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Scale Heights of Non-Edge-on Spiral Galaxies
We present a method of calculating the scale height of non-edge-onspiral galaxies, together with a formula for errors. The method is basedon solving Poisson's equation for a logarithmic disturbance of matterdensity in spiral galaxies. We show that the spiral arms can not extendto inside the ``forbidden radius'' r0, due to the effect ofthe finite thickness of the disk. The method is tested by re-calculatingthe scale heights of 71 northern spiral galaxies previously calculatedby Ma, Peng & Gu. Our results differ from theirs by less than 9%. Wealso present the scale heights of a further 23 non-edge-on spiralgalaxies.

Low-Luminosity Active Galaxies and Their Central Black Holes
Central black hole masses for 117 spiral galaxies representingmorphological stages S0/a through Sc and taken from the largespectroscopic survey of Ho et al. are derived using Ks-banddata from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Black hole masses are foundusing a calibrated black hole-Ks bulge luminosity relation,while bulge luminosities are measured by means of a two-dimensionalbulge-disk decomposition routine. The black hole masses are correlatedagainst a variety of parameters representing properties of the nucleusand host galaxy. Nuclear properties such as line width (FWHM [N II]), aswell as emission-line ratios (e.g., [O III]/Hβ, [O I]/Hα, [NII]/Hα, and [S II]/Hα), show a very high degree ofcorrelation with black hole mass. The excellent correlation with linewidth supports the view that the emission-line gas is in virialequilibrium with either the black hole or bulge potential. The very goodemission-line ratio correlations may indicate a change in ionizingcontinuum shape with black hole mass in the sense that more massiveblack holes generate harder spectra. Apart from theinclination-corrected rotational velocity, no excellent correlations arefound between black hole mass and host galaxy properties. Significantdifferences are found between the distributions of black hole masses inearly-, mid-, and late-type spiral galaxies (subsamples A, B, and C) inthe sense that early-type galaxies have preferentially larger centralblack holes, consistent with observations that Seyfert galaxies arefound preferentially in early-type systems. The line width distributionsshow a marked difference among subsamples A, B, and C in the sense thatearlier type galaxies have larger line widths. There are also cleardifferences in line ratios between subsamples A+B and C that likely arerelated to the level of ionization in the gas. Finally, aKs-band Simien & de Vaucouleurs diagram shows excellentagreement with the original B-band relation, although there is a largedispersion at a given morphological stage.

A high-frequency radio survey of low-luminosity active galactic nuclei
We investigate the high-frequency radio spectra of 20 low-luminosityactive galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) with compact radio cores. Our millimetresurvey with the Nobeyama Millimetre Array (NMA) and analyses ofsubmillimetre archival data that had been obtained with theSubmillimetre Common User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) on the James ClerkMaxwell Telescope (JCMT) reveal the following properties. At least halfof the LLAGNs show inverted spectra between 15 and 96 GHz; we use thepublished data at 15 GHz with the Very Large Array (VLA) in a0.15-arcsec resolution and our measurements at 96 GHz with the NMA in a7-arcsec resolution. The inverted spectra are not artificially made dueto their unmatched beam sizes, because of little diffuse contaminationfrom dust, HII regions, or extended jets in these LLAGNs. Suchhigh-frequency inverted spectra are apparently consistent with a`submillimetre bump', which is predicted by an advection-dominatedaccretion flow (ADAF) model. We find a strong correlation between thehigh-frequency spectral index and low-frequency core power measured withvery-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI) instruments. The invertedspectra are found exclusively in low-core-power sources, while steepspectra are in high-core-power ones with prominent pc-scale jets. Thissuggests that the ADAF and non-thermal jets may coexist. The flux ratiosbetween disc and jet seem to be different from LLAGN to LLAGN; disccomponents can be seen in nuclear radio spectra only if the jets arefaint.

GHASP: an Hα kinematic survey of spiral and irregular galaxies - IV. 44 new velocity fields. Extension, shape and asymmetry of Hα rotation curves
We present Fabry-Perot observations obtained in the frame of the GHASPsurvey (Gassendi HAlpha survey of SPirals). We have derived the Hαmap, the velocity field and the rotation curve for a new set of 44galaxies. The data presented in this paper are combined with the datapublished in the three previous papers providing a total number of 85 ofthe 96 galaxies observed up to now. This sample of kinematical data hasbeen divided into two groups: isolated (ISO) and softly interacting(SOFT) galaxies. In this paper, the extension of the Hα discs, theshape of the rotation curves, the kinematical asymmetry and theTully-Fisher relation have been investigated for both ISO and SOFTgalaxies. The Hα extension is roughly proportional toR25 for ISO as well as for SOFT galaxies. The smallestextensions of the ionized disc are found for ISO galaxies. The innerslope of the rotation curves is found to be correlated with the centralconcentration of light more clearly than with the type or thekinematical asymmetry, for ISO as well as for SOFT galaxies. The outerslope of the rotation curves increases with the type and with thekinematical asymmetry for ISO galaxies but shows no special trend forSOFT galaxies. No decreasing rotation curve is found for SOFT galaxies.The asymmetry of the rotation curves is correlated with themorphological type, the luminosity, the (B-V) colour and the maximalrotational velocity of galaxies. Our results show that the brightest,the most massive and the reddest galaxies, which are fast rotators, arethe least asymmetric, meaning that they are the most efficient withwhich to average the mass distribution on the whole disc. Asymmetry inthe rotation curves seems to be linked with local star formation,betraying disturbances of the gravitational potential. The Tully-Fisherrelation has a smaller slope for ISO than for SOFT galaxies.

Radio spectra of the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus NGC 266 at centimetre-to-submillimetre wavelengths
We report multi-frequency and multi-epoch radio continuum observationswith multi-spatial resolution for the low-luminosity active galacticnucleus (LLAGN) NGC 266. In the centimetre regime, we find diffusecomponents with Very Large Array (VLA) observations, and a variablecompact core with a rising spectrum with Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA)observations. Although the spectral index of the rising spectrum isconsistent with the prediction of the simple advection-dominatedaccretion flow (ADAF) model, the observed radio power is slightly highcompared with that of the model prediction. A spectral break atcentimetre-to-millimetre wavelengths is inferred from the upper limitsof flux densities from Nobeyama Millimetre Array (NMA) and James ClerkMaxwell Telescope (JCMT) data at millimetre and submillimetrewavelengths, respectively. More complicated considerations are requiredfor the theoretical model to interpret such observed radio properties.

The stellar populations of low-luminosity active galactic nuclei - III. Spatially resolved spectral properties
In a recently completed survey of the stellar population properties oflow-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) and LINER/HIItransition objects (TOs), we have identified a numerous class ofgalactic nuclei which stand out because of their conspicuous108-9 yr populations, traced by high-order Balmer absorptionlines and other stellar indices. These objects are called `young-TOs',because they all have TO-like emission-line ratios. In this paper weextend this previous work, which concentrated on the nuclear properties,by investigating the radial variations of spectral properties inlow-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). Our analysis is based onhigh signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) long-slit spectra in the 3500-5500Å interval for a sample of 47 galaxies. The data probe distancesof typically up to 850 pc from the nucleus with a resolution of ~100 pc(~1 arcsec) and S/N ~ 30. Stellar population gradients are mapped by theradial profiles of absorption-line equivalent widths and continuumcolours along the slit. These variations are further analysed by meansof a decomposition of each spectrum in terms of template galaxiesrepresentative of very young (<=107 yr), intermediate age(108-9 yr) and old (1010 yr) stellar populations.This study reveals that young-TOs also differ from old-TOs andold-LINERs in terms of the spatial distributions of their stellarpopulations and dust. Specifically, our main findings are as follows.(i) Significant stellar population gradients are found almostexclusively in young-TOs. (ii) The intermediate age population ofyoung-TOs, although heavily concentrated in the nucleus, reachesdistances of up to a few hundred pc from the nucleus. Nevertheless, thehalf width at half-maximum of its brightness profile is more typically100 pc or less. (iii) Objects with predominantly old stellar populationspresent spatially homogeneous spectra, be they LINERs or TOs. (iv)Young-TOs have much more dust in their central regions than otherLLAGNs. (v) The B-band luminosities of the central <~1 Gyr populationin young-TOs are within an order of magnitude of MB=-15,implying masses of the order of ~107-108Msolar. This population was 10-100 times more luminous in itsformation epoch, at which time young massive stars would have completelyoutshone any active nucleus, unless the AGN too was brighter in thepast.

Supernovae 2005gk and 2005gl
IAUC 8615 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.

Classification of SNe 2005gl and 2005gm
The Nearby Supernova Factory reports that a spectrum (range 320-1000 nm)of supernova SN2005gl (IAUC #8615), obtained Oct 13.5 UT with theSupernova Integral Field Spectrograph (SNIFS) on the University ofHawaii 2.2- meter telescope, shows it to be a Type IIn supernova at aredshift of z = 0.016, consistent with that of the host NGC 266 (Huchraet al. 1999 ApJS, 121, 287 via NED). The Nearby Supernova Factory alsoreports that a spectrum (range 320-1000 nm) of supernova SN2005gm (IAUC#8616), obtained Oct 13.5 UT with SNIFS reveals that it is a Type IIsupernova at an approximate redshift of z = 0.02, consistent with thatof the host NGC 1423 (Theureau et al.

The Westerbork HI survey of spiral and irregular galaxies. III. HI observations of early-type disk galaxies
We present Hi observations of 68 early-type disk galaxies from the WHISPsurvey. They have morphological types between S0 and Sab and absoluteB-band magnitudes between -14 and -22. These galaxies form the massive,high surface-brightness extreme of the disk galaxy population, few ofwhich have been imaged in Hi before. The Hi properties of the galaxiesin our sample span a large range; the average values of MHI/LB and DH I/D25 are comparableto the ones found in later-type spirals, but the dispersions around themean are larger. No significant differences are found between the S0/S0aand the Sa/Sab galaxies. Our early-type disk galaxies follow the same Himass-diameter relation as later-type spiral galaxies, but theireffective Hi surface densities are slightly lower than those found inlater-type systems. In some galaxies, distinct rings of Hi emissioncoincide with regions of enhanced star formation, even though theaverage gas densities are far below the threshold of star formationderived by Kennicutt (1989, ApJ, 344, 685). Apparently, additionalmechanisms, as yet unknown, regulate star formation at low surfacedensities. Many of the galaxies in our sample have lopsided gasmorphologies; in most cases this can be linked to recent or ongoinginteractions or merger events. Asymmetries are rare in quiescentgalaxies. Kinematic lopsidedness is rare, both in interacting andisolated systems. In the appendix, we present an atlas of the Hiobservations: for all galaxies we show Hi surface density maps, globalprofiles, velocity fields and radial surface density profiles.

Radio sources in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei. IV. Radio luminosity function, importance of jet power, and radio properties of the complete Palomar sample
We present the completed results of a high resolution radio imagingsurvey of all ( 200) low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) andAGNs in the Palomar Spectroscopic Sample of all ( 488) bright northerngalaxies. The high incidences of pc-scale radio nuclei, with impliedbrightness temperatures ≳107 K, and sub-parsec jetsargue for accreting black holes in ≳50% of all LINERs andlow-luminosity Seyferts; there is no evidence against all LLAGNs beingmini-AGNs. The detected parsec-scale radio nuclei are preferentiallyfound in massive ellipticals and in type 1 nuclei (i.e. nuclei withbroad Hα emission). The radio luminosity function (RLF) of PalomarSample LLAGNs and AGNs extends three orders of magnitude below, and iscontinuous with, that of “classical” AGNs. We find marginalevidence for a low-luminosity turnover in the RLF; nevertheless LLAGNsare responsible for a significant fraction of present day massaccretion. Adopting a model of a relativistic jet from Falcke &Biermann, we show that the accretion power output in LLAGNs is dominatedby the kinetic power in the observed jets rather than the radiatedbolometric luminosity. The Palomar LLAGNs and AGNs follow the samescaling between jet kinetic power and narrow line region (NLR)luminosity as the parsec to kilo-parsec jets in powerful radio galaxies.Eddington ratios {l_Edd} (=L_Emitted/L_Eddington) of≤10-1{-}10-5 are implied in jet models of theradio emission. We find evidence that, in analogy to Galactic black holecandidates, LINERs are in a “low/hard” state (gas poornuclei, low Eddington ratio, ability to launch collimated jets) whilelow-luminosity Seyferts are in a “high” state (gas richnuclei, higher Eddington ratio, less likely to launch collimated jets).In addition to dominating the radiated bolometric luminosity of thenucleus, the radio jets are energetically more significant thansupernovae in the host galaxies, and are potentially able to depositsufficient energy into the innermost parsecs to significantly slow thegas supply to the accretion disk.

The Stellar Populations of Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Observations
We present a study of the stellar populations of low-luminosity activegalactic nuclei (LLAGNs). Our goal is to search for spectroscopicsignatures of young and intermediate-age stars and to investigate theirrelationship with the ionization mechanism in LLAGNs. The method used isbased on the stellar population synthesis of the optical continuum ofthe innermost (20-100 pc) regions in these galaxies. For this purpose,we have collected high spatial resolution optical (2900-5700 Å)STIS spectra of 28 nearby LLAGNs that are available in the Hubble SpaceTelescope archive. The analysis of these data is compared with a similaranalysis also presented here for 51 ground-based spectra of LLAGNs. Ourmain findings are as follows: (1) No features due to Wolf-Rayet starswere convincingly detected in the STIS spectra. (2) Young starscontribute very little to the optical continuum in the ground-basedaperture. However, the fraction of light provided by these stars ishigher than 10% in most of the weak-[O I] ([OI]/Hα<=0.25) LLAGNSTIS spectra. (3) Intermediate-age stars contribute significantly to theoptical continuum of these nuclei. This population is more frequent inobjects with weak than with strong [O I]. Weak-[O I] LLAGNs that haveyoung stars stand out for their intermediate-age population. (4) Most ofthe strong-[O I] LLAGNs have predominantly old stellar population. A fewof these objects also show a featureless continuum that contributessignificantly to the optical continuum. These results suggest that youngand intermediate-age stars do not play a significant role in theionization of LLAGNs with strong [O I]. However, the ionization inweak-[O I] LLAGNs with young and/or intermediate-age populations couldbe due to stellar processes. A comparison of the properties of theseobjects with Seyfert 2 galaxies that harbor a nuclear starburst suggeststhat weak-[O I] LLAGNs are the lower luminosity counterparts of theSeyfert 2 composite nuclei.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS 5-26555. Based on observations made with the Nordic OpticalTelescope (NOT), operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark,Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio delRoque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica deCanarias.

The Stellar Populations of Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei. I. Ground-based Observations
We present a spectroscopic study of the stellar populations oflow-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). Our main goal is todetermine whether the stars that live in the innermost (100 pc scale)regions of these galaxies are in some way related to the emission-lineproperties, which would imply a link between the stellar population andthe ionization mechanism. High signal-to-noise ratio, ground-basedlong-slit spectra in the 3500-5500 Å interval were collected for60 galaxies: 51 LINERs and LINER/H II transition objects, two starburstgalaxies, and seven nonactive galaxies. In this paper, the first of aseries, we (1) describe the sample; (2) present the nuclear spectra; (3)characterize the stellar populations of LLAGNs by means of an empiricalcomparison with normal galaxies; (4) measure a set of spectral indices,including several absorption-line equivalent widths and colorsindicative of stellar populations; and (5) correlate the stellar indiceswith emission-line ratios that may distinguish between possibleexcitation sources for the gas. Our main findings are as follows: (1)Few LLAGNs have a detectable young (<~107 yr) starburstcomponent, indicating that very massive stars do not contributesignificantly to the optical continuum. In particular, no features dueto Wolf-Rayet stars were convincingly detected. (2) High-order Balmerabsorption lines of H I (HOBLs), on the other hand, are detected in ~40%of LLAGNs. These features, which are strongest in108-109 yr intermediate-age stellar populations,are accompanied by diluted metal absorption lines and bluer colors thanother objects in the sample. (3) These intermediate-age populations arevery common (~50%) in LLAGNs with relatively weak [O I] emission([OI]/Hα<=0.25) but rare (~10%) in LLAGNs with stronger [O I].This is intriguing since LLAGNs with weak [O I] have been previouslyhypothesized to be ``transition objects'' in which both an AGN and youngstars contribute to the emission-line excitation. Massive stars, ifpresent, are completely outshone by intermediate-age and old stars inthe optical. This happens in at least a couple of objects whereindependent UV spectroscopy detects young starbursts not seen in theoptical. (4) Objects with predominantly old stars span the whole rangeof [O I]/Hα values, but (5) sources with significant young and/orintermediate-age populations are nearly all (~90%) weak-[O I] emitters.These new findings suggest a link between the stellar populations andthe gas ionization mechanism. The strong-[O I] objects are most likelytrue LLAGNs, with stellar processes being insignificant. However, theweak-[O I] objects may comprise two populations, one where theionization is dominated by stellar processes and another where it isgoverned by either an AGN or a more even mixture of stellar and AGNprocesses. Possible stellar sources for the ionization include weakstarbursts, supernova remnants, and evolved poststarburst populations.These scenarios are examined and constrained by means of complementaryobservations and detailed modeling of the stellar populations inforthcoming communications.Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operatedon the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway,and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos ofthe Instituto de Astrofísica de Canárias.

Fourier Analysis of a Spiral Galaxies Sample: Determination of Kinematic and Morphological Parameters
We present partial results of a larger work searching for corotations ina large sample of grand design spiral galaxies. We have searched forcorotation resonances (CRs) in five northern spiral galaxies: NGC 266,NGC 1520, NGC 1530, NGC 2543, and NGC 7479. We can reject some detectedCRs values in those galaxies when we perceive dust lanes in bars, we canasociate the (CR) with local features or simply there is a lowsignal-noise in these regions. We have detected two CRs in NGC 2543 andNGC 7479. Using the 2D Fourier technique we have determined the mainspectrum components for the spiral pattern and the pitch angles of thespiral arms for 19 galaxies of our sample. In all the galaxies the m=2mode is the most important one. However, we have detected the presenceof strong m=3 modes in five galaxies of our sample (NGC 151, NGC 1241,NGC 4254, NGC 5427, and NGC 7753). We did not find correlation betweenthe main pitch angle of the galaxies and the morphological type.

Vertical Scale Parameter Estimates for 48 Non-edge-on Spiral Galaxies
In the first paper of this series, we directly studied the mathematicalforms, symmetry of spiral structure, and the projection of galacticdiscs on the images, and measured the pitch angles of the spiral armsand inclination angles of the galactic discs for 60 spiral galaxies. Inthis second paper, we estimate the vertical scale parameters of 48non-edge-on spiral galaxies based on the method proposed by Peng et al.and on the results given in Paper I. As we know, for edge-on discgalaxies we can obtain the vertical scale parameter from the photometry,once a mathematical form is specified for the vertical lightdistribution. For non-edge-on galaxies, some other methods have to beused. The statistical result was that the vertical scale parameter iscomparable for edge-on and non-edge-on galaxies, although it is obtainedfrom two very different methods.

The Flaring H2O Megamaser and Compact Radio Source in Markarian 348
We report on single-dish monitoring and extremely high angularresolution observations of the flaring H2O megamaser in theSeyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 348. The H2O line is redshifted by ~130km s-1 with respect to the systemic velocity, is very broad,with an FWHM of 130 km s-1, and has no detectablehigh-velocity components within 1500 km s-1 on either side ofthe strong line. Monitoring observations made with the Effelsberg 100 mtelescope show that the maser varies significantly on timescales asshort as 1 day and that the integrated line flux is loosely correlatedwith the continuum flux. Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observationsindicate that the maser emission arises entirely from a region less than0.25 pc in extent, located toward a continuum component thought to beassociated with the receding jet. We also report on integrated fluxmonitoring with the VLA between 1.4 and 43 GHz, and VLBA continuumobservations of the milliarcsecond scale jets at 1.7, 8, 15, and 22 GHz.These observations have allowed us to tentatively pinpoint the locationof the core, and also show the ejection of a new jet component duringthe current radio ``flare.''

Chandra Snapshot Observations of Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei with a Compact Radio Source
The results of Chandra snapshot observations of 11 low-ionizationnuclear emission-line regions (LINERs), three low-luminosity Seyfertgalaxies, and one H II-LINER transition object are presented. Our sampleconsists of all the objects with a flat- or inverted-spectrum, compactradio core in the Very Large Array survey of 48 low-luminosity AGNs(LLAGNs) by Nagar and coworkers in 2000. An X-ray nucleus is detected inall galaxies except one, and their X-ray luminosities are in the range5×1038-8×1041 ergs s-1. TheX-ray spectra are generally steeper than expected from thermalbremsstrahlung emission from an advection-dominated accretion flow. TheX-ray-to-Hα luminosity ratios for 11 of 14 objects are in goodagreement, with the value characteristic of LLAGNs and more luminousAGNs, and indicate that their optical emission lines are predominantlypowered by an LLAGN. For three objects, this ratio is less thanexpected. Comparing with properties in other wavelengths, we find thatthese three galaxies are most likely to be heavily obscured AGNs. We usethe ratio RX=νLν(5 GHz)/LX, whereLX is the luminosity in the 2-10 keV band, as a measure ofradio loudness. In contrast to the usual definition of radio loudness[Ro=Lν(5 GHz)/Lν(B)],RX can be used for heavily obscured(NH>~1023 cm-2, AV>50mag) nuclei. Further, with the high spatial resolution of Chandra, thenuclear X-ray emission of LLAGNs is often easier to measure than thenuclear optical emission. We investigate the values of RX forLLAGNs, luminous Seyfert galaxies, quasars, and radio galaxies andconfirm the suggestion that a large fraction of LLAGNs are radio-loud.

Mass-to-light ratios from the fundamental plane of spiral galaxy discs
The best-fitting two-dimensional plane within the three-dimensionalspace of spiral galaxy disc observables (rotational velocityvrot, central disc surface brightnessμ0=-2.5logI0 and disc scalelength h) has beenconstructed. Applying the three-dimensional bisector method ofregression analysis to a sample of ~100 spiral galaxy discs that spanmore than 4magarcsec-2 in central disc surface brightnessyields vrot\proptoI0.50\pm0.050\,h0.77\pm 0.07 (B band)and vrot\proptoI0.43\pm0.040\,h0.69\pm 0.07 (R band).Contrary to popular belief, these results suggest that in the B band,the dynamical mass-to-light ratio (within four disc scalelengths) islargely independent of the surface brightness, varying as I0.00\pm0.100\,h0.54\pm 0.14. Consistentresults were obtained when the range of the analysis was truncated byexcluding the low-surface-brightness galaxies. Previous claims thatM/LBvaries withI-1/20,Bareshown to be misleading and/or caused by galaxy selection effects - notall low-surface-brightness disc galaxies are dark matter dominated. Thesituation is, however, different in the near-infrared whereLK'~v4 and M/LK' is shown to vary asI-1/20,K\prime. Theoretical studies ofspiral galaxy discs should therefore not assume a constant M/L ratiowithin any given passband. The B-band dynamical mass-to-light ratio(within four disc scalelengths) has no obvious correlation with (B-R)disc colour, while in the K' band it varies as -1.25+/-0.28(B-R).Combining the present observational data with recent galaxy modelpredictions implies that the logarithm of the stellar-to-dynamical massratio is not a constant value, but increases as discs become redder,varying as 1.70+/-0.28(B-R).

GHASP: A 3-D Survey of Spiral and Irregular Galaxies at Hα
Not Available

A Method of Obtaining the Pitch Angle of Spiral Arms and the Inclination of Galactic Discs
We investigate the mathematical form, the symmetry of spiral structureand the projected images of galactic discs. The measured pitch angles ofspiral arms and inclination angles of galactic discs for 60 spiralgalaxies are presented. The global spiral structure is emphasized in thestudy. It is found that, except for small-scale distortions, the spiralarms of those galaxies that were classified as AC 12 in the armclassification system of Elmegreen & Elmegreen, can be representedby the logarithmic spiral form.

Galaxies with Rows
The results of a search for galaxies with straight structural elements,usually spiral-arm rows (“rows” in the terminology ofVorontsov-Vel'yaminov), are reported. The list of galaxies that possess(or probably possess) such rows includes about 200 objects, of whichabout 70% are brighter than 14m. On the whole, galaxies with rows makeup 6 8% of all spiral galaxies with well-developed spiral patterns. Mostgalaxies with rows are gas-rich Sbc-Scd spirals. The fraction ofinteracting galaxies among them is appreciably higher than amonggalaxies without rows. Earlier conclusions that, as a rule, the lengthsof rows are similar to their galactocentric distances and that theangles between adjacent rows are concentrated near 120° areconfirmed. It is concluded that the rows must be transient hydrodynamicstructures that develop in normal galaxies.

Integral Field Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of a Sample of Seyfert and LINER Galaxies. I. The Data
We present near-IR integral field spectroscopy of a sample of 31 Seyfertand LINER galaxies which were selected both to span a wide range ofnuclear magnitudes and to possess roughly equal numbers of Seyfert type1 and 2 nuclei. Moderate resolution (R~1000 R~2000 for three cases)integral field K-band spectra were obtained for all 31 galaxies in oursample and for 18 galaxies (R~1000 R~2000 for four cases) H-bandintegral field spectra were also obtained. In each case, we presentnuclear, larger aperture, and difference spectra with correspondinginformation about emission line wavelengths, fluxes, and widths.Line-free H- and K-band continuum images as well as [Fe II]λ1.644 μm, Brγ, and H2 1-0 S(1) emissionlines are also presