0.3 kpc.The metal-rich and metal-poor radial-density distributions flatten forR_GC≤2 kpc and are represented well over the full Galactocentricdistance range both by a power-law with a core-like term andSérsic's law; at large distances they fall off as ˜R-3.9. Conclusions: .Both metallicity components appearto have a common origin that is different from that of the dark matterhalo. Structural similarities between the metal-rich and metal-poorradial distributions and the stellar halo are consistent with a scenariowhere part of the reduced sample was formed in the primordial collapseand part was accreted in an early period of merging. This applies to thebulge as well, suggesting an early merger affecting the central parts ofthe Galaxy. The present decontamination procedure is not sensitive toall accretions (especially prograde) during the first Gyr, since theobserved radial density profiles still preserve traces of the earliestmerger(s). We estimate that the present globular cluster populationcorresponds to ≤23±6% of the original one. The fact that thevolume-density radial distributions of the metal-rich and metal-poorglobular clusters of the reduced sample follow both a core-likepower-law, and Sérsic's law indicates that we are dealing withspheroidal subsystems at all scales.

RR Lyrae-based calibration of the Globular Cluster Luminosity Function
We test whether the peak absolute magnitude MV(TO) of theGlobular Cluster Luminosity Function (GCLF) can be used for reliableextragalactic distance determination. Starting with the luminosityfunction of the Galactic Globular Clusters listed in Harris catalogue,we determine MV(TO) either using current calibrations of theabsolute magnitude MV(RR) of RR Lyrae stars as a function ofthe cluster metal content [Fe/H] and adopting selected cluster samples.We show that the peak magnitude is slightly affected by the adoptedMV(RR)-[Fe/H] relation, with the exception of that based onthe revised Baade-Wesselink method, while it depends on the criteria toselect the cluster sample. Moreover, grouping the Galactic GlobularClusters by metallicity, we find that the metal-poor (MP) ([Fe/H]<-1.0, <[Fe/H]>~-1.6) sample shows peak magnitudes systematicallybrighter by about 0.36mag than those of the metal-rich (MR) ([Fe/H]>-1.0, (<[Fe/H]>~-0.6) one, in substantial agreement with thetheoretical metallicity effect suggested by synthetic Globular Clusterpopulations with constant age and mass function. Moving outside theMilky Way, we show that the peak magnitude of the MP clusters in M31appears to be consistent with that of Galactic clusters with similarmetallicity, once the same MV(RR)-[Fe/H] relation is used fordistance determination. As for the GCLFs in other external galaxies,using Surface Brightness Fluctuations (SBF) measurements we giveevidence that the luminosity functions of the blue (MP) GlobularClusters peak at the same luminosity within ~0.2mag, whereas for the red(MR) samples the agreement is within ~0.5mag even accounting for thetheoretical metallicity correction expected for clusters with similarages and mass distributions. Then, using the SBF absolute magnitudesprovided by a Cepheid distance scale calibrated on a fiducial distanceto Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we show that the MV(TO)value of the MP clusters in external galaxies is in excellent agreementwith the value of both Galactic and M31 ones, as inferred by an RR Lyraedistance scale referenced to the same LMC fiducial distance. Eventually,adopting μ0(LMC) = 18.50mag, we derive that the luminosityfunction of MP clusters in the Milky Way, M31, and external galaxiespeak at MV(TO) =-7.66 +/- 0.11, - 7.65 +/- 0.19 and -7.67 +/-0.23mag, respectively. This would suggest a value of -7.66 +/- 0.09mag(weighted mean), with any modification of the LMC distance modulusproducing a similar variation of the GCLF peak luminosity.

Distances and Galactic Kinematics of Two Blue Metal-poor Stars
We use an SX Phe period-luminosity relation to derive distance estimatesand Galactic kinematic parameters for the short-period pulsating bluemetal-poor stars CS 29499-057 and CS 22966-043. The resulting kinematicsare quite distinctive relative to the metal-poor halo field. Even thoughthese two field blue stragglers' binarity is consistent with the idea offormation in a mass transfer system, we speculate that these stars'origin instead lies in a Galactic merger or interaction with a dwarfgalaxy satellite, or in the merger of a stellar binary system. Theformer possibility is consistent with CS 22966-043's significant[α/Fe] deficiency. A non-mass-transfer origin for both binaries isalso consistent with (though not necessarily precluded by) the lack ofany significant s-process enhancement seen in either star, and the longorbital period of CS 29499-057 that may preclude a mass transfer origin.In an effort to determine distances to additional blue metal-poor stars,we have photometrically monitored CS 22890-069, CS 22872-062, and CS22884-065. However, the light curves of these three objects indicate noshort-period photometric variability at the level of a few hundredths ofa magnitude.

