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Recent discoveries of bright supernovae at the Bronberg Observatory.
Not Available

Supernova 2006di in NGC 439
IAUC 8726 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Circular-Aperture Photometry
We present R-band CCD photometry for 1332 early-type galaxies, observedas part of the ENEAR survey of peculiar motions using early-typegalaxies in the nearby universe. Circular apertures are used to tracethe surface brightness profiles, which are then fitted by atwo-component bulge-disk model. From the fits, we obtain the structuralparameters required to estimate galaxy distances using theDn-σ and fundamental plane relations. We find thatabout 12% of the galaxies are well represented by a pure r1/4law, while 87% are best fitted by a two-component model. There are 356repeated observations of 257 galaxies obtained during different runsthat are used to derive statistical corrections and bring the data to acommon system. We also use these repeated observations to estimate ourinternal errors. The accuracy of our measurements are tested by thecomparison of 354 galaxies in common with other authors. Typical errorsin our measurements are 0.011 dex for logDn, 0.064 dex forlogre, 0.086 mag arcsec-2 for<μe>, and 0.09 for mRC,comparable to those estimated by other authors. The photometric datareported here represent one of the largest high-quality and uniformall-sky samples currently available for early-type galaxies in thenearby universe, especially suitable for peculiar motion studies.Based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO),National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF);European Southern Observatory (ESO); Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(FLWO); and the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

Line-strength indices and velocity dispersions for 148 early-type galaxies in different environments
We have derived high quality line-strength indices and velocitydispersions for a sample of 148 early-type galaxies in differentenvironments. The wavelength region covered by the observations (lambda=~ 4600 to 6600 Å) includes the Lick/IDS indices Hβ,Mg1, Mg2, Mgb, Fe5015, Fe5270, Fe5335, Fe5406,Fe5709, Fe5782, NaD, TiO1 and TiO2. The data areintended to address possible differences of the stellar populations ofearly-type galaxies in low- and high-density environments. This paperdescribes the sample properties, explains the data reduction andpresents the complete list of all the measurements. Most galaxies of thesample (85%) had no previous measurements of any Lick/IDS indices andfor 30% of the galaxies we present first-time determinations of theirvelocity dispersions. Special care is taken to identify galaxies withemission lines. We found that 62 per cent of the galaxies in the samplehave emission lines, as measured by the equivalent width of the [OIII]5007Å line, EW[OIII] > 0.3 Å. Tables 5 and 6 are onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/ A+A/395/431. They are also available via ftp atftp.mpe.mpg.de in the directory people/dthomas/Beuing02 or via WWW atftp://ftp.mpe.mpg.de/people/dthomas/Beuing02.

A catalogue and analysis of X-ray luminosities of early-type galaxies
We present a catalogue of X-ray luminosities for 401 early-typegalaxies, of which 136 are based on newly analysed ROSAT PSPC pointedobservations. The remaining luminosities are taken from the literatureand converted to a common energy band, spectral model and distancescale. Using this sample we fit the LX:LB relationfor early-type galaxies and find a best-fit slope for the catalogue of~2.2. We demonstrate the influence of group-dominant galaxies on the fitand present evidence that the relation is not well modelled by a singlepower-law fit. We also derive estimates of the contribution to galaxyX-ray luminosities from discrete-sources and conclude that they provideLdscr/LB~=29.5ergs-1LBsolar-1. Wecompare this result with luminosities from our catalogue. Lastly, weexamine the influence of environment on galaxy X-ray luminosity and onthe form of the LX:LB relation. We conclude thatalthough environment undoubtedly affects the X-ray properties ofindividual galaxies, particularly those in the centres of groups andclusters, it does not change the nature of whole populations.

