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|Radio Continuum Emission in Polar Ring Galaxies|
We have used the Very Large Array aperture synthesis telescope toconduct a radio continuum survey of polar ring galaxies, at 20 cm and 6cm. Forty objects were observed at 20 cm with ~=5" resolution. Twenty(50%) of the program sources were detected at 20 cm, down to our 5σ limit of 0.5 mJy beam-1. This detection rate issimilar to those in surveys with comparable sensitivity for early-typegalaxies without polar rings. Sixteen of the objects we detected at 20cm were also observed at 6 cm. We show radio continuum maps for the fiveobjects in our sample that have noticeably extended emission. Ourspatial resolution was sufficient to distinguish emission originating inthe host galaxy from that in the polar ring. The radio morphology of theextended sources, as well as the ratio of radio to far-infrared flux andthe radio spectral indices of our detected sources, indicate that starformation, not nuclear activity, is the dominant source of the radiocontinuum emission in polar ring galaxies. However, the implied starformation rates are modest, and only one of our sample galaxies willconsume its supply of cool gas within 500 Myr.
|Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Spectroscopic Data|
We present central velocity dispersions and Mg2 line indicesfor an all-sky sample of ~1178 elliptical and S0 galaxies, of which 984had no previous measures. This sample contains the largest set ofhomogeneous spectroscopic data for a uniform sample of ellipticalgalaxies in the nearby universe. These galaxies were observed as part ofthe ENEAR project, designed to study the peculiar motions and internalproperties of the local early-type galaxies. Using 523 repeatedobservations of 317 galaxies obtained during different runs, the dataare brought to a common zero point. These multiple observations, takenduring the many runs and different instrumental setups employed for thisproject, are used to derive statistical corrections to the data and arefound to be relatively small, typically <~5% of the velocitydispersion and 0.01 mag in the Mg2 line strength. Typicalerrors are about 8% in velocity dispersion and 0.01 mag inMg2, in good agreement with values published elsewhere.
|The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog|
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.
|Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups|
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.
|A neutral hydrogen survey of polar ring galaxies. III. Nançay observations and comparison with published data|
A total of 50 optically selected polar ring galaxies, polar ring galaxycandidates and related objects were observed in the 21-cm H i line withthe Nançay decimetric radio telescope and 31 were detected. Theobjects, selected by their optical morphology, are all north ofdeclination -39o, and generally relatively nearby (V< 8000km s-1) and/or bright (mB< 15.5). The H i linedata are presented for all 74 galaxies observed for the survey with theEffelsberg, Green Bank or Nanç radio telescopes, as well as allother published H i line parameters of these objects. Three objects wereobserved and detected by us at Parkes. A total of 59 objects weredetected. For each object a brief description is given based on aliterature search.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|An Einstein X-Ray Survey of Optically Selected Galaxies. I. Data|
We present the results of a complete Einstein imaging proportionalcounter X-ray survey of optically selected galaxies from theShapley-Ames Catalog, the Uppsala General Catalogue, and the EuropeanSouthern Observatory Catalog. Well-defined optical criteria are used toselect the galaxies, and X-ray fluxes are measured at the opticallydefined positions. The result is a comprehensive list of X-ray detectionand upper limit measurements for 1018 galaxies. Of these, 827 haveeither independent distance estimates or radial velocities. Associatedoptical, redshift, and distance data have been assembled for thesegalaxies, and their distances come from a combination of directlypredicted distances and those predicted from the Faber-Burstein GreatAttractor/Virgocentric infall model. The accuracy of the X-ray fluxeshas been checked in three different ways; all are consistent with thederived X-ray fluxes being of <=0.1 dex accuracy. In particular,there is agreement with previously published X-ray fluxes for galaxiesin common with a 1991 study by Roberts et al. and a 1992 study byFabbiano et al. The data presented here will be used in further studiesto characterize the X-ray output of galaxies of various morphologicaltypes and thus to enable the determination of the major sourcescontributing to the X-ray emission from galaxies.
|The visible environment of polar ring galaxies.|
A statistical study of the environment around Polar Ring Galaxies ispresented. Two kinds of search are performed: 1) a study of theconcentration and diameters of all the objects surrounding the PolarRings, within a search field 5 times the ring diameter. New magnitudesfor polar ring galaxies are presented. 2) a search, in a wider field,for galaxies of similar size that may have encountered the polar ringhost galaxy in a time of the order of 1Gyr. Differently from the resultsof similar searches in the fields of active galaxies, the environment ofthe Polar Ring Galaxies seems to be similar to that of normal galaxies.This result may give support to the models suggesting long times forformation and evolution of the rings. If the rings are old (and stableor in equilibrium), no traces of the past interaction are expected intheir surroundings. In addition, the formation of massive polar rings,too big to derive from the ingestion of a present-day dwarf galaxy, maybe easily placed in epochs with a higher number of gas-rich galaxies.
|New observations and a photographic atlas of polar-ring galaxies|
A photographic atlas of polar-ring galaxies and related objects ispresented. The atlas includes kinematically confirmed polar-ringgalaxies (category A), good condidates based on their morphologicalappearance (category B), possible candidates (category C), and possiblyrelated objects (category D). New photometric and kinematic observationsare reported for several galaxies in the catalog, including observationsthat show that UGC 7576 and UGC 9796 ( = II ZW 73) are S0 galaxies withpolar rings. Roughly 0.5 percent of all nearby S0 galaxies appear tohave polar rings. When corrected for various selection effects (e.g.,nonoptimal viewing orientation, possible dimming, or limited lifetime ofthe ring) the percentage increases to about 5 percent of S0 galaxieswhich have, or have had a polar ring.
|A 21 CM survey of the Pisces-Perseus supercluster. II - The declination zone +21.5 to +27.5 degrees|
Neutral-hydrogen 21-cm line spectra and derived parameters are presentedfor a sample of spiral galaxies in the region bounded by an R.A. greaterthan 22 h and less then 0.04 h, and a declination greater than +21 deg30 min and less than +27 deg 30 min, covering the Zwicky fields 470 to488, as the second installment of a survey of the region of thePisces-Perseus supercluster. New H I line observations made with theArecibo 305 m telescope detected 275 galaxies of 318 studied. Atabulation of derived galaxian properties is given. The redshiftdistribution shows gross departures from that expected for a sample withsimilar magnitude characteristics but homogeneously located in space.These new data will be incorporated into the overall survey of thethree-dimensional structure in the Pisces-Perseus region.
|Recognition and classification of galaxies with optical jets|
Deep images and spectra are presented for galaxies reported in variouscatalogs to have jets, as well as in a search of the SRC J survey platesin a region near the south galactic pole. Most of these are shown to besuperpositions, polar rings, tidal features, or artifacts of theoriginal plate material. Examples are shown of ten ways that false jetscan be produced, with more detailed case studies for several systems.Based on this experience, several criteria for the brightness, location,and symmetry of genuine optical jets are suggested, which should yieldsurvey samples much less contaminated by 'false alarms' than existingones. Among the objects that remain as optical-jet candidates, ESO0610-23 shows a linear, radial chain of H II regions on the outskirts ofan amorphous system with complex internal structure, UGC 3995 is a closepair of spirals, one of which has a type 2 Seyfert nucleus and apparentknotty jet, and NGC 1598 has the radial features previously reported,but considerable chaotic outer structure as well. Several systems (suchas AM 0207-49 and ESO 2330-38) illustrate the intrinsic difficulty ofseparating jets and tidal tails on morphological grounds alone incertain cases.
|A survey of galaxy redshifts. IV - The data|
The complete list of the best available radial velocities for the 2401galaxies in the merged Zwicky-Nilson catalog brighter than 14.5mz and with b (II) above +40 deg or below -30 deg ispresented. Almost 60 percent of the redshifts are from the CfA surveyand are accurate to typically 35 km/s.
|Colliding and merging galaxies. II - S0 galaxies with polar rings|
A detailed optical study of A0136-0801, a newly discovered spindlegalaxy, is presented, and the structure, origin, and evolution of ringedS0 galaxies in general are discussed. Photographic photometry andspectroscopy of the galaxy are described, and quantitative results arepresented for the galaxy's morphology and geometry, photometry of thespindle, brightness and H I content of the ring, rotation of spindle andring, and velocity dispersion of the spindle. The spindle is a normal S0disk seen nearly edge-on; the ring motions suggest that a massive haloextends far beyond the S0 disk and is more spherical than flat. From astudy of 22 related galaxies, it is found that a few percent of allfield S0's possess near-polar rings or disks. It is suggested that thesestructures are due to a second event, most likely the transfer of massfrom a companion galaxy during a close encounter and occasionally alsothe merger of a companion.
|The south west extension of the Perseus supercluster|
The results of a redshift survey of the extreme southwest region of thePerseus supercluster (270 square degrees between R.A. 23 hr 20 min and01 hr 00 min, and between DEC 21 deg 30 min and 33 deg 30 min) arepresented. By studying the velocity distribution of 93 galaxies withmagnitude 14.5, the presence of a population of galaxies with velocity5240 km/sec and radial dispersion of 312 km/sec indicates the furtherextension of the Perseus supercluster. In addition, background galaxieswith a mean velocity of 10,000 km/sec common to this sample areprimarily organized in a structure connected with Abell clusters ofsimilar velocities. Finally, it is shown that the apparent magnitudes ofthe brightest galaxies tend to increase with velocity, implying that atleast a fraction of the velocity dispersion is determined by a Hubbleflow within the supercluster.
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