Homogeneous Photometry. V. The Globular Cluster NGC 4147
New BVRI broadband photometry and astrometry are presented for theglobular cluster NGC 4147, based upon measurements derived from 524ground-based CCD images mostly either donated by colleagues or retrievedfrom public archives. We have also reanalyzed five exposures of thecluster obtained with WFPC2 on the Hubble Space Telescope in the F439Wand F555W (B and V) filters. We present calibrated color-magnitude andcolor-color diagrams. Analysis of the color-magnitude diagram revealsmorphological properties generally consistent with publishedmetal-abundance estimates for the cluster, and an age typical of otherGalactic globular clusters of similar metallicity. We have alsoredetermined the periods and mean magnitudes for the RR Lyrae variables,including a new c-type variable reported here for the first time. Ourdata do not show clear evidence for photometric variability in candidateV18, recently reported by Arellano Ferro et al. (2004, Rev. Mex.A&A, 40, 209). These observations also support the nonvariablestatus of candidates V5, V9, and V15. The union of our light-curve datawith those of Newburn (1957, AJ, 62, 197), Mannino (1957, Mem. Soc.Astron. Italiana, 28, 285), and Arellano Ferro et al. (op. cit.) permitsthe derivation of significantly improved periods. The mean periods andthe Bailey period-amplitude diagrams support the classification of thecluster as Oosterhoff I, despite its predominantly blue horizontalbranch. The number ratio of c- to ab-type RR Lyrae stars, on the otherhand, is unusually high for an Oosterhoff I cluster. The calibratedresults have been made available through the first author's Web site.Based in part on archival observations made with ESO telescopes at theLa Silla and Paranal Observatory under program ID 60.A-9050(A).This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All SkySurvey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts andthe Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute ofTechnology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administrationand the National Science Foundation.

Resolved Massive Star Clusters in the Milky Way and Its Satellites: Brightness Profiles and a Catalog of Fundamental Parameters
We present a database of structural and dynamical properties for 153spatially resolved star clusters in the Milky Way, the Large and SmallMagellanic Clouds, and the Fornax dwarf spheroidal. This databasecomplements and extends others in the literature, such as those ofHarris and Mackey & Gilmore. Our cluster sample comprises 50 ``youngmassive clusters'' in the LMC and SMC, and 103 old globular clustersbetween the four galaxies. The parameters we list include central andhalf-light-averaged surface brightnesses and mass densities; core andeffective radii; central potentials, concentration parameters, and tidalradii; predicted central velocity dispersions and escape velocities;total luminosities, masses, and binding energies; central phase-spacedensities; half-mass relaxation times; and ``κ-space'' parameters.We use publicly available population-synthesis models to computestellar-population properties (intrinsic B-V colors, reddenings, andV-band mass-to-light ratios) for the same 153 clusters plus another 63globulars in the Milky Way. We also take velocity-dispersionmeasurements from the literature for a subset of 57 (mostly old)clusters to derive dynamical mass-to-light ratios for them, showing thatthese compare very well to the population-synthesis predictions. Thecombined data set is intended to serve as the basis for futureinvestigations of structural correlations and the fundamental plane ofmassive star clusters, including especially comparisons between thesystemic properties of young and old clusters.The structural and dynamical parameters are derived from fitting threedifferent models-the modified isothermal sphere of King; an alternatemodified isothermal sphere based on the ad hoc stellar distributionfunction of Wilson; and asymptotic power-law models withconstant-density cores-to the surface-brightness profile of eachcluster. Surface-brightness data for the LMC, SMC, and Fornax clustersare based in large part on the work of Mackey & Gilmore, but includesignificant supplementary data culled from the literature and importantcorrections to Mackey & Gilmore's V-band magnitude scale. Theprofiles of Galactic globular clusters are taken from Trager et al. Weaddress the question of which model fits each cluster best, finding inthe majority of cases that the Wilson models-which are spatially moreextended than King models but still include a finite, ``tidal'' cutoffin density-fit clusters of any age, in any galaxy, as well as or betterthan King models. Untruncated, asymptotic power laws often fit about aswell as Wilson models but can be significantly worse. We argue that theextended halos known to characterize many Magellanic Cloud clusters maybe examples of the generic envelope structure of self-gravitating starclusters, not just transient features associated strictly with youngage.

Galactic Globular Cluster Relative Ages
We present accurate relative ages for a sample of 55 Galactic globularclusters. The ages have been obtained by measuring the differencebetween the horizontal branch and the turnoff in two internallyphotometrically homogeneous databases. The mutual consistency of the twodata sets has been assessed by comparing the ages of 16 globularclusters in common between the two databases. We have also investigatedthe consistency of our relative age determination within the recentstellar model framework. All clusters with [Fe/H]<-1.7 are found tobe old and coeval, with the possible exception of two objects, which aremarginally younger. The age dispersion for the metal-poor clusters is0.6 Gyr (rms), consistent with a null age dispersion.Intermediate-metallicity clusters (-1.7<[Fe/H]<-0.8) are onaverage 1.5 Gyr younger than the metal-poor ones, with an age dispersionof 1.0 Gyr (rms) and a total age range of ~3 Gyr. About 15% of theintermediate-metallicity clusters are coeval with the oldest clusters.All the clusters with [Fe/H]>-0.8 are ~1 Gyr younger than the mostmetal-poor ones, with a relatively small age dispersion, although themetal-rich sample is still too small to allow firmer conclusions. Thereis no correlation of the cluster age with the galactocentric distance.We briefly discuss the implication of these observational results forthe formation history of the Galaxy.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555, and on observations made at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla, Chile, and with the Isaac Newton GroupTelescopes.

On the origin of the radial mass density profile of the Galactic halo globular cluster system
We investigate what may be the origin of the presently observed spatialdistribution of the mass of the Galactic Old Halo globular clustersystem. We propose its radial mass density profile to be a relic of thedistribution of the cold baryonic material in the protogalaxy. Assumingthat this one arises from the profile of the whole protogalaxy minus thecontribution of the dark matter (and a small contribution of the hot gasby which the protoglobular clouds were bound), we show that the massdistributions around the Galactic centre of this cold gas and of the OldHalo agree satisfactorily. In order to demonstrate our hypothesis evenmore conclusively, we simulate the evolution with time, up to an age of15Gyr, of a putative globular cluster system whose initial massdistribution in the Galactic halo follows the profile of the coldprotogalactic gas. We show that beyond a galactocentric distance oforder 2-3kpc, the initial shape of such a mass density profile ispreserved despite the complete destruction of some globular clusters andthe partial evaporation of some others. This result is almostindependent of the choice of the initial mass function for the globularclusters, which is still ill determined. The shape of these evolvedcluster system mass density profiles also agrees with the presentlyobserved profile of the Old Halo globular cluster system, thusstrengthening our hypothesis. Our result might suggest that theflattening shown by the Old Halo mass density profile at short distancesfrom the Galactic centre is, at least partly, of primordial origin.

Globular clusters and the formation of the outer Galactic halo
Globular clusters in the outer halo (Rgc > 15kpc) arefound to be systematically fainter than those at smaller Galactocentricdistances. Within the outer halo the compact clusters with half-lightradii Rh < 10pc are only found at Rgc <40kpc, while on the other hand the larger clusters with Rh> 10pc are encountered at all Galactocentric distances. Among thecompact clusters with Rh < 10pc that have Rgc> 15kpc, there are two objects with surprisingly high metallicities.One of these is Terzan 7, which is a companion of the Sagittarius dwarf.The other is Palomar 1. The data on these two objects suggests that theymight have had similar evolutionary histories. It is also noted that,with one exception, luminous globular clusters in the outer halo are allcompact whereas faint ones may have any radius. This also holds forglobular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud, Small Magellanic Cloudand Fornax dwarf. The lone exception is the large luminous globular NGC2419. Possibly this object is not a normal globular cluster, but thestripped core of a former dwarf spheroidal. In this respect it mayresemble ω Centauri.

