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Lifetime of nuclear velocity dispersion drops in barred galaxies
We have made hydro/N-body simulations with and without star formation toshed some light on the conditions under which a central kinematicallycold stellar component (characterized by a velocity dispersion drop orσ-drop) could be created in a hot medium (e.g. a bulge) andsurvive enough time to be observed. We found that the time-scale for aσ-drop formation could be short (less than 500 Myr), whereas itslifetime could be long (more than 1 Gyr) provided that the centralregion is continuously or regularly fed by fresh gas which leads to acontinuous star formation activity. Star formation in the centralregion, even at a low rate as 1Msolaryr-1, ismandatory to sustain a permanent σ-drop by replacing heatedparticles by new low-σ ones. We moreover show that as soon as starformation is switched off, the σ-drop begins to disappear.

Low-Luminosity Active Galaxies and Their Central Black Holes
Central black hole masses for 117 spiral galaxies representingmorphological stages S0/a through Sc and taken from the largespectroscopic survey of Ho et al. are derived using Ks-banddata from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Black hole masses are foundusing a calibrated black hole-Ks bulge luminosity relation,while bulge luminosities are measured by means of a two-dimensionalbulge-disk decomposition routine. The black hole masses are correlatedagainst a variety of parameters representing properties of the nucleusand host galaxy. Nuclear properties such as line width (FWHM [N II]), aswell as emission-line ratios (e.g., [O III]/Hβ, [O I]/Hα, [NII]/Hα, and [S II]/Hα), show a very high degree ofcorrelation with black hole mass. The excellent correlation with linewidth supports the view that the emission-line gas is in virialequilibrium with either the black hole or bulge potential. The very goodemission-line ratio correlations may indicate a change in ionizingcontinuum shape with black hole mass in the sense that more massiveblack holes generate harder spectra. Apart from theinclination-corrected rotational velocity, no excellent correlations arefound between black hole mass and host galaxy properties. Significantdifferences are found between the distributions of black hole masses inearly-, mid-, and late-type spiral galaxies (subsamples A, B, and C) inthe sense that early-type galaxies have preferentially larger centralblack holes, consistent with observations that Seyfert galaxies arefound preferentially in early-type systems. The line width distributionsshow a marked difference among subsamples A, B, and C in the sense thatearlier type galaxies have larger line widths. There are also cleardifferences in line ratios between subsamples A+B and C that likely arerelated to the level of ionization in the gas. Finally, aKs-band Simien & de Vaucouleurs diagram shows excellentagreement with the original B-band relation, although there is a largedispersion at a given morphological stage.

The Schmidt Law at High Molecular Densities
We combined Hα and recent high-resolution12CO(J=1‑0) data to consider the quantitative relationbetween the gas mass and the star-formation rate, or the so-calledSchmidt law in nearby spiral galaxies at regions of high moleculardensity. The relation between the gas quantity and the star-formationrate has not been previously studied for high-density regions, but usinghigh-resolution CO data obtained at the Nobeyama Millimeter Array, wefound that the Schmidt law is valid at densities as high as 103Modotpc-2 for sample spiral galaxies, which is anorder of magnitude denser than what has been known to be the maximumdensity at which the empirical law holds for non-starburst galaxies.Furthermore, we obtained a Schmidt law index of N = 1.33 ± 0.09and a roughly constant star-formation efficiency over the entire disk,even within several hundred parsecs of the nucleus. These results implythat the physics of star formation does not change in the centralregions of spiral galaxies. Comparisons with starburst galaxies are alsogiven. We find a possible discontinuity in the Schmidt law betweennormal and starburst galaxies.

Evidence of a Counterrotating Core in the Large Magellanic Cloud
Stellar radial velocity data in the central region of the LargeMagellanic Cloud (LMC) are used to estimate its radial velocity curvealong various position angles (P.A.'s), including the line of nodes(LON). The central part of the radial velocity profile, along the LON,shows a V-shaped profile-a clear indication of counterrotation. Thecounterrotating region and the secondary bar have similar location andP.A. The origin of the counterrotating core could be internal (asecondary bar) or external (accretion). To explain the observed velocityprofile, we propose the existence of two disks in the inner LMC, withone counterrotating. This two-disk model is found to match the H Ivelocities as well. Two disks with different LONs and velocity profilescan create regions that are kinematically and spatially separated. Theirpredicted locations are found to match the observed locations where theH I clouds are found to have two velocities.

The Distribution of Bar and Spiral Arm Strengths in Disk Galaxies
The distribution of bar strengths in disk galaxies is a fundamentalproperty of the galaxy population that has only begun to be explored. Wehave applied the bar-spiral separation method of Buta and coworkers toderive the distribution of maximum relative gravitational bar torques,Qb, for 147 spiral galaxies in the statistically well-definedOhio State University Bright Galaxy Survey (OSUBGS) sample. Our goal isto examine the properties of bars as independently as possible of theirassociated spirals. We find that the distribution of bar strengthdeclines smoothly with increasing Qb, with more than 40% ofthe sample having Qb<=0.1. In the context of recurrent barformation, this suggests that strongly barred states are relativelyshort-lived compared to weakly barred or nonbarred states. We do notfind compelling evidence for a bimodal distribution of bar strengths.Instead, the distribution is fairly smooth in the range0.0<=Qb<0.8. Our analysis also provides a first look atspiral strengths Qs in the OSUBGS sample, based on the sametorque indicator. We are able to verify a possible weak correlationbetween Qs and Qb, in the sense that galaxies withthe strongest bars tend to also have strong spirals.

Starbursting nuclear CO disks of early-type spiral galaxies
We have initiated the first CO interferometer survey of early-typespiral galaxies (S0-Sab). We observed five early-type spiral galaxieswith HII nuclei (indicating circumnuclear starburst activities). Theseobservations indicate gas masses for the central kiloparsec of 1{-}5%of the dynamical masses. Such low gas mass fractions suggest thatlarge-scale gravitational instability in the gas is unlikely to be thedriving cause for the starburst activities. We estimated Toomre Q valuesand found that these galaxies have Q>1 (mostly >3) within thecentral kiloparsec, indicating that the gas disks are globallygravitationally stable. From the brightness temperatures of the COemission we estimated the area filling factor of the gas disks withinthe central kiloparsec to be about 0.05. This small value indicates theexistence of lumpy structure, i.e. molecular clouds, in theglobally-gravitationally stable disks. The typical surface density ofthe molecular clouds is as high as 3000 {Mȯ} {pc}-2. In the light of these new observations, we reconsiderthe nature of the Toomre Q criterion, and conclude that the Toomre Qparameter from CO observations indicates neither star formation normolecular cloud formation. This argument should be valid not only forthe circumnuclear disks but also for any region in galactic disks. Wetentatively explore an alternative model as an initiating mechanism ofstar formation. Cloud-cloud collisions might account for the active starformation.

Bar-induced perturbation strengths of the galaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey - I
Bar-induced perturbation strengths are calculated for a well-definedmagnitude-limited sample of 180 spiral galaxies, based on the Ohio StateUniversity Bright Galaxy Survey. We use a gravitational torque method,the ratio of the maximal tangential force to the mean axisymmetricradial force, as a quantitative measure of the bar strength. Thegravitational potential is inferred from an H-band light distribution byassuming that the M/L ratio is constant throughout the disc. Galaxiesare deprojected using orientation parameters based on B-band images. Inorder to eliminate artificial stretching of the bulge, two-dimensionalbar-bulge-disc decomposition has been used to derive a reliable bulgemodel. This bulge model is subtracted from an image, the disc isdeprojected assuming it is thin, and then the bulge is added back byassuming that its mass distribution is spherically symmetric. We findthat removing the artificial bulge stretch is important especially forgalaxies having bars inside large bulges. We also find that the massesof the bulges can be significantly overestimated if bars are not takeninto account in the decomposition.Bars are identified using Fourier methods by requiring that the phasesof the main modes (m= 2, m= 4) are maintained nearly constant in the barregion. With such methods, bars are found in 65 per cent of the galaxiesin our sample, most of them being classified as SB-type systems in thenear-infrared by Eskridge and co-workers. We also suggest that as muchas ~70 per cent of the galaxies classified as SAB-types in thenear-infrared might actually be non-barred systems, many of them havingcentral ovals. It is also possible that a small fraction of the SAB-typegalaxies have weak non-classical bars with spiral-like morphologies.

Circumnuclear Structure and Black Hole Fueling: Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Imaging of 250 Active and Normal Galaxies
Why are the nuclei of some galaxies more active than others? If mostgalaxies harbor a central massive black hole, the main difference isprobably in how well it is fueled by its surroundings. We investigatethe hypothesis that such a difference can be seen in the detailedcircumnuclear morphologies of galaxies using several quantitativelydefined features, including bars, isophotal twists, boxy and diskyisophotes, and strong nonaxisymmetric features in unsharp-masked images.These diagnostics are applied to 250 high-resolution images of galaxycenters obtained in the near-infrared with NICMOS on the Hubble SpaceTelescope. To guard against the influence of possible biases andselection effects, we have carefully matched samples of Seyfert 1,Seyfert 2, LINER, starburst, and normal galaxies in their basicproperties, taking particular care to ensure that each was observed witha similar average scale (10-15 pc pixel-1). Severalmorphological differences among our five different spectroscopicclassifications emerge from the analysis. The H II/starburst galaxiesshow the strongest deviations from smooth elliptical isophotes, whilethe normal galaxies and LINERs have the least disturbed morphology. TheSeyfert 2s have significantly more twisted isophotes than any othercategory, and the early-type Seyfert 2s are significantly more disturbedthan the early-type Seyfert 1s. The morphological differences betweenSeyfert 1s and Seyfert 2s suggest that more is at work than simply theviewing angle of the central engine. They may correspond to differentevolutionary stages.

A Catalog of Neighboring Galaxies
We present an all-sky catalog of 451 nearby galaxies, each having anindividual distance estimate D<~10 Mpc or a radial velocityVLG<550 km s-1. The catalog contains data onbasic optical and H I properties of the galaxies, in particular, theirdiameters, absolute magnitudes, morphological types, circumnuclearregion types, optical and H I surface brightnesses, rotationalvelocities, and indicative mass-to-luminosity and H I mass-to-luminosityratios, as well as a so-called tidal index, which quantifies the galaxyenvironment. We expect the catalog completeness to be roughly 70%-80%within 8 Mpc. About 85% of the Local Volume population are dwarf (dIr,dIm, and dSph) galaxies with MB>-17.0, which contributeabout 4% to the local luminosity density, and roughly 10%-15% to thelocal H I mass density. The H I mass-to-luminosity and the H Imass-to-total (indicative) mass ratios increase systematically fromgiant galaxies toward dwarfs, reaching maximum values about 5 in solarunits for the most tiny objects. For the Local Volume disklike galaxies,their H I masses and angular momentum follow Zasov's linear relation,expected for rotating gaseous disks being near the threshold ofgravitational instability, favorable for active star formation. We foundthat the mean local luminosity density exceeds 1.7-2.0 times the globaldensity, in spite of the presence of the Tully void and the absence ofrich clusters in the Local Volume. The mean local H I density is 1.4times its ``global'' value derived from the H I Parkes Sky Survey.However, the mean local baryon densityΩb(<8Mpc)=2.3% consists of only a half of the globalbaryon density, Ωb=(4.7+/-0.6)% (Spergel et al.,published in 2003). The mean-square pairwise difference of radialvelocities is about 100 km s-1 for spatial separations within1 Mpc, increasing to ~300 km s-1 on a scale of ~3 Mpc. alsoWe calculated the integral area of the sky occupied by the neighboringgalaxies. Assuming the H I size of spiral and irregular galaxies to be2.5 times their standard optical diameter and ignoring any evolutioneffect, we obtain the expected number of the line-of-sight intersectionswith the H I galaxy images to be dn/dz~0.4, which does not contradictthe observed number of absorptions in QSO spectra.

Ionized gas and stellar kinematics of seventeen nearby spiral galaxies
Ionized gas and stellar kinematics have been measured along the majoraxes of seventeen nearby spiral galaxies of intermediate to latemorphological type. We discuss the properties of each sample galaxy,distinguishing between those characterized by regular or peculiarkinematics. In most of the observed galaxies, ionized gas rotates morerapidly than stars and has a lower velocity dispersion, as is to beexpected if the gas is confined in the disc and supported by rotationwhile the stars are mostly supported by dynamical pressure. In a fewobjects, gas and stars show almost the same rotational velocity and lowvelocity dispersion, suggesting that their motion is dominated byrotation. Incorporating the spiral galaxies studied by Bertola et al.(\cite{Bertola1996}), Corsini et al. (\cite{Corsini1999},\cite{Corsini2003}) and Vega Beltrán et al. (\cite{Vega2001}) wehave compiled a sample of 50 S0/a-Scd galaxies, for which the major-axiskinematics of the ionized gas and stars have been obtained with the samespatial (≈1'') and spectral (≈50 km;s-1) resolution,and measured with the same analysis techniques. This allowed us toaddress the frequency of counter-rotation in spiral galaxies. It turnsout that less than 12% and less than 8% (at the 95% confidence level) ofthe sample galaxies host a counter-rotating gaseous and stellar disc,respectively. The comparison with S0 galaxies suggests that theretrograde acquisition of small amounts of external gas gives rise tocounter-rotating gaseous discs only in gas-poor S0s, while in gas-richspirals the newly acquired gas is swept away by the pre-existing gas.Counter-rotating gaseous and stellar discs in spirals are formed onlyfrom the retrograde acquisition of large amounts of gas exceeding thatof pre-existing gas, and subsequent star formation, respectively.Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory,La Silla (Chile) (ESO 56.A-0684 and 57.A-0569).Tables 3 and 4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/424/447Full Fig. \ref{fig:kinematics} and Figs. \ref{fig:gascomparison} and\ref{fig:starcomparison} are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

The Hα galaxy survey. I. The galaxy sample, Hα narrow-band observations and star formation parameters for 334 galaxies
We discuss the selection and observations of a large sample of nearbygalaxies, which we are using to quantify the star formation activity inthe local Universe. The sample consists of 334 galaxies across allHubble types from S0/a to Im and with recession velocities of between 0and 3000 km s-1. The basic data for each galaxy are narrowband H\alpha +[NII] and R-band imaging, from which we derive starformation rates, H\alpha +[NII] equivalent widths and surfacebrightnesses, and R-band total magnitudes. A strong correlation is foundbetween total star formation rate and Hubble type, with the strongeststar formation in isolated galaxies occurring in Sc and Sbc types. Moresurprisingly, no significant trend is found between H\alpha +[NII]equivalent width and galaxy R-band luminosity. More detailed analyses ofthe data set presented here will be described in subsequent papers.Based on observations made with the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope operatedon the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the SpanishObservatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto deAstrofísica de Canarias.The full version of Table \ref{tab3} is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/414/23 Reduced image datafor this survey can be downloaded fromhttp://www.astro.livjm.ac.uk/HaGS/

Gas Content in Early Type Galaxies
The interstellar medium of early type galaxies has attracted a greatdeal of interest ever since Faber & Gallagher (1976) showed that aconsiderable amount of mass ejected by evolved stars could pile up overthe lifetime of the galaxy (10^8 - 10^9 M[ scriptstyle sun ]).Surprisingly though, high resolution and sensitive HI observationsdemonstrated that in general much less gas is detected and that most ofit seems to have been accreted (van Gorkom et al 1986; Wiklind &Henkel 1990). We have started a project, mapping a few early-typegalaxies in detail, in order to shed light on the origin of the ISM inthese objects.

CO (3-2) Observations of Early-Type Galaxies with the Heinrich Hertz Telescope
We present Heinrich Hertz Telescope CO (3-2) observations of a sample of10 early-type galaxies detected both in far-infrared (IRAS) and in CO(1-0). Six of the objects (i.e., 60% of the sample) were detected in theCO (3-2) transition. Comparison of the beam-matched CO (3-2)/CO (1-0)and CO (2-1)/CO (1-0) intensity ratios with simple large velocitygradient and photodissociation region models reveals that early-typeobjects can be broadly classified into two categories. The majority ofobjects have a molecular interstellar medium of moderate density(nH2<=1000 cm-3) and temperature(T<=30 K). Two objects, NGC 3593 and NGC 4691, show indications ofquite denser and warmer environments, as well as gradients in theirphysical properties, compatible with their classification as starbursts.The heating source of the molecular gas and dust in all the objects inour sample appears to be ongoing star formation.

The IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample
IRAS flux densities, redshifts, and infrared luminosities are reportedfor all sources identified in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample(RBGS), a complete flux-limited survey of all extragalactic objects withtotal 60 μm flux density greater than 5.24 Jy, covering the entiresky surveyed by IRAS at Galactic latitudes |b|>5°. The RBGS includes629 objects, with median and mean sample redshifts of 0.0082 and 0.0126,respectively, and a maximum redshift of 0.0876. The RBGS supersedes theprevious two-part IRAS Bright Galaxy Samples(BGS1+BGS2), which were compiled before the final(Pass 3) calibration of the IRAS Level 1 Archive in 1990 May. The RBGSalso makes use of more accurate and consistent automated methods tomeasure the flux of objects with extended emission. The RBGS contains 39objects that were not present in the BGS1+BGS2,and 28 objects from the BGS1+BGS2 have beendropped from RBGS because their revised 60 μm flux densities are notgreater than 5.24 Jy. Comparison of revised flux measurements forsources in both surveys shows that most flux differences are in therange ~5%-25%, although some faint sources at 12 and 25 μm differ byas much as a factor of 2. Basic properties of the RBGS sources aresummarized, including estimated total infrared luminosities, as well asupdates to cross identifications with sources from optical galaxycatalogs established using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Inaddition, an atlas of images from the Digitized Sky Survey with overlaysof the IRAS position uncertainty ellipse and annotated scale bars isprovided for ease in visualizing the optical morphology in context withthe angular and metric size of each object. The revised bolometricinfrared luminosity function, φ(Lir), forinfrared-bright galaxies in the local universe remains best fit by adouble power law, φ(L)~Lα, withα=-0.6(+/-0.1) and α=-2.2(+/-0.1) below and above the``characteristic'' infrared luminosityL*ir~1010.5Lsolar,respectively. A companion paper provides IRAS High Resolution (HIRES)processing of over 100 RBGS sources where improved spatial resolutionoften provides better IRAS source positions or allows for deconvolutionof close galaxy pairs.

The Role of Interactions in the Evolution of Highly Star-forming Early-Type (Sa-Sab) Spiral Galaxies
We present a search for the signatures of galaxy-galaxy interactions inthe neutral gas of early-type spirals. New neutral hydrogen observationsfor four highly star-forming early-type spirals are presented here,along with H I data for three additional galaxies from other sources. HI maps of six of seven galaxies reveal unambiguous signs of a recentencounter, via tidal tails and H I bridges. Most of these galaxiesappear undisturbed in the optical, and these interactions probably wouldhave gone unnoticed without H I mapping. Such high rates of interactionsuggest that galactic encounters may play an important role in theevolution of early-type spiral galaxies.

Molecular Gas in NUclei of GAlaxies (NUGA). I. The counter-rotating LINER NGC 4826
We present new high-resolution observations of the nucleus of thecounter-rotating LINER NGC 4826, made in the J=1-0 and J=2-1 lines of12CO with the IRAM Plateau de Buremm-interferometer(PdBI).The CO maps, which achieve 0.8arcsec (16 pc)resolution in the 2-1 line, fully resolve an inner molecular gas diskwhich is truncated at an outer radius of 700 pc. The total molecular gasmass (3.1*E8 Msun) is distributed in a lopsidednuclear disk of 40 pc radius, containing 15% of the total gas mass, andtwo one-arm spirals, which develop at different radii in the disk. Thedistribution and kinematics of molecular gas in the inner 1 kpc of NGC4826 show the prevalence of different types of m=1 perturbations in thegas. Although dominated by rotation, the gas kinematics are perturbed bystreaming motions related to the m=1 instabilities. The non-circularmotions associated with the inner m=1 perturbations (lopsidedinstability and inner one-arm spiral) agree qualitatively with thepattern expected for a trailing wave developed outside corotation(``fast'' wave). In contrast, the streaming motions in the outer m=1spiral are better explained by a ``slow'' wave. A paradoxicalconsequence is that the inner m=1 perturbations would not favour AGNfeeding. An independent confirmation that the AGN is not beinggenerously fueled at present is found in the low values of thegravitational torques exerted by the stellar potential for R<530 pc.The distribution of star formation in the disk of NGC 4826 is alsostrongly asymmetrical. The observed asymmetries, revealed by HST imagesof the inner disk, follow the scales of the various m=1 perturbationsidentified in the molecular gas disk. Massive star formation is stillvigorous, fed by the significant molecular gas reservoir at R<700 pc.There is supporting evidence for a recent large mass inflow episode inNGC 4826. The onset of m=1 instabilities of the type observed in NGC4826 may be a consequence of secular evolution of disks with high gasmass contents.These observations have been made in the context of the NUclei ofGAlaxies (NUGA) project, aimed at the study of the different mechanismsfor gas fueling of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN).Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de BureInterferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany)and IGN (Spain).

An Hα survey aiming at the detection of extraplanar diffuse ionized gas in halos of edge-on spiral galaxies. I. How common are gaseous halos among non-starburst galaxies?
In a series of two papers we present results of a new Hα imagingsurvey, aiming at the detection of extraplanar diffuse ionized gas inhalos of late-type spiral galaxies. We have investigated a sample of 74nearby edge-on spirals, covering the northern and southern hemisphere.In 30 galaxies we detected extraplanar diffuse emission at meandistances of |z| ~ 1-2 kpc. Individual filaments can be traced out to|z|<=6 kpc in a few cases. We find a good correlation between the FIRflux ratio (S60/S100) and the SFR per unit area(LFIR/D225), based on thedetections/non-detections. This is actually valid for starburst, normaland for quiescent galaxies. A minimal SFR per unit area for the lowestS60/S100 values, at which extended emission hasbeen detected, was derived, which amounts to dotEA25thres = (3.2+/-0.5)*E40ergs-1 kpc-2. There are galaxies where extraplanaremission was detected at smaller values ofLFIR/D225, however, only in combinationwith a significantly enhanced dust temperature. The results corroboratethe general view that the gaseous halos are a direct consequence of SFactivity in the underlying galactic disk.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory,Chile (ESO No. 63.N-0070, ESO No. 64.N-0034, ESO No. 65.N.-0002).

Dense Molecular Gas in Lenticular Galaxies
We made CO and HCN simultaneous observations of lenticular galaxies (NGC404, NGC 3593, and NGC 4293) and detected HCN emission in NGC 3593 andNGC 4293 as well as CO in all the galaxies. TheIHCN/ICO ratios were 0.025 +/- 0.006 and 0.066 +/-0.005 in NGC 3593 and NGC 4293, respectively, which are comparable tothat of late-type spiral galaxies. The average of the IHCN /ICO ratios at the center of 12 nearby spiral galaxiesincluding the late type was 0.055 +/- 0.028. The line profiles of CO andHCN emission showed different shape in both galaxies. The HCN peaks werenot at the systemic velocity of these galaxies, while the CO peaks werenear the systemic velocity. These results suggest that the fraction ofdense molecular gas is high around the center of these galaxies.

Diffuse and Gravitationally Stable Molecular Gas in the Post-Starburst Galaxy NGC 5195
The Nobeyama Millimeter Array (NMA) has been used to make aperturesynthesis CO(1 - 0) observations of the post-starburst galaxy NGC 5195.CO(1 - 0) and HCN(1 - 0) observations of NGC 5195 using the Nobeyama 45m telescope are also presented. High-resolution (1".9 × 1".8 or 86pc × 81 pc or D = 9.3 Mpc) NMA maps show a strong concentration ofCO emission toward the central a few × 100 pc region of NGC 5195,despite the fact that the current massive star formation is suppressedthere. The face-on gas surface density, Σgas, withinthe r < 2'' or 90pc region reaches 3.7 × 103pc-2 if a Galactic NH2/ICOconversion factor is applied. The extent of the central CO peak is about5'', or 230pc, and is elongated along the E-W direction with two-armedspiral-like structures, which are typical for barred disk galaxies. TheHCN-to-CO integrated intensity rat io on the brightness temperaturescale, RHCN/CO, is about 0.02 within the central r < 400pc region. This RHCN/CO is smaller than those in starburstregions by a factor of 5 - 15. These molecular-gas properties wouldexplain why NGC 5195 is in a post-starburst phase; most of the densemolecular cores (i.e., the very sites of massive star formation) havebeen consumed away by a past starburst event, and therefore a burst ofmassive star formation can no longer last, although a large amount oflow density gas still exists. We find a steep rise of the rotationvelocity toward the center of NGC 5195. As a consequence, the criticalgas surface density for a local gravitational instability of the gasdisk becomes very high Σcrit 6.9 × 103Modot pc-2), suggesting that the molecular gas in the centralregion of NGC 5195 is gravitationally stable! ! , in contrast to that ofstarburst galaxies. We propose that dense molecular gas can not beformed from remaining diffuse molecular gas because the molecular gas inthe center of NGC 5195 is too stable to form dense cores viagravitational instabilities of diffuse molecular gas. The deduced veryhigh threshold density seems to be due to a high mass concentration inNGC 5195. The known trends on the occurrence and luminosity of nuclearstar formation in early-type galaxies can be understood naturally if thehigh threshold density is characteristic for early-type galaxies.