ROSAT-HRI observations of six southern galaxy pairs
We present the detailed analysis of the X-ray data for 6 pairs, isolatedor in poor groups, observed at high resolution with the ROSAT HRI . Inall cases, the stronger X-ray source is associated with the brighterearly-type member and is extended. The extent varies from galactic togroup scale, from 3 (RR 210b) to 182 kpc( RR 22a). The fainter membersare detected only in two pairs, RR 210 and RR 259. Except for one case,no significant substructures have been detected in the X-ray maps,possibly also as a consequence of the poor statistics. The core radii ofthe X-ray surface brightness profiles are in the range 1-3 kpc. Thedistribution of the luminosities of galaxies in pairs encompasses a verywide range of both luminosities and LX / LBratios, in spite of the very small number of objects studied so far. Ourdata provide no evidence that pair membership affects the X-rayproperties of galaxies. Observation are discussed in the context of thepair/group evolution.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

A model of a steadily rotating prolate galaxy in Newtonian theory
A model of a prolate galaxy in constructed within the framework ofNewtonian theory of gravity. The model consists of a centralperfect-fluid gravitating prolate spheroid rotating steadily about itsaxis of symmetry and two galaxies of equal masses, which are situated onthe prolate spheroid's axis of symmetry and at equal distances from itscentre on either of its sides. It is shown that for physicallyacceptable ranges of the values of the masses of the two companiongalaxies and of their distances from the prolate spheroid's centre sucha model is possible in Newtonian theory. The astrophysical significanceof the model is discussed as well as the fact that its existence can beverified observationally.

X-ray luminosities for a magnitude-limited sample of early-type galaxies from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey
For a magnitude-limited optical sample (B_T <= 13.5 mag) ofearly-type galaxies, we have derived X-ray luminosities from the ROSATAll-Sky Survey. The results are 101 detections and 192 useful upperlimits in the range from 10^36 to 10^44 erg s^-1. For most of thegalaxies no X-ray data have been available until now. On the basis ofthis sample with its full sky coverage, we find no galaxy with anunusually low flux from discrete emitters. Below log (L_B) ~ 9.2L_⊗ the X-ray emission is compatible with being entirely due todiscrete sources. Above log (L_B) ~ 11.2 L_osolar no galaxy with onlydiscrete emission is found. We further confirm earlier findings that L_xis strongly correlated with L_B. Over the entire data range the slope isfound to be 2.23 (+/- 0.12). We also find a luminosity dependence ofthis correlation. Below log L_x = 40.5 erg s^-1 it is consistent with aslope of 1, as expected from discrete emission. Above this value theslope is close to 2, as expected from gaseous emission. Comparing thedistribution of X-ray luminosities with the models of Ciotti et al.leads to the conclusion that the vast majority of early-type galaxiesare in the wind or outflow phase. Some of the galaxies may have alreadyexperienced the transition to the inflow phase. They show X-rayluminosities in excess of the value predicted by cooling flow modelswith the largest plausible standard supernova rates. A possibleexplanation for these super X-ray-luminous galaxies is suggested by thesmooth transition in the L_x--L_B plane from galaxies to clusters ofgalaxies. Gas connected to the group environment might cause the X-rayoverluminosity.

Accurate Positions for MCG Galaxies
We have measured accurate celestial coordinates for 4741 extragalacticobjects, primarily drawn from a list of MCG galaxies with no recentlypublished accurate positions. The standard deviations in the newpositions depend slightly on the measurement method but are on the orderof 1.0" to 1.2". Standard deviations in the original MCG positions areconfirmed to be at the 1.5′-2.0′ level. These new positionswere integrated into NED in 1997 December.

The Durham/UKST Galaxy Redshift Survey - V. The catalogue
We present the radial velocities and blue, optical magnitudes for all ofthe galaxies within the Durham/UKST Galaxy Redshift Survey. Thiscatalogue consists of ~2500 galaxy redshifts to a limiting apparentmagnitude of B_J⋍17 mag, covering a ~1500-deg^2 area around theSouth Galactic Pole. The galaxies in this survey were selected from theEdinburgh/Durham Southern Galaxy Catalogue and were sampled, in order ofapparent magnitude, at a rate of one galaxy in every three. Thespectroscopy was performed at the 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope inAustralia using the FLAIR multi-object spectrograph. We show that ourradial velocity measurements made with this instrument have an empiricalaccuracy of +/-150 km s^-1. The observational techniques and datareduction procedures used in the construction of this survey are alsodiscussed. This survey demonstrates that the UKST can be used to make athree-dimensional map of the large-scale galaxy distribution, via aredshift survey to b_J⋍17 mag, over a wide area of the sky.