Physical Characteristics of the RR Lyrae Stars in the Very Metal Poor Globular Cluster NGC 5053
The physical characteristics of the 10 RR Lyrae stars in the verymetal-poor globular cluster NGC 5053 are derived from photometry of~1000 B and V CCD frames acquired from 1994 to 2002 with the DominionAstrophysical Observatory 1.8 m Plaskett Telescope. Revised pulsationperiods and light curves, mean magnitudes, colors, amplitudes, andFourier parameters are presented. Periods accurate to<~10-5 days are now known for all 10 RR Lyrae stars. Usingtimes of maximum light dating back to Baade's original 1923-1927observations, period change rates, dP/dt, accurate to <~0.07 daysMyr-1, have been derived for the 10 stars. Seven stars haveincreasing periods, and three have decreasing periods, with theestimated period change rates for V1, V2, V9, and V10 being very closeto zero. The mean dP/dt is equal to 0.04+/-0.04 days Myr-1and is consistent with Lee's evolutionary model predictions for acluster with horizontal-branch type ~0.5. Mean B - V colors range from0.20 to 0.40 and are more consistent with near-zero reddening thanalternative higher estimates. A reddening EB-V=0.018+/-0.003is derived from the 1998 SFD maps. Mean effective temperatures vary from6040 K (V10) to 7290 K (V6), with 2.6<=logg<=3.1. Visual andbolometric absolute magnitudes, bolometric corrections, and luminositiesare derived using Fourier methods and using intensity- andmagnitude-averaged mean magnitudes. Mean locations of the stars in theH-R diagram tend to progress from hotter, lower L stars to cooler,higher L stars and are consistent with theoretical blue and red edges ofthe instability strip. Masses estimated assuming zero reddening andDorman's oxygen-enhanced models range from 0.68 Msolar(V6) to 0.78 Msolar (V10) for the 10 stars. The meanmetal abundance for NGC 5053 derived using the Jurcsik-Kovácsmethod lies significantly higher than the range -2.3 to -2.6 dexdetermined using other, more well established methods. This findingsupports recent suggestions that metallicities derived fromFourier-based [Fe/H] calibrations need to be revised downward by atleast 0.3 dex for RR Lyrae stars with very low metal abundances.

General Discussion II: On Current Stellar Models
Given the emphasis at this meeting on stellar models that treatdiffusive and deep-mixing processes, as well as on recent computationsfor the AGB phase, a panel of experts was organized to further discussthe comparisons between theory and observations, the limitations ofcurrent models, and anticipated future advances. G. Michaud providedfurther insights on which stars are expected to show the largestabundance anomalies due to gravitational settling and radiativeaccelerations, and on the role of turbulent mixing. A. Weiss emphasizedthe importance of fully understanding diffusive processes and ofinvestigating the still largely untested consequences of such processes(and deep mixing) for the late evolutionary phases of stars. S. Vauclairreported on the possible interaction between meridional circulationcurrents and diffusion, which could potentially explain why the observedabundance anomalies are less than those predicted by diffusive models.P. Denissenkov briefly reviewed several of the main problems that needto be solved in order to achieve an understanding of the observedabundances in giant stars, including the identification of the physicalmechanism of deep mixing and an understanding of how the rotationprofile in stars evolves. F. D'Antona outlined the reasons why shebelieves that massive AGB stars are the source of the material thatproduces the observed abundances in globular cluster stars (viapollution), including, in particular, the constraints provided by theobserved Li abundances. Finally, J. Lattanzio commented that deep mixingis likely restricted to the upper giant branch and that some kind ofprimordial mechanism must be found to explain the abundance anomalies inless evolved stars: he also reminded us of some difficulties with theAGB scenario. Short contributions from each of the above are included inthis paper.

Tracing the Sgr Stream with 2MASS. Detection of Stream stars around Outer Halo globular clusters
We use infrared Color Magnitude Diagrams from the 2-Micron All-SkySurvey (2MASS) to search for stars belonging to the tidal stream of theSagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr dSph) around selected Galacticglobular clusters. Statistically significant detections are presentedfor the cases of Pal 12 and NGC 4147, strongly supporting the idea thatthese clusters are associated with the Sgr Stream and that they wereprevious members of the Sgr dSph galaxy.This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All SkySurvey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts andthe Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute ofTechnology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administrationand the National Science Foundation.