Beyond the Bulge: A Fundamental Relation between Supermassive Black Holes and Dark Matter Halos
The possibility that the masses MBH of supermassive blackholes (SBHs) correlate with the total gravitational mass of their hostgalaxy, or the mass MDM of the dark matter halo in which theypresumably formed, is investigated using a sample of 16 spiral and 20elliptical galaxies. The bulge velocity dispersion σc,typically defined within an aperture of size R<~0.5 kpc, is found tocorrelate tightly with the galaxy's circular velocity vc, thelatter measured at distances from the Galactic center at which therotation curve is flat, R~20-80 kpc. By using the well-knownMBH-σc relation for SBHs and a prescriptionto relate vc to the mass of the dark matter haloMDM in a standard ΛCDM cosmology, the correlationbetween σc and vc is equivalent to onebetween MBH and MDM. Such a correlation is foundto be nonlinear, with the ratio MBH/MDM decreasingfrom 2×10-4 for MDM~1014Msolar to 10-5 for MDM~1012Msolar. Preliminary evidence suggests that halos of masssmaller than ~5×1011 Msolar are increasinglyless efficient at forming SBHs-perhaps even unable to form them.

Bar Galaxies and Their Environments
The prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment.

The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.

The Visibility of Galactic Bars and Spiral Structure at High Redshifts
We investigate the visibility of galactic bars and spiral structure inthe distant universe by artificially redshifting 101 B-band CCD imagesof local spiral galaxies from the Ohio State University Bright SpiralGalaxy Survey. These local galaxy images represent a much fairerstatistical baseline than the galaxy atlas images presented by Frei etal. in 1995, the most commonly used calibration sample for morphologicalwork at high redshifts. Our artificially redshifted images correspond toHubble Space Telescope I814-band observations of the localgalaxy sample seen at z=0.7, with integration times matching those ofboth the very deep northern Hubble Deep Field (HDF) data and the muchshallower HDF flanking field observations. The expected visibility ofgalactic bars is probed in two ways: (1) using traditional visualclassification and (2) by charting the changing shape of the galaxydistribution in ``Hubble space,'' a quantitative two-parameterdescription of galactic structure that maps closely onto Hubble'soriginal tuning fork. Both analyses suggest that over two-thirds ofstrongly barred luminous local spirals (i.e., objects classified as SBin the Third Reference Catalogue) would still be classified as stronglybarred at z=0.7 in the HDF data. Under the same conditions, most weaklybarred spirals (classified SAB in the Third Reference Catalogue) wouldbe classified as regular spirals. The corresponding visibility of spiralstructure is assessed visually, by comparing luminosity classificationsfor the artificially redshifted sample with the corresponding luminosityclassifications from the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog. We find that forexposure times similar to that of the HDF, spiral structure should bedetectable in most luminous (MB~M*) low-inclination spiralgalaxies at z=0.7 in which it is present. However, obvious spiralstructure is only detectable in ~30% of comparable galaxies in the HDFflanking field data using the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. Our studyof artificially redshifted local galaxy images suggests that, whenviewed at similar resolution, noise level, and redshift-correctedwavelength, barred spirals are less common at z~0.7 than they are atz=0.0, although more data are needed to definitively rule out thepossibility that cosmic variance is responsible for much of this effect.

The orthogonal gaseous kinematical decoupling in the Sa spiral NGC 2855
We present major and minor-axis kinematics of stars and ionized gas aswell as narrow and broad-band surface photometry of the Sa spiral NGC2855. In the nuclear regions of this unbarred and apparently undisturbedspiral galaxy the gas is rotating perpendicularly to the galaxy disk. Wesuggest that this kinematically-decoupled component is the signature ofan acquisition process in the history of this galaxy. Based onobservations carried out at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos,La Palma (Spain) with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo and atthe European Southern Observatory, La Silla (Chile) (ESO 62.N-0463 and67.B-0230). Tables 3 and 4 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/382/488

Kinematics of the Ionized Gas in the Inner Regions of Disk Galaxies
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High-resolution radio observations of Seyfert galaxies in the extended 12-μm sample - II. The properties of compact radio components
We discuss the properties of compact nuclear radio components in Seyfertgalaxies from the extended 12-μm AGN sample of Rush et al. Our mainresults can be summarized as follows. Type 1 and type 2 Seyferts producecompact radio components which are indistinguishable in strength andaspect, indicating that their central engines are alike, as proposed bythe unification model. Infrared IRAS fluxes are more closely correlatedwith low-resolution radio fluxes than high-resolution radio fluxes,suggesting that they are dominated by kiloparsec-scale, extranuclearemission regions; extranuclear emission may be stronger in type 2Seyferts. Early-type Seyfert galaxies tend to have stronger nuclearradio emission than late-type Seyfert galaxies. V-shaped extendedemission-line regions, indicative of `ionization cones', are usuallyfound in sources with large, collimated radio outflows. Hidden broadlines are most likely to be found in sources with powerful nuclear radiosources. Type 1 and type 2 Seyferts selected by their IRAS 12-μm fluxdensities have well-matched properties.

Predicting the peculiar velocities of nearby PSCz galaxies using the Least Action Principle
We use the Least Action Principle to predict the peculiar velocities ofPSCz galaxies inside cz=2000kms-1. Linear theory is used toaccount for tidal effects to cz=15000kms-1, and we iterategalaxy positions to account for redshift distortions. As the LeastAction Principle is valid beyond linear theory, we can predict reliablepeculiar velocities even for very nearby galaxies (i.e.,cz<=500kms-1). These predicted peculiar velocities arethen compared with the observed velocities of 12 galaxies with Cepheiddistances. The combination of the PSCz galaxy survey (with its large skycoverage and uniform selection) with the accurate Cepheid distancesmakes this comparison relatively free from systematic effects. We findthat galaxies are good tracers of the mass, even at small(<=10h-1Mpc) scales; under the assumption of no biasing,0.25<=β<=0.75 (at 90 per cent confidence). We use thereliable predicted peculiar velocities to estimate the Hubble constantH0 from the local volume without `stepping up' the distanceladder, finding a confidence range of65-75kms-1Mpc-1 (at 90 per cent confidence).

Rotation Curves of Spiral Galaxies
Rotation curves of spiral galaxies are the major tool for determiningthe distribution of mass in spiral galaxies. They provide fundamentalinformation for understanding the dynamics, evolution, and formation ofspiral galaxies. We describe various methods to derive rotation curvesand review the results obtained. We discuss the basic characteristics ofobserved rotation curves in relation to various galaxy properties, suchas Hubble type, structure, activity, and environment.

Formation of Massive Counter-Rotating Discs: An Alternative Scenario
In this contribution, we investigate the scenario of major mergersbetween galaxies of comparable mass to the formation of massivecounter-rotating disks. Such a scenario can be ruled out in generalbecause they produce rather ellipticals. Yet for a narrow range ofinitial conditions, major mergers can nevertheless produce anyway raregalaxies such as NGC 4550, and so they are viable alternatives for theformation of these counter-rotating systems. The scenario is successfulin producing a remarkably axisymmetric disk possessing stronglycounter-rotating populations.

NGC 3521: Stellar Counter-Rotation Induced by a Bar Component
The spiral galaxy NGC 3521 exhibits apparently normal kinematicproperties of gas and stars along its major axis. However, the analysisof the LOSVD reveals strong asymmetries. A decomposition of the LOSVDdata with a two-Gaussian component model shows two counter-rotatingstellar components. The observed kinematic decoupling is interpreted asa projection effect induced by the presence of a bar component seenalmost end on. The bar produces locally a greater concentration ofretrograde stellar orbits but this does not relate to a specificcounter-rotating population. The signatures of the bar are identified inthe velocity field derived from long-slit spectra obtained along themajor, minor and 45° intermediate axes and from R-band surfacephotometry.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:11h14m37.00s
Aparent dimensions:5.129′ × 1.995′

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 3593

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