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|Effects of metallicity, star-formation conditions, and evolution in B and Be stars. II. Small Magellanic Cloud, field of NGC 330|
Aims.We search for the effects of metallicity on B and Be stars in theSmall and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC and LMC) and in the Milky Way(MW), by extending our previous analysis of B and Be star populations inthe LMC to the SMC. The rotational velocities of massive stars and theevolutionary status of Be stars are examined with respect to theirenvironments. Methods: Spectroscopic observations of hot starsbelonging to the young cluster SMC-NGC 330 and its surrounding regionwere obtained with the VLT-GIRAFFE facilities in MEDUSA mode. Wedetermined fundamental parameters for B and Be stars with the GIRFITcode, taking the effect of fast rotation and the age of observedclusters into account. We compared the mean V sin i obtained by spectraltype- and mass-selection for field and cluster B and Be stars in the SMCwith the one in the LMC and MW. Results: We find that (i) B and Bestars rotate faster in the SMC than in the LMC and in the LMC than inthe MW; (ii) at a given metallicity, Be stars begin their main sequencelife with a higher initial rotational velocity than B stars.Consequently, only a fraction of the B stars that reach the ZAMS with asufficiently high initial rotational velocity can become Be stars; (iii)the distributions of initial rotational velocities at the ZAMS for Bestars in the SMC, LMC, and MW are mass- and metallicity-dependent; (iv)the angular velocities of B and Be stars are higher in the SMC than inthe LMC and MW; (v) in the SMC and LMC, massive Be stars appear in thesecond part of the main sequence, in contrast to massive Be stars in theMW.Tables 1-6, 8 and 11 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.aanda.org
|Ages and Metallicities of Extragalactic Globular Clusters from Spectral and Photometric Fits of Stellar Population Synthesis Models|
Spectra of galaxies contain an enormous amount of information about therelative mixture of ages and metallicities of constituent stars. Wepresent a comprehensive study designed to extract the maximuminformation from spectra of data quality typical in large galaxysurveys. These techniques are not intended for detailed stellarpopulation studies that use high-quality spectra. We test techniques ona sample of globular clusters, which should consist of single stellarpopulations and provide good test cases, using the Bruzual-Charlothigh-resolution stellar population synthesis models to simultaneouslyestimate the ages and metallicities of 101 globular clusters in M31 andthe Magellanic Clouds. The clusters cover a wide range of ages andmetallicities, 4 Myr
|Near-infrared surface brightness fluctuations and optical colours of Magellanic star clusters|
This work continues our efforts to calibrate model surface brightnessfluctuation luminosities for the study of unresolved stellarpopulations, through a comparison with the data of Magellanic Cloud starclusters. We present here the relation between absoluteKs-band fluctuation magnitude and (V-I) integrated colour,using data from the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and the DeepNear-Infrared Southern Sky Survey (DENIS), and from the literature. Wecompare the star cluster sample with the sample of early-type galaxiesand spiral bulges studied by Liu et al. We find that intermediate-age toold star clusters lie along a linear correlation with the same slope,within the errors, of that defined by the galaxies in the versus (V-I)diagram. While the calibration by Liu et al. was determined in thecolour range 1.05 < (V-IC)0 < 1.25, oursholds in the interval . This implies, according to Bruzual-Charlot andMouhcine-Lançon models, that the star clusters and the lateststar formation bursts in the galaxies and bulges constitute an agesequence. At the same time, a slight offset between the galaxies and thestar clusters [the latter are ~0.7 mag fainter than the former at agiven value of (V-I)], caused by the difference in metallicity ofroughly a factor of 2, confirms that the versus (V-I) plane maycontribute to break the age-metallicity degeneracy in intermediate-ageand old stellar populations. The confrontation between models and galaxydata also suggests that galaxies with Ks fluctuationmagnitudes that are brighter than predicted, given their (V-I) colour,might be explained in part by longer lifetimes of thermally pulsingasymptotic giant branch stars. A preliminary comparison between the H2MASS data of the Magellanic star clusters and the sample of 47early-type galaxies and spiral bulges observed by Jensen et al. throughthe F160WHubble Space Telescope filter leads to the same basicconclusions: galaxies and star clusters lie along correlations with thesame slope, and there is a slight offset between the star cluster sampleand the galaxies, caused by their different metallicities. Magellanicstar clusters are single populations, while galaxies are compositestellar systems; moreover, the objects analysed live in differentenvironments. Therefore, our findings mean that the relationship betweenfluctuation magnitudes in the near-infrared, and (V-I) might be a fairlyrobust tool for the study of stellar population ages and metallicities,could provide additional constraints on star formation histories, andaid in the calibration of near-infrared surface brightness fluctuationsfor cosmological distance measurements.
|The Star Clusters of the Small Magellanic Cloud: Age Distribution|
We present age measurements for 195 star clusters in the SmallMagellanic Cloud based on comparison of integrated colors measured fromthe Magellanic Clouds Photometric Survey with models of simple stellarpopulations. We find that the modeled nonuniform changes of clustercolors with age can lead to spurious age peaks in the cluster agedistribution; that the observed numbers of clusters with age t declinessmoothly as t-2.1 that for an assumed initial cluster massfunction scaling as M-2, the dependence of the clusterdisruption time on mass is proportional to M0.48; thatdespite the apparent abundance of young clusters, the dominant epoch ofcluster formation was the initial one; and that there are significantdifferences in the spatial distribution of clusters of different ages.Because of limited precision in our age measurements, we cannot addressthe question of detailed correspondence between the cluster age functionand the field star formation history. However, this sample provides aninitial guide as to which clusters to target in more detailed studies ofspecific age intervals.
|Infrared Surface Brightness Fluctuations of Magellanic Star Clusters|
We present surface brightness fluctuations (SBFs) in the near-IR for 191Magellanic star clusters available in the Second Incremental and All SkyData releases of the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and compare themwith SBFs of Fornax Cluster galaxies and with predictions from stellarpopulation models as well. We also construct color-magnitude diagrams(CMDs) for these clusters using the 2MASS Point Source Catalog (PSC).Our goals are twofold. The first is to provide an empirical calibrationof near-IR SBFs, given that existing stellar population synthesis modelsare particularly discrepant in the near-IR. Second, whereas mostprevious SBF studies have focused on old, metal-rich populations, thisis the first application to a system with such a wide range of ages(~106 to more than 1010 yr, i.e., 4 orders ofmagnitude), at the same time that the clusters have a very narrow rangeof metallicities (Z~0.0006-0.01, i.e., 1 order of magnitude only). Sincestellar population synthesis models predict a more complex sensitivityof SBFs to metallicity and age in the near-IR than in the optical, thisanalysis offers a unique way of disentangling the effects of age andmetallicity. We find a satisfactory agreement between models and data.We also confirm that near-IR fluctuations and fluctuation colors aremostly driven by age in the Magellanic cluster populations and that inthis respect they constitute a sequence in which the Fornax Clustergalaxies fit adequately. Fluctuations are powered by red supergiantswith high-mass precursors in young populations and by intermediate-massstars populating the asymptotic giant branch in intermediate-agepopulations. For old populations, the trend with age of both fluctuationmagnitudes and colors can be explained straightforwardly by evolution inthe structure and morphology of the red giant branch. Moreover,fluctuation colors display a tendency to redden with age that can befitted by a straight line. For the star clusters only,(H-Ks)=(0.21+/-0.03)log(age)-(1.29+/-0.22) once galaxies areincluded, (H-Ks)=(0.20+/-0.02)log(age)-(1.25+/-0.16).Finally, we use for the first time a Poissonian approach to establishthe error bars of fluctuation measurements, instead of the customaryMonte Carlo simulations.This research has made use of the NASA/ IPAC Infrared Science Archive,which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Instituteof Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration.
|Magellanic Clouds stellar clusters. II. New B,V CM diagrams for 6 LMC and 10 SMC clusters|
We present new CCD photometry for 6 LMC and 10 SMC stellar clusterstaken at the ESO 1.54-m Danish Telescope in La Silla, to extend aprevious investigation on Magellanic Clouds clusters based on HSTsnapshots. Thanks to the much larger area covered by the Danishdetector, we investigate the spatial distribution of cluster stars,giving V, (B-V) CM diagrams for both clusters and surrounding fields.Evidence of a complex history of star formation in the Clouds isoutlined, showing that old field populations in both Clouds havemetallicities much lower than normally adopted for them (Z = 0.008 and Z= 0.004 for LMC and SMC respectively), with SMC field stars more metalpoor than in the LMC. Observational data concerning the red clump offield stars in both Clouds are briefly discussed. Based on observationscarried out at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.
|ESO imaging survey. Pre-FLAMES survey: Observations of selected stellar fields|
This paper presents the first set of fully calibrated images andassociated stellar catalogs of the Pre-FLAMES survey being carried outby the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) project. The primary goal of this surveyis to provide the ESO community with data sets from which suitabletarget lists can be extracted for follow-up observations with the newVLT facility FLAMES (Fiber Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph). Forthis purpose, 160 stellar fields have been selected for observations inB, V and I using the 8kx8k Wide Field Imager (WFI) at the MPG/ESO 2.2 mtelescope at La Silla. Out of those, over 100 fields have already beenobserved. The list of selected fields includes open clusters, globularclusters, regions in the Galaxy bulge, dwarf spheroidal galaxies in thevicinity of the Milky Way, contiguous regions of SMC and LMC and fewnearby clusters of galaxies. The present paper discusses the resultsobtained for a small subset of these data, which include four openclusters (M 67, NGC 2477, NGC 2506 and Berkeley 20) and two regions ofthe SMC. These data have been used to assess the observing strategyadopted, a combination of short- and long-exposures, and to definesuitable reduction techniques and procedures for the preparation ofinput catalogs for FLAMES. In order to minimize light losses due tomisplacements of FLAMES fibers, the astrometric calibration of crowdedstellar fields is a critical issue. The impact of different swarpingtechniques and different reference catalogs on the astrometriccalibration of the images is evaluated and compared to those of otherauthors. From this comparison, one finds that both USNO 2.0 and therecently released GSC 2.2 yield comparable results with the positionaldifferences having a rms of about 0.15 arcsec, well within therequirements (0.2 arcsec) specified by the FLAMES science team. Theinternal accuracy of the astrometry is estimated to be <~ 0.1 arcsec,primarily limited by the reference catalog used. The major differencebetween these catalogs is the systematic variation of the positionalresiduals as a function of the apparent magnitude of the objects, withthe GSC 2.2 yielding by far the best results. The astrometriccalibration of the images presented here is based on the USNO 2.0catalog because not all fields considered are covered by the currentrelease of the GSC 2.2. Future EIS calibrations will be done using theGSC 2.2 catalog. The extraction and photometric measurements of stellarsources are carried out using a PSF fitting technique. Comparison withresults available in the literature shows that the photometricmeasurements are in good agreement, apart from possible zero-pointoffsets, with the magnitude differences having a scatter of ~ 0.06 magat V=20 mag. This demonstrates that the data allow for the selection ofrobust targets down to the expected spectroscopic limit of FLAMES. Thecombination of catalogs extracted from the short and long-exposuresallows one to produce color-magnitude diagrams (CMD) spanning ~ 13 magin V and reaching a limiting magnitude of V ~ 22-23. These data havealso been combined with data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)survey allowing for a better color-based object classification andtarget selection. The Pre-Flames (PF) survey data meet the requirementsof FLAMES, and provide a good starting point for detailed studies of theexamined systems. The images and catalogs presented here are publiclyavailable and can be requested from the URL address``http://www.eso.org/eis''. Based on observations collected at theEuropean Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile within program ESO164.O-O561.
|The EIS Pre-FLAMES Survey: observations of selected stellar fields|
|A Revised and Extended Catalog of Magellanic System Clusters, Associations, and Emission Nebulae. I. Small Magellanic Cloud and Bridge|
A survey of extended objects in the Magellanic System was carried out onthe ESO/SERC R and J Sky Survey Atlases. The present work is dedicatedto the Small Magellanic Cloud and to the inter-Magellanic Cloud region("Bridge") totaling 1188 objects, of which 554 are classified as starclusters, 343 are emissionless associations, and 291 are related toemission nebulae. The survey includes cross-identifications amongcatalogs, and we present 284 new objects. We provide accurate positions,classification, homogeneous sizes, and position angles, as well asinformation on cluster pairs and hierarchical relation for superimposedobjects. Two clumps of extended objects in the Bridge and one at theSmall Magellanic Cloud wing tip might be currently forming dwarfspheroidal galaxies.
|Blue-violet spectral evolution of young Magellanic Cloud clusters|
We study the integrated spectral evolution in the blue-violet range of97 blue star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds, from those associatedwith gas emission to those as old as a few hundred Myr. Some clustersare dominated by the flux of those massive stars that pass throughevolutionary stages such as Wolf-Rayet, Luminous Blue Variable, Be, andsupergiant stars of different temperatures. The relationships amongspectral features such as absorption and emission lines, Balmerdiscontinuity and Balmer continuum are used to study the spectralevolution of the clusters. Finally, we sort into groups spectra ofsimilar evolutionary stages, creating a template spectral library withpossible applications in stellar populations syntheses of star-forminggalaxies and in the spectral simulation of bursts of star formation withdifferent mean ages and durations.
|A New Catalogue of Hα Emission Line Stars and Small Nebulae in the Small Magellanic Cloud|
An objective-prism survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud has beenperformed through an Hα + [N II] interference filter, using the0.90 m Curtis Schmidt telescope of Cerro Tololo. 1898 emission-lineobjects have been detected in the main body of this galaxy, almostquadrupling the number of those found, in the same region, by theprevious objective-prism surveys. Among these objects are newlydiscovered planetary nebulae, compact HII regions and late-type stars.Continuum intensity, as well as the shape and relative strength of theHα emission-line have been estimated; coordinates, cross-identifications for the listed objects and 2.25 arcmin square findingcharts for all the objects are provided.
|Accurate positions for SMC clusters|
Positions of 203 SMC clusters accurate to + or - 5 arcsec are reported.The astrometry method used is briefly described. Plans for futureMagellanic Cloud cluster astrometry are summarized.
|Blue Magellanic clusters - Near-infrared spectral evolution|
New integrated spectra in the range 5600-10,000 A are presented for 28LMC and 3 SMC young star clusters. The equivalent widths (W) ofprominent features and the continuum distribution are measured. Theanalysis, supplemented by 8 additional LMC clusters from previousstudies, indicates that the red supergiant phase is indeed verytime-peaked, occuring from 7 to 12 Myr. In addition to the previous caseof NGC 2004, it is found that NGC 1805, NGC 1994, NGC 2002, NGC 2098,and NGC 2100 (as well as NGC 2011 to a lesser extent) are undergoingthis phase. The red supergiant phase is clearly denoted by strong TiObands and Ca II triplet as well as a flat continuum or (in extremecases) a continuum with positive slope above 6000 A.
|The asymptotic giant branch of Magellanic Cloud clusters|
The present search for carbon and M-type asymptotic giant branch (AGB)stars in the 39 clusters of the Magellanic Clouds has yieldedidentifications and near-IR photometry for about 400 such stars. TheSearle et al. (1980) cluster-age-related classification scheme is abasic element of the present analysis of these data. In a C-M diagram,the cluster M stars shift steadily redward as one proceeds from clustersof SWB type I to VI, due to the increasing age of the clusters along thesequence. Luminous carbon stars are present only in SWB IV-VI clusters,and are easily distinguished from M stars by their color and luminosity.
|Red supergiants in Magellanic cloud clusters : a step towards modeling starburst galaxies.|
|BVR photoelectric photometry of late-type stars and a compilation of other data in the Small Magellanic Cloud|
The basic data used in a discussion of the structure and morphology ofthe SMC Martin et al., (1989) are presented. New BVR photoelectric dataacquired at ESO, 88 SMC K-M type supergiants and three foreground Mstars; for all these stars, high-accuracy Coravel radial velocities hadbeen obtained. Taking into account all available data, a list of mean Vmagnitudes is obtained for 307 stars in the direction of the SMC withknown radial velocities. Also established is a list of mean weightedradial velocities on the IAU standard system for the 307 stars (amongwhich only two are probably foreground Galactic stars).
|Age calibration and age distribution for rich star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud|
An empirical relation is presented for estimating the ages of rich starclusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), to within a factor ofabout 2, from their integrated UBV colors. The calibration is based onpublished ages for 58 LMC clusters derived from main-sequencephotometry, integrated spectra, or the extent of the asymptotic giantbranches. Using stellar population models, a sample of LMC clusters moremassive than about 10,000 solar masses is isolated, which is correctedfor incompleteness as a function of magnitude. An unbiased agedistribution for three clusters is then determined. The number ofclusters decreases with increasing age in a manner that is qualitativelysimilar to the age distribution for the open clusters in our Galaxy. TheLMC age distribution is, however, flatter, and the median age of theclusters is greater. If the formation rate has been approximatelyconstant over the history of the two galaxies, then the age distributionobtained here implies that clusters are disrupted more slowly in theLMC. The results contain no evidence for bursts in the formation ofclusters, although fluctuations on small time scales and slow variationsover the lifetime of the LMC cannot be ruled out.
|Integrated magnitudes and colors of clusters in the magellanic clouds and Fornax system|
Data from PV, six-color, and four-color photometric observations ofclusters (38 in the Small Magellanic Cloud, 16 in the Large MagellanicCloud, four in the Fornax system, and NGC 1841) are reported. Theobservations were made in 1951, 1960-1961, 1959-1966, and 1974-1975using various telescopes and photometer setups at Mount StromloObservatory in Australia. Tables of integrated magnitudes and colors(both as originally observed and as reduced to the BV system) arepresented, and comparable published data are shown. The combined V dataare fitted to the theoretical luminosity profiles of King (1966) toestimate the total magnitudes and surface brightness distributions of 33of the clusters. Several sample profile fits are shown. A color-colorplot (V-B vs. G-R) is discussed in terms of identification of clustertypes by color: it is found that globular clusters can be separated fromother types, if all have the same amount of reddening.
|Photometric studies of composite stellar systems. V - Infrared photometry of star clusters in the Magellanic clouds|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983ApJ...266..105P
|UBV photometry for star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1978A&AS...34..431A&db_key=AST
|Magnitudes of Clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud|
|The cluster system of the Small Magellanic Cloud|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1958MNRAS.118..172L&db_key=AST
|Star Clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud: I. Identification of 69 Clusters|
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