Pixel lensing observations towards globular clusters
It has been suggested that a monitoring program employing the pixellensing method to search for microlensing events towards galacticglobular clusters may increase the statistics and discriminate amongdifferent halo models. Stimulated by this proposal, we evaluate an upperlimit to the pixel lensing event rate for such a survey. Four differentdark halo models have been considered changing both the flattening andthe slope of the mass density profile. The lens mass function has beenmodelled as a homogenous power - law for mu in (mul,muu) and both the mass limits and the slope of the massfunction have been varied to investigate their effect on the rate. Thetarget globular clusters have been selected in order to minimize thedisk contribution to the event rate. We find that a pixel lensing surveytowards globular clusters is unable to discriminate among different halomodels since the number of detectable events is too small to allow anyreliable statistical analysis.

Globular Clusters as Candidates for Gravitational Lenses to Explain Quasar-Galaxy Associations
We argue that globular clusters (GCs) are good candidates forgravitational lenses in explaining quasar-galaxy associations. Thecatalog of associations (Bukhmastova 2001) compiled from the LEDAcatalog of galaxies (Paturel 1997) and from the catalog of quasars(Veron-Cetty and Veron 1998) is used. Based on the new catalog, we showthat one might expect an increased number of GCs around irregulargalaxies of types 9 and 10 from the hypothesis that distant compactsources are gravitationally lensed by GCs in the halos of foregroundgalaxies. The King model is used to determine the central surfacedensities of 135 GCs in the Milky Way. The distribution of GCs incentral surface density was found to be lognormal.

A Globular Cluster Metallicity Scale Based on the Abundance of Fe II
Assuming that in the atmospheres of low-mass, metal-poor red giantstars, one-dimensional models based on local thermodynamic equilibriumaccurately predict the abundance of iron from Fe II, we derive aglobular cluster metallicity scale based on the equivalent widths of FeII lines measured from high-resolution spectra of giants in 16 keyclusters lying in the abundance range-2.4<[Fe/H]II<-0.7. We base the scale largely on theanalysis of spectra of 149 giant stars in 11 clusters by the Lick-Texasgroup supplemented by high-resolution studies of giants in five otherclusters. We also derive ab initio the true distance moduli for certainkey clusters (M5, M3, M13, M92, and M15) as a means of setting stellarsurface gravities. Allowances are made for changes in the abundancescale if one employs (1) Kurucz models with and without convectiveovershooting to represent giant star atmospheres in place of MARCSmodels and (2) the Houdashelt et al. color-temperature scale in place ofthe Alonso et al. scale.We find that [Fe/H]II is correlated linearly withW', the reduced strength of the near-infrared Ca II tripletdefined by Rutledge et al., although the actual correlation coefficientsdepend on the atmospheric model employed. The correlations, limited tothe range -2.4<[Fe/H]II<-0.7, are as follows:1.[Fe/H]II=0.531W'-3.279(MARCS),2.[Fe/H]II=0.537W'-3.225 (Kurucz withconvective overshooting),3.[Fe/H]II=0.562W'-3.329 (Kurucz withoutconvective overshooting).We also discuss how to estimate [X/Fe] ratios. We suggest that C, N, andO, as well as elements appearing in the spectrum in the singly ionizedstate, e.g., Ti, Sc, Ba, La, and Eu, should be normalized to theabundance of Fe II. Other elements, which appear mostly in the neutralstate, but for which the dominant species is nevertheless the ionizedstate, are probably best normalized to Fe I, but uncertainties remain.

Building Up the Globular Cluster System of the Milky Way: The Contribution of the Sagittarius Galaxy
We demonstrate that there is a clear statistical correlation between the(X,Y,Z,Vr) phase-space distribution of the outer haloGalactic globular clusters (having 10 kpc<=RGC<=40 kpc)and the orbital path of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (SgrdSph), as derived by Ibata & Lewis. At least four of the sample of35 globular clusters in this distance range were formerly members of theSagittarius galaxy (at the 95% confidence level) and are now distributedalong the Sagittarius Stream, a giant tidal structure that surrounds theMilky Way. This is the first instance that a statistically significantstructure associated with the Sgr dSph has been detected in the globularcluster population of the Galactic halo. Together with the fourwell-known globular clusters that are located near the center of thistidally disrupting dwarf galaxy, these clusters constitute >~20% ofthe population of outer halo (RGC>=10 kpc) clusters. TheSgr dSph was therefore not only an important contributor to the halofield-star population, but it also had a significant role in building upthe globular cluster system of the Milky Way.

On the reliability of the semi-empirical RR Lyrae period-V-band luminosity-blue amplitude relation
We investigate the accuracy and reliability of the semi-empiricalperiod-V-band luminosity-blue amplitude (PLA) relationship for ab-typeRR Lyrae stars originally obtained by Castellani and De Santis in themid-1990s. We infer that the zero-point of this relationship depends onthe metallicity, by studying a sample of both field and clustervariables. We also show that the use of this relationship can still beuseful for those stellar systems showing an intrinsic metallicityspread, since in this case the metallicity has a negligible effect onthe final distance modulus estimate. We compare the adoptedsemi-empirical relationship with the fully empirical one recentlyprovided by Kovács & Walker. When the zero-point of thelatter relation is fixed consistently with the former one, the twoequations are equivalent. By applying the semi-empirical period-V-bandluminosity-blue amplitude relation, as well as the technique proposedrecently by Cassisi, De Santis & Piersimoni, to the globular clusterω Cen, we show that the empirical slope of the relationshipbetween the mass of the fundamental RR Lyrae pulsators and theirmetallicity is in fair agreement with the one predicted by updatedevolutionary models for horizontal branch stars.

δ Scuti stars and their related objects
δ Scuti stars are a group of stars located on or a little abovethe main sequence of H-R diagram with spectral type from A3 to F5. Theyare low amplitude single or multi period pulsators with period shorterthan 0.3 d. Within the same area there are several groups of variablesor special stars correlated with them, e.g., Dwarf Cepheids, γ Dorvariables, Blue Stragglers, Am stars, Ap stars, ROAp variables, λBoo variables and δ Del variables. In this paper a general reviewin this field, including the number of new variables discovered after1995, is presented. The most reliable period variation rates for all thehigh amplitude variables and several low amplitude variables are listed.Statistic shows the higher the rotation rate v sin i is, the lower thelight variation amplitude is. Thus within young open clusters highamplitude variables cannot be found. The amplitudes-periods distributionhave 3 peaks with the highest of 1.0 mag in V at 0.17 d in period. Forδ Scuti variables in stellar systems the shorter the averageperiod is, the lower the metallicity and the older the age of thestellar system are.

Does the mixing length parameter depend on metallicity?. Further tests of evolutionary sequences using homogeneous databases
This paper is a further step in the investigation of the morphology ofthe color-magnitude diagram of Galactic globular clusters, and thefine-tuning of theoretical models, made possible by the recentobservational efforts to build homogeneous photometric databases. Inparticular, we examine here the calibration of the morphologicalparameter WHB vs. metallicity, originally proposed by Brocatoet al. (\cite{brocatoEtal98}; B98), which essentially measures the colorposition of the red-giant branch. We show that the parameter can be usedto have a first-order estimate of the cluster metallicity, since thedispersion around the mean trend with [Fe/H] is compatible with themeasurement errors. The tight WHB-[Fe/H] relation is thenused to show that variations in helium content or age do not affect theparameter, whereas it is strongly influenced by the mixing-lengthparameter alpha (as expected). This fact allows us, for the first time,to state that there is no trend of alpha with the metal content of acluster. A thorough examination of the interrelated questions of thealpha -elements enhancement and the color-Tefftransformations, highlights that there is an urgent need for anindependent assessment of which of the two presently acceptedmetallicity scales is the true indicator of a cluster's iron content.Whatever scenario is adopted, it also appears that a deep revision ofthe V-I-temperature relations is needed.

An Aligned Stream of Low-Metallicity Clusters in the Halo of the Milky Way
One of the long-standing problems in modern astronomy is the curiousdivision of Galactic globular clusters, the ``Oosterhoff dichotomy,''according to the properties of their RR Lyrae stars. Here, we find thatmost of the lowest metallicity ([Fe/H] 〈 -2.0) clusters, whichare essential to an understanding of this phenomenon, display a planaralignment in the outer halo. This alignment, combined with evidence fromkinematics and stellar population, indicates a captured origin from asatellite galaxy. We show that, together with the horizontal-branchevolutionary effect, the factor producing the dichotomy could be a smalltime gap between the cluster-formation epochs in the Milky Way and thesatellite. The results oppose the traditional view that themetal-poorest clusters represent the indigenous and oldest population ofthe Galaxy.

Homogeneous age dating of 55 Galactic globular clusters. Clues to the Galaxy formation mechanisms
We present homogeneous age determinations for a large sample of 55Galactic globular clusters, which constitute about 30% of the totalGalactic population. A study of their age distribution reveals that allclusters from the most metal poor ones up to intermediate metallicitiesare coeval, whereas at higher [Fe/H] an age spread exists, together withan age-metallicity relationship. At the same time, all clusters within acertain galactocentric distance appear coeval, whereas an age spread ispresent further away from the Galactic centre, without any correlationwith distance. The precise value of [Fe/H] and galactocentric distancefor the onset of the age spread and the slope of the age-metallicityrelationship are strongly affected by the as yet uncertain [Fe/H] scale.We discuss how differences in the adopted [Fe/H] scale and clustersample size may explain discrepant results about the clusters agedistribution reached by different authors. Taking advantage of the largenumber of objects included in our sample, we also tested the possibilitythat age is the global second parameter which determines the HorizontalBranch morphology, and found indications that age could explain theglobal behaviour of the second parameter effect.

On the Distribution of Orbital Poles of Milky Way Satellites
In numerous studies of the outer Galactic halo some evidence foraccretion has been found. If the outer halo did form in part or whollythrough merger events, we might expect to find coherent streams of starsand globular clusters following orbits similar to those of their parentobjects, which are assumed to be present or former Milky Way dwarfsatellite galaxies. We present a study of this phenomenon by assessingthe likelihood of potential descendant ``dynamical families'' in theouter halo. We conduct two analyses: one that involves a statisticalanalysis of the spatial distribution of all known Galactic dwarfsatellite galaxies (DSGs) and globular clusters, and a second, morespecific analysis of those globular clusters and DSGs for which fullphase space dynamical data exist. In both cases our methodology isappropriate only to members of descendant dynamical families that retainnearly aligned orbital poles today. Since the Sagittarius dwarf (Sgr) isconsidered a paradigm for the type of merger/tidal interaction event forwhich we are searching, we also undertake a case study of the Sgr systemand identify several globular clusters that may be members of itsextended dynamical family. In our first analysis, the distribution ofpossible orbital poles for the entire sample of outer(Rgc>8 kpc) halo globular clusters is tested forstatistically significant associations among globular clusters and DSGs.Our methodology for identifying possible associations is similar to thatused by Lynden-Bell & Lynden-Bell, but we put the associations on amore statistical foundation. Moreover, we study the degree of possibledynamical clustering among various interesting ensembles of globularclusters and satellite galaxies. Among the ensembles studied, we findthe globular cluster subpopulation with the highest statisticallikelihood of association with one or more of the Galactic DSGs to bethe distant, outer halo (Rgc>25 kpc), second-parameterglobular clusters. The results of our orbital pole analysis aresupported by the great circle cell count methodology of Johnston,Hernquist, & Bolte. The space motions of the clusters Pal 4, NGC6229, NGC 7006, and Pyxis are predicted to be among those most likely toshow the clusters to be following stream orbits, since these clustersare responsible for the majority of the statistical significance of theassociation between outer halo, second-parameter globular clusters andthe Milky Way DSGs. In our second analysis, we study the orbits of the41 globular clusters and six Milky Way-bound DSGs having measured propermotions to look for objects with both coplanar orbits and similarangular momenta. Unfortunately, the majority of globular clusters withmeasured proper motions are inner halo clusters that are less likely toretain memory of their original orbit. Although four potential globularcluster/DSG associations are found, we believe three of theseassociations involving inner halo clusters to be coincidental. While thepresent sample of objects with complete dynamical data is small and doesnot include many of the globular clusters that are more likely to havebeen captured by the Milky Way, the methodology we adopt will becomeincreasingly powerful as more proper motions are measured for distantGalactic satellites and globular clusters, and especially as resultsfrom the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) become available.

A Survey of Proper-Motion Stars. XIV. Spectroscopic Binaries among Metal-poor Field Blue Stragglers
We summarize the results from a program of monitoring the radialvelocities of 10 metal-poor, high-velocity field stars whose colors are0.01 to 0.13 mag bluer than main-sequence turnoffs ofcomparable-metallicity globular clusters. Two of the candidate halo bluestragglers (BD +72 94 and BD +40 1166) show no signs of velocityvariability, one (HD 84937) shows only weak signs of variability, one(BD +25 1981) appears to be a very long-period binary, and six (BD -122669, HD 97916, HD 106516, BD +51 1817, G66-30, and G202-65) aresingle-lined spectroscopic binaries, with periods ranging from 167 to844 days. Velocity coverage for the four candidates without orbitalsolutions ranges from 15.9 to 19.0 years. The orbital eccentricities areall low, e<0.30 and =0.11. Five of the six binary orbitshave very low eccentricities, with =0.07. We have reanalyzedthe velocity data from Preston & Sneden and have derived orbitalsolutions similar to theirs for 10 of the spectroscopic binaries amongtheir ``blue metal-poor'' stars with [Fe/H]<=-0.6. We confirm theirconclusion that the binary frequency is high; we find 47+/-10% if weinclude only the definite binaries with [Fe/H]<=-0.6. Our orbitalsolutions for the seven binaries with periods longer than 20 days allhave low eccentricities, with e<=0.26 and =0.11. Theseorbital characteristics are very similar to the Ba II, CH, subgiant CH,and dwarf carbon stars, suggesting that mass transfer has been involvedin their formation. Of the five binary stars in our program withpublished abundances of lithium, all have been found to be deficient(and one in beryllium as well). In contrast, two of the three apparentlysingle stars have published lithium abundances and show no deficiency.The mass functions for the six binaries in our program and seven similarsystems studied by Preston & Sneden are consistent with their unseencompanions all being white dwarfs with M~0.55 Msolar andrandom orbital inclinations. Taking all of our observations and those ofothers together, we argue that the results are consistent with all fieldblue stragglers being binary systems with long periods and loweccentricities, the primary stars being deficient in lithium and thesecondary stars being normal-mass white dwarfs. All these properties aresuggestive of a blue-straggler formation model that involves masstransfer. For six of the 13 stars in the two programs for whichs-process elemental abundances are available, no signs of enhancementare discernible, suggesting that the donor star was a first-ascent redgiant. For the star with the longest orbital period (1307 days), CS22956-028, s-process abundance enhancements have been reported. Thisstar may be a precursor to the subgiant CH class, as suggested by Luck& Bond. Some of the results presented here used observations madewith the Multiple Mirror Telescope, a joint facility of the SmithsonianInstitution and the University of Arizona.

Variable Stars in Galactic Globular Clusters
Based on a search of the literature up to 2001 May, the number of knownvariable stars in Galactic globular clusters is approximately 3000. Ofthese, more than 2200 have known periods and the majority (approximately1800) are of the RR Lyrae type. In addition to the RR Lyrae population,there are approximately 100 eclipsing binaries, 120 SX Phoenicisvariables, 60 Cepheids (including Population II Cepheids, anomalousCepheids and RV Tauri), and 120 SR/red variables. The mean period of thefundamental mode RR Lyrae variables is 0.585 days, for the overtonevariables it is 0.342 days (0.349 days for the first-overtone pulsatorsand 0.296 days for the second-overtone pulsators) and approximately 30%are overtone pulsators. These numbers indicate that about 65% of RRLyrae variables in Galactic globular clusters belong to Oosterhoff typeI systems. The mean period of the RR Lyrae variables in the Oosterhofftype I clusters seems to be correlated with metal abundance in the sensethat the periods are longer in the more metal poor clusters. Such acorrelation does not exist for the Oosterhoff type II clusters. Most ofthe Cepheids are in clusters with blue horizontal branches.

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Constellation:Coma Berenices
Right ascension:13h16m26.98s
Apparent magnitude:9.8

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