The Southern Sky Redshift Survey
We report redshifts, magnitudes, and morphological classifications for5369 galaxies with m_B <= 15.5 and for 57 galaxies fainter than thislimit, in two regions covering a total of 1.70 sr in the southerncelestial hemisphere. The galaxy catalog is drawn primarily from thelist of nonstellar objects identified in the Hubble Space TelescopeGuide Star Catalog (GSC). The galaxies have positions accurate to ~1"and magnitudes with an rms scatter of ~0.3 mag. We compute magnitudes(m_SSRS2) from the relation between instrumental GSC magnitudes and thephotometry by Lauberts & Valentijn. From a comparison with CCDphotometry, we find that our system is homogeneous across the sky andcorresponds to magnitudes measured at the isophotal level ~26 magarcsec^-2. The precision of the radial velocities is ~40 km s^-1, andthe redshift survey is more than 99% complete to the m_SSRS2 = 15.5 maglimit. This sample is in the direction opposite that of the CfA2; incombination the two surveys provide an important database for studies ofthe properties of galaxies and their large-scale distribution in thenearby universe. Based on observations obtained at Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories,operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation;Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between theConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile, partially under the bilateral ESO-ObservatórioNacional agreement; Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory;Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil; and the SouthAfrican Astronomical Observatory.

Properties of Very Luminous Galaxies
Recent analysis of the data from the Southern Sky Redshift Surveyextension (SSRS2) based on cell counts and the two-point correlationfunction has shown that very luminous galaxies are much more stronglyclustered than fainter galaxies. In fact, the amplitude of thecorrelation function of very luminous galaxies (L > L^*)asymptotically approaches that of R >= 0 clusters. In this paper weinvestigate the properties of the most luminous galaxies, with blueabsolute magnitudes M_B <= -21. We find that (1) the population mixis comparable to that in other ranges of absolute magnitude; (2) only asmall fraction are located in bona fide clusters; (3) the brightgalaxy-cluster cross-correlation function is significantly higher onlarge scales than that measured for fainter galaxies; (4) thecorrelation length of galaxies brighter than M_B ~ -20.0, expressed as afunction of the mean interparticle distance, appears to follow theuniversal dimensionless correlation function found for clusters andradio galaxies; (5) a large fraction of the bright galaxies are ininteracting pairs, while others show evidence for tidal distortions andsome appear to be surrounded by faint satellite galaxies. We concludethat very luminous optical galaxies differ from the normal population ofgalaxies in both clustering and other respects. We speculate that thispopulation is a highly biased tracer of mass, being associated with darkhalos with masses more comparable to clusters than to typical loosegroups.

A catalogue of Mg_2 indices of galaxies and globular clusters
We present a catalogue of published absorption-line Mg_2 indices ofgalaxies and globular clusters. The catalogue is maintained up-to-datein the HYPERCAT database. The measurements are listed together with thereferences to the articles where the data were published. A codeddescription of the observations is provided. The catalogue gathers 3541measurements for 1491 objects (galaxies or globular clusters) from 55datasets. Compiled raw data for 1060 galaxies are zero-point correctedand transformed to a homogeneous system. Tables 1, 3, and 4 areavailable in electronic form only at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymousftp Table 2 is available both in text and electronic form.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

A catalogue of spatially resolved kinematics of galaxies: Bibliography
We present a catalogue of galaxies for which spatially resolved data ontheir internal kinematics have been published; there is no a priorirestriction regarding their morphological type. The catalogue lists thereferences to the articles where the data are published, as well as acoded description of these data: observed emission or absorption lines,velocity or velocity dispersion, radial profile or 2D field, positionangle. Tables 1, 2, and 3 are proposed in electronic form only, and areavailable from the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (to130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Spectro-photometric evolution of elliptical galaxies. III. Infall models with gradients in mass density and star formation
In this study we present a simple model of elliptical galaxies aimed atinterpreting the gradients in colours and narrow band indices observedacross these systems. Salient features of the model are the gradients inmass density and star formation and infall of primordial gas aimed atsimulating the collapse of a galaxy into the potential well of darkmatter. Adopting a multi-zone model we follow in detail the history ofstar formation, gas consumption, and chemical enrichment of the galaxyand also allow for the occurrence of galactic winds according to theclassical supernova (and stellar winds) energy deposit. The outline ofthe model, the time scale of gas accretion and rate of star formation asa function of the galacto-centric distance in particular, seek toclosely mimic the results from Tree-SPH dynamical models. Although somespecific ingredients of the model can be questioned from many points ofview (of which we are well aware), the model has to be considered as agross tool for exploring the consequences of different recipes of gasaccretion and star formation in which the simple one-zone scheme isabandoned. With the aid of this model we discuss the observational dataon the gradients in metallicity, colours, and narrow band indices acrosselliptical galaxies. Tables~4 and 6 are only available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( via http:// cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Tidal Effects on Rotating Gaseous Ellipsoids Revolving around a Central Massive Object
A computationally integrable set of ordinary differential equations isderived for a gaseous ellipsoid of uniform density orbiting in thegravitational potential of an extended massive object (represented bythe logarithmic potential). Numerical integrations can be conducted inthe same mathematical exactitude as in the classical theory of ahomogeneous liquid ellipsoid in equilibrium. First, we obtain a seriesof equilibrium figures moving in a circular orbit and analyze theirlinear and nonlinear stability. The gaseous ellipsoids that areelongated toward the center are not realized within a critical radialdistance from the extended massive object, whereas those elongated alongthe circular orbit are distributed in the full range of the radialdistance. Then we consider the cases of a noncircular orbit around thecenter and examine the time-dependent tidal effects on the ellipsoid. Noequilibrium figure exists, but excited nonlinear oscillation anddisruption are numerically followed. The spin angular momentum of theellipsoid is also shown to change rapidly at its pericenter passage whenthe tidal effect is strongest. When the angular momentum increasesconsiderably, the ellipsoid is shown to elongate extremely and suffertidal disruption. The condition for such tidal disruption is extensivelyexamined. The results are applied to the apparent alignment of galaxiesgathering densely around the central dominant object of a rich clusterof galaxies.

The Iron Discrepancy in Elliptical Galaxies after ASCA
We present estimates for the iron content of the stellar and diffusedcomponents of elliptical galaxies, as derived respectively fromintegrated optical spectra and from ASCA X-ray observations. Amacroscopic discrepancy emerges between the expected iron abundances inthe hot interstellar medium (ISM) and what is indicated by the X-rayobservations, especially when allowance is made for the current ironenrichment by Type Ia supernovae. This strong discrepancy, that in someextreme instances may be as large as a factor of ~20, calls intoquestion our current understanding of supernova enrichment and chemicalevolution of galaxies. We discuss several astrophysical implications ofthe inferred low iron abundances in the ISM, including the chemicalevolution of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, the evolution of gasflows in elliptical galaxies, and the heating of the intraclustermedium. Some of the consequences appear hard to accept, and in theattempt to avoid some of the difficulties we explore ways of hiding ordiluting iron in the ISM of ellipticals. None of these possibilitiesappears astrophysically plausible, and we alternatively raise thequestion of the reliability of iron L line diagnostic tools that arecurrently used to infer abundances from X-ray spectra. Variousthin-plasma emission models are shown to give iron abundances that maydiffer significantly, especially at low temperatures (kT <~ 1 keV),when the iron L complex is dominated by iron ions with still many boundelectrons. From a collection of ASCA and other X-ray observatory data,it is shown that current thin-plasma codes tend to give very low ironabundances when the temperature of the objects is below ~1 keV. Suchobjects include various types of binary stars, supernova remnants,starburst galaxies, and AGNs, with the case of galaxy groups beingespecially well documented. We conclude that, besides rethinking thechemical evolution of galaxies, one should also consider the possibilitythat existing thin-plasma models may incorporate inaccurate atomicphysics for the ions responsible for the iron L complex.

Candidates for a southern extension of the Karachentsev catalogue of isolated pairs of galaxies.
Not Available

Total and effective colors of 501 galaxies in the Cousins VRI photometric system
Total color indices (V-R)T, (V-I)T and effectivecolor indices (V-R)e, (V-I)e in the Cousins VRIphotometric system are presented for 501 mostly normal galaxies. Thecolors are computed using a procedure outlined in the Third ReferenceCatalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) whereby standard color curvesapproximated by Laplace-Gauss integrals are fitted to observedphotoelectric multiaperture photometry. 11 sources of such photometrywere used for our analysis, each source being assigned an appropriateweight according to a rigorous analysis of residuals of the data fromthe best-fitting standard color curves. Together with the integrated B-Vand U-B colors provided in RC3, our analysis widens the range ofwavelength of homogeneously defined colors of normal galaxies of allHubble types. We present color-color and color-type relations that canbe modeled to understand the star formation history of galaxies.

Dynamics and Stellar Populations in Early Type Galaxies
Optical multiband CCD photometry and multiposition CCD long-slitspectroscopy are presented for the five early-type galaxies NGC 439, NGC2434, NGC 3706, NGC 6407 and NGC 7192. Light and morphological profiles,rotation velocity and velocity dispersion profiles, as well as Mg_2_ and(Fe) line-strength radial profiles are reported. In some cases themeasurements extend beyond two effective radii. Peculiar core kinematicsare detected in NGC 2434 and NGC 7192, in which the innermost nuclearregions counter-rotate with respect to the main galactic bulk.Corresponding with the kinematically decoupled core, an enhancement inthe Mg_2_ index is observed. A much weaker signature of enhancement withrespect to the galactic bulk is found in the corresponding (Fe)profiles. Should this phenomenon turn out to be common, it might be atleast partly responsible for the relatively shallow slope in the(Fe)-Mg_2_ plane shown by galactic nuclei compared to that traced withingalaxies. Under the assumption of axisymmetry, the Jeans equations ofstellar equilibrium have been solved to model the dynamical state ofeach galaxy. In some objects there is evidence for the presence of asignificantly massive and extended dark halo (in some cases, even moreflattened than the luminous galaxy). The dependence of the localmetallicity (as traced by the Mg_2_ index) on physical parameters thatpossibly influence the local chemical enrichment has been investigated.In particular, a local dependence of the metallicity on the escapevelocity from the potential well has been found (supporting previousresults); however, the spread in the local relationship hints at otherphysical parameters, in addition to the local potential, affecting themetallicity distribution within galaxies. The Mg_2_ index is found tocorrelate with the local stellar density ρ (as described by the Rsurface brightness) rescaled by the total galactic mass M, i.e. withρM^2^. The slope of such a correlation within individual galaxiesseems consistent with the average relationship derived by Bender,Burstein & Faber for galactic nuclei. A significant spread, reducedwhen the dark component is added to the scaling mass, is, however,present in the relationship. Part of such a scatter might arise from aresidual dependence on the galactic size, possibly incompletelyaccounted for with the M^2^ dependence.

Alignment and Morphology of Elliptical Galaxies - the Influence of the Cluster Tidal Field
We investigate two possible effects of the tidal field induced by aspherical cluster on its elliptical galaxy members: the modification ofthe ellipticity of a spherical galaxy and the isophotal alignment in thecluster radial direction of a misaligned prolate galaxy. NumericalN-body simulations have been performed for radial and circular galacticorbits. The properties of the stars zero-velocity surfaces in theperturbed galaxy are explored briefly, and the adiabaticity of thegalaxy to the external field is discussed. For a choice of parameterscharacteristic of rich clusters, we find that the induced ellipticity ona spherical galaxy is below or close to the detectability level. But wefind that the tidal torque can result in significant isophotal alignmentof the galaxy's major axis with the cluster radial direction if thegalaxy is outside the cluster core radius. The time required for thealignment is very short compared with the Hubble time. A significantincrease in the ellipticity of the outer isophotes of the prolate modelis also found, but with no observable isophotal twisting. Our mainprediction is an alignment segregation of the elliptical galaxypopulation according to whether their orbits lie mostly outside orinside the cluster core radius. These results also suggest that galacticalignment in rich clusters is not incompatible with a bottom-up galaxyformation scenario.

UBVRI photoelectric photometry of bright southern early-type galaxies
UBVRI multi-aperture photometry of 207 bright southern galaxies and of72 objects of an additional list is presented. These observations weremade for obtaining the magnitude scale zero-point as an accuratedetermination of the sky background for a two-dimensional photometryprogram concerning these galaxies. We have also inferred the asymptoticmagnitudes, color indices and effective apertures of these objects. Ourresults are in good agreement with those of others authors.

Interstellar matter in early-type galaxies. II - The relationship between gaseous components and galaxy types
Interstellar components of early-type galaxies are established bygalactic type and luminosity in order to search for relationshipsbetween the different interstellar components and to test thepredictions of theoretical models. Some of the data include observationsof neutral hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and radio continuum emission. Analternative distance model which yields LX varies as LB2.45,a relation which is in conflict with simple cooling flow models, isdiscussed. The dispersion of the X-ray luminosity about this regressionline is unlikely to result from stripping. The striking lack of clearcorrelations between hot and cold interstellar components, takentogether with their morphologies, suggests that the cold gas is a diskphenomenon while the hot gas is a bulge phenomenon, with littleinteraction between the two. The progression of galaxy type from E to Sais not only a sequence of decreasing stellar bulge-to-disk ratio, butalso of hot-to-cold-gas ratio.

Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members
This paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent.

Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. I - Grouping hierarchical method and statistical properties
An all-sky sample of 4143 galaxies comprising all the objects with anapparent diameter D(25) larger than 100 arcsec and with recessionvelocities smaller than 6000 km/s (i.e., closer than 80 Mpc) wasanalyzed using a hierarchical algorithm similar to Tully's (1987)algorithm, in order to classify the galaxies into groups defined asentities having an average luminosity density higher than 8 x 10 exp 9solar luminosity in the B band/Mpc cubed. The hierarchy is built on themass density of the aggregates progressively formed by the method,corrected for the loss of faint galaxies with the distance. In this way,264 groups of at least three members were identified, among which 82have more than five members and are located at distances lower than 40Mpc. It was found that (1) almost all the crossing times are lower thanH0 exp -1, confirming the bound nature of the groups; (2) themedian virial mass to blue luminosity ratio of the groups is 74 solarmass per solar luminosity in the B band; and (3) the M/L ratio increaseswith the group size, indicating the presence of dark matter aroundgalaxies to a distance of 500 kpc.

Southern Sky Redshift Survey - The catalog
The catalog of radial velocities for galaxies which comprise thediameter-limited sample of the Southern Sky Redshift Survey ispresented. It consolidates the data of observations carried out at theLas Campanas Observatory, Observatorio Nacional, and South AfricanAstronomical Observatory. The criteria used for the sample selection aredescribed, as well as the observational procedures and the techniqueutilized to obtain the final radial velocities. The intercomparisonbetween radial velocity measurements from different telescopes indicatesthat the final data base is fairly homogeneous with a typical error ofabout 40 km/s. The sample is at present 90 percent complete, and themissing galaxies are predominantly objects with very low surfacebrightness for which it is very difficult to obtain optical redshifts.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:01h13m47.20s
Aparent dimensions:3.09′ × 1.95′

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 439

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