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|A Chandra observation of the X-ray environment and jet of 3C 31|
We have used a deep Chandra observation of the central regions of thetwin-jet Fanaroff-Riley class I (FRI) radio galaxy 3C 31 to resolve thethermal X-ray emission in the central few kpc of the host galaxy, NGC383, where the jets are thought to be decelerating rapidly. This allowsus to make high-precision measurements of the density, temperature andpressure distributions in this region, and to show that the X-rayemitting gas in the centre of the galaxy has a cooling time of only5×107yr. In a companion paper, these measurements areused to place constraints on models of the jet dynamics. A previouslyunknown one-sided X-ray jet in 3C 31, extending up to 8arcsec from thenucleus, is detected and resolved. Its structure and steep X-rayspectrum are similar to those of X-ray jets known in other FRI sources,and we attribute the radiation to synchrotron emission from ahigh-energy population of electrons. In situ particle acceleration isrequired in the region of the jet where bulk deceleration is takingplace. We also present X-ray spectra and luminosities of the galaxies inthe Arp 331 chain of which NGC 383 is a member. The spectrum and spatialproperties of the nearby bright X-ray source 1E 0104+3153 are used toargue that the soft X-ray emission is mostly due to a foreground groupof galaxies rather than to the background broad absorption-line quasar.
|X-ray luminosities of galaxies in groups|
We have derived the X-ray luminosities of a sample of galaxies ingroups, making careful allowance for contaminating intragroup emission.The LX:LB and LX:LFIRrelations of spiral galaxies in groups appear to be indistinguishablefrom those in other environments, however the elliptical galaxies fallinto two distinct classes. The first class is central-dominant groupgalaxies, which are very X-ray luminous and may be the focus of groupcooling flows. All other early-type galaxies in groups belong to thesecond class, which populates an almost constant band ofLX/LB over the range9.8
|A Test for Large-Scale Systematic Errors in Maps of Galactic Reddening|
Accurate maps of Galactic reddening are important for a number ofapplications, such as mapping the peculiar velocity field in the nearbyuniverse. Of particular concern are systematic errors which vary slowlyas a function of position on the sky, as these would induce spuriousbulk flow. We have compared the reddenings of Burstein & Heiles (BH)and those of Schlegel, Finkbeiner, & Davis (SFD) to independentestimates of the reddening, for Galactic latitudes |b|>10^deg. Ourprimary source of Galactic reddening estimates comes from comparing thedifference between the observed B-V colors of early-type galaxies, andthe predicted B-V color determined from the B-V-Mg_2 relation. We havefitted a dipole to the residuals in order to look for large-scalesystematic deviations. There is marginal evidence for a dipolar residualin the comparison between the SFD maps and the observed early-typegalaxy reddenings. If this is due to an error in the SFD maps, then itcan be corrected with a small (13%) multiplicative dipole term. Weargue, however, that this difference is more likely to be due to a small(0.01 mag) systematic error in the measured B-V colors of the early-typegalaxies. This interpretation is supported by a smaller, independentdata set (globular cluster and RR Lyrae stars), which yields a resultinconsistent with the early-type galaxy residual dipole. BH reddeningsare found to have no significant systematic residuals, apart from theknown problem in the region 230^deg
|Stellar population of ellipticals in different environments: near-infrared spectroscopic observations|
Near-infrared spectra of 50 elliptical galaxies in the Pisces, Abell2199 and 2634 clusters, and in the general field, have been obtained.The strength of the CO (2.3-mu m) absorption feature in these galaxiesis used to explore the presence of an intermediate-age population (e.g.asymptotic giant branch stars) in ellipticals in different environments.We find that the strongest evidence for such a population comes fromellipticals in groups of a few members, which we interpret as the resultof recent minor merging of these galaxies with later-type galaxies.Field galaxies from very isolated environments, on the other hand, showno evidence for young or intermediate-age stars as revealed by Hβand CO absorptions, and appear to form a very uniform, old populationwith very little scatter in metallicity and star formation history.
|Large Stellar Disks in Small Elliptical Galaxies|
We present stellar kinematics along the principal axes of sevenelliptical galaxies less luminous than M_B=-19.5, which extend beyondthe half-light radii for all systems in this photometrically selectedsample. At large radii, the kinematics not only confirm that rotationand ``diskiness'' are important in faint elliptical galaxies, as waspreviously known, but show that rotation dominates: the stars at largegalactocentric distances have (V/sigma)_max~2, similar to the disks inbona fide S0 galaxies. A comparison with published simulations ofdissipationless mergers is not straightforward. Yet, within R_e, theobserved galaxies seem to rotate somewhat faster than 3:1 mergerremnants, arguing against major mergers as the dominant mechanism in thefinal shaping of low-luminosity elliptical galaxies and favoring insteadthe dissipative formation of a disk.
|Old Stellar Populations. VI. Absorption-Line Spectra of Galaxy Nuclei and Globular Clusters|
We present absorption-line strengths on the Lick/IDS line-strengthsystem of 381 galaxies and 38 globular clusters in the 4000-6400Angstroms region. All galaxies were observed at Lick Observatory between1972 and 1984 with the Cassegrain Image Dissector Scanner spectrograph,which makes this study one of the largest homogeneous collections ofgalaxy spectral line data to date. We also present a catalog of nuclearvelocity dispersions used to correct the absorption-line strengths ontothe stellar Lick/IDS system. Extensive discussion of both random andsystematic errors of the Lick/IDS system is provided. Indices are seento fall into three families: alpha -element-like indices (including CN,Mg, Na D, and TiO2) that correlate positively with velocity dispersion;Fe-like indices (including Ca, the G band, TiO1, and all Fe indices)that correlate only weakly with velocity dispersion and the alphaindices; and H beta that anticorrelates with both velocity dispersionand the alpha indices. C24668 seems to be intermediate between the alphaand Fe groups. These groupings probably represent different elementabundance families with different nucleosynthesis histories.
|The Universality of the Fundamental Plane of E and S0 Galaxies: Spectroscopic Data|
We present central velocity dispersion measurements for 325 early-typegalaxies in eight clusters and groups of galaxies, including newobservations for 212 galaxies. The clusters and groups are the A262,A1367, Coma (A1656), A2634, Cancer, and Pegasus Clusters and the NGC 383and NGC 507 Groups. The new measurements were derived frommedium-dispersion spectra that cover 600 Å centered on the Mg I btriplet at lambda ~ 5175 Å. Velocity dispersions were measuredusing the Tonry & Davis cross-correlation method, with a typicalaccuracy of 6%. A detailed comparison with other data sources is made.
|The Universality of the Fundamental Plane of E and S0 Galaxies: Sample Definition and I-Band Photometric Data|
As part of a project to compare the fundamental plane and Tully-Fisherdistance scales, we present here I-band CCD photometry for 636early-type galaxies in eight clusters and groups of galaxies. These arethe A262, A1367, Coma (A1656), A2634, Cancer and Pegasus Clusters, andthe NGC 383 and NGC 507 Groups. Sample selection, cluster properties,and cluster membership assignment criteria are discussed. We presentphotometric parameters that are used in the fundamental plane relation,the effective radius r_e, and the effective surface brightness mu_e, asderived from a r^1/4 fit to the observed radial photometric profile ofeach galaxy. A comparison with similar data found in the literature forthe Coma Cluster shows that large systematic uncertainties can beintroduced in the measurement of r_e and mu_e by the particular methodused to derive those parameters. However, the particular combination ofthese two parameters that enters in the fundamental plane relation is aquantity that can be measured with high accuracy.
|A catalogue of Mg_2 indices of galaxies and globular clusters|
We present a catalogue of published absorption-line Mg_2 indices ofgalaxies and globular clusters. The catalogue is maintained up-to-datein the HYPERCAT database. The measurements are listed together with thereferences to the articles where the data were published. A codeddescription of the observations is provided. The catalogue gathers 3541measurements for 1491 objects (galaxies or globular clusters) from 55datasets. Compiled raw data for 1060 galaxies are zero-point correctedand transformed to a homogeneous system. Tables 1, 3, and 4 areavailable in electronic form only at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymousftp 22.214.171.124. Table 2 is available both in text and electronic form.
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|Galaxy clusters in the Perseus-Pisces region. I - Spectroscopic and photometric data for early-type galaxies|
We present new spectroscopic and photometric data for 137 early-typegalaxies in nine clusters and for a set of nearby standard galaxies. Ourspectroscopic data comprise radial velocities, central velocitydispersions, and magnesium line strength indices. We demonstrate thatour new velocity dispersion data can be brought into consistency withthe standard system, to an uncertainty of percent 0.01 dex. From R-bandCCD photometry, we derive the effective diameter, the mean surfacebrightness within the effective diameter, and an R-band diameterequivalent to the Dn parameter of Dressler et al. Internal comparisonsindicate an average error of 0.005 in each measurement of log Dn. Thephotometric data can be brought on to a system consistent with externaldata at the level of 0.5 per cent in distance.
|ROSAT observations of the radio galaxy 3C31:|
|Hot coronae in nearby radio galaxies.|
We present Rosat X-ray observations (with PSPC and HRI instruments) of asample of radio galaxies belonging to the B2 catalog (3C31, 0206+35,1113+29 and 1553+24). The source 3C31 (B2 0104+32) belongs to the groupArp 331 which shows emission from a diffuse hot intra-group gas and fromthe brightest members of the group. We discuss both the morphologicaland spectral features of this extended region deriving, in the frameworkof an isothermal beta model, the core radius, the central density, themass of the emitting material and gravitational mass, obtainingindications on the presence of dark matter. A comparison of X-ray andradio data shows that the thermal pressure of the external gas exceedsthe minimum pressure of the radio components, apart from the regionclose to the nucleus where the jet is over-pressured. The X-ray emissionfrom the single members of the group and from the other galaxies of thesample are consistent with a thermal spectrum originating from hothalos, which is a common feature in early type galaxies. We discuss themain morphological and physical properties of these coronae.Furthermore, using also the data of previous works, we confirm thestrong correlation between the X-ray and optical luminosities of allthese galaxies.
|Stellar population of elliptical galaxies in different environments: spectroscopic CO observations|
Near-infrared spectra of a sample of 21 elliptical galaxies in thePisces and Abell 2634 clusters and the general field have been obtained.The strengths of CO (2.3 μm) absorption features in these galaxiesare used to explore the presence of an intermediate-age population(e.g., asymptotic giant branch stars) in ellipticals in differentenvironments. The CO absorption features in the spectra of fieldellipticals are found to be stronger than those in clusters, withaverage indices of 0.247+/-0.018 and 0.218+/-0.018 respectively. The twodistributions are different at the 95 per cent confidence level.Differences in metallicities and absolute magnitudes among the field andcluster ellipticals cannot explain these observations. This isinterpreted as evidence for an intermediate-age stellar population inthe field galaxies, indicative of a more extended or recent epoch ofstar formation. The effect of CO indices on the scatter in the opticalD_n-sigma and L-sigma relations of ellipticals is explored, and thereare indications of a smaller intrinsic scatter in these relations forisolated galaxies compared to those in richer environments.
|Redshift and Optical Properties for S Statistically Complete Sample of Poor Galaxy Clusters|
From the poor cluster catalog of White et al. (1996), we define a sampleof 71 optically-selected poor galaxy clusters. The surface-densityenhancement we require for our clusters falls between that of the looseassociations of Turner & Gott [AJ, 91,204(1976)] and the Hicksoncompact groups [Hickson, ApJ, 255, 382(1982)]. We review the selectionbiases and determine the statistical completeness of the sample. Forthis sample, we report new velocity measurements made with the ARC 3.5-mDual-Imaging spectrograph and the 2.3-m Steward Observatory MX fiberspectrograph. Combining our own measurements with those from theliterature, we examine the velocity distributions, velocity dispersions,and ID velocity substructure for our poor cluster sample, and compareour results to other poor cluster samples. We find that approximatelyhalf of the sample may have significant ID velocity substructure. Theoptical morphology, large-scale environment, and velocity field of manyof these clusters are indicative of young, dynamically evolving systems.In future papers, we will use this sample to derive the poor clusterx-ray luminosity function and gas mass function, and will examine theoptical/x-ray properties of the clusters in more detail.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.|
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.
|A Catalog of Stellar Velocity Dispersions. II. 1994 Update|
A catalog of central velocity dispersion measurements is presented,current through 1993 September. The catalog includes 2474 measurementsof 1563 galaxies. A standard set of 86 galaxies is defined, consistingof galaxies with at least three reliable, concordant measurements. It issuggested that future studies observe some of these standard galaxies sothat different studies can be normalized to a consistent system. Allmeasurements are reduced to a normalized system using these standards.
|Determination of the relative spectrophotometric gradients of galaxies. IV|
Relative spectrophotometric gradients of continua are determined for 195galaxies. The spectra have been obtained with the 70-cm meniscustelescope of the Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory using a 2-degpreobjective prism (the reverse linear dispersion was 1200 A/mm inH-gamma). The gradient values were reduced to the AO spectral class andcorrected for light absorption in the Galaxy.
|Spectroscopy and photometry of elliptical galaxies. III - UBV aperture photometry, CCD photometry, and magnitude-related parameters|
Photoelectric aperture photometry of nearly 2000 individual observationsof 449 elliptical galaxies combined with published measurements usingthe self-consistent UVB color catalog developed by Burstein et al.(1987) are presented. The data are placed on a standard magnitude andcolor system, and 'total' magnitudes and effective diameters are derivedby comparison with the standard elliptical magnitude growth curve. Agraphical representation of the standard growth curve and the residualsfrom it for each galaxy are given, and a new diameter measurement Dn ispresented which can be measured reliably for elliptical galaxies andserves as an accurate distance indicator when combined with centralvelocity dispersion. Individual magnitudes, surface brightnesses,effective diameters, and values of Dn are summarized for each galaxy incatalog form.
|Spectroscopy and photometry of elliptical galaxies. II - The spectroscopic parameters|
Radial velocities, velocity dispersions, and Mg line-strength indicesare measured for 469 elliptical galaxies using four telescope/detectorconfigurations. The data have been put on a common scale; the scatter ofrepeat measurements indicates an uncertainty of + or - 10 percent and +or - 0.01 mag for single determinations of sigma and Mg2, respectively.A correction for the change in linear aperture size as a function ofdistance has been derived, and mean corrected values of sigma and Mg2are adopted. The galaxies have been assigned to groups by combining thepresent velocities with those in the redshift catalog of Huchra et al.(1983) and using the algorithm of Huchra and Geller (1982).
|A VLA 20 CM survey of poor groups of galaxies|
The paper reports on VLA 20 cm observations of an extensive sample ofgalaxies in 139 poor groups. These groups, composed of galaxies down tothe limit of the Zwicky et al. (CGCG) catalog, were chosen using apercolation algorithm set at a high surface-density threshold.Approximately 50 percent of the groups have measured redshifts. Thesegroups were surveyed using a 'snapshot' mode of the VLA with aresolution of about 13 arcsec. Analysis of the resulting radio andoptical properties reveals that the presence of a nearby companiongalaxy has an important role in generating radio emission in a galaxy.CCD observations of two radio-loud, disturbed galaxies with companionsare presented and are used to discuss models of radio-source production.Nine tailed radio galaxies are found in the poor groups, which is muchmore than had been expected from previous work on rich clusters and fromtheoretical models. The paper discusses previous statistical biases andproposes a method for bending head-tail sources in poor groups. From theconfinement of extended radio features associated with tailed sources,the presence of a substantial intracluster medium that should radiatesignificantly at soft-X-ray energies is predicted.
|Morphological study of galaxies with high surface brightness. II - Arakelian 26, 27, 28, 31, 32, and 79|
A morphological study of six high-surface-brightness galaxies wasperformed with the 2-m Ritchey-Chretien telescope of the BulgarianNational Astronomical Observatory (1 x 1 deg plates, a scale of 12.9arcsec/mm, and B color). Four isodensity curves are given for eachgalaxy. The morphological types are close to those determinedpreviously, but untypical features are observed in nearly all theobjects. This phenomenon is probably connected with another feature ofArakelian galaxies, i.e., the bulk of these galaxies show emission linesin their spectra.
|Radio continuum emission of nearby elliptical galaxies Statistical properties|
A sample of 123 elliptical galaxies is compiled from optically selectedsamples observed at 1.4 GHz with the Westerbork Synthesis RadioTelescope. The analysis of the sample properties confirms thecorrelation of the radio continuum emission with optical luminosity, gascontent and roundness, but no indications for the influence of theenvironment are found. These results are discussed in relation to thehypothesis that accretion of gas onto the galaxy center is responsiblefor the radio emission.
|Accurate Optical Positions of Arakelian Galaxies|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1981AJ.....86..820K&db_key=AST
|Galaxies of high surface brightness|
Two lists are presented which contain 621 galaxies whose surfacebrightness, as derived from their apparent magnitudes, is at least 22.0magnitudes from an area of 1 sq arcsec. The lists were compiled in anattempt to verify observationally a possible correlation between surfacebrightness and nuclear activity. Four percent of all the galaxies in anarea of 4.5 sr at declinations higher than -3 deg and galactic latitudesgreater than 20 deg are listed, including 30 Markarian, 29 Zwicky, and 7blue Haro galaxies. A morphological study of 130 of the galaxiesindicates that about half are elliptical or lenticular, 50 are compactor peculiar, and that there is an excess of elliptical and lenticularobjects in comparison with a random sample. Notes on the morphologicaltypes and colors of the galaxies are provided along with identificationcharts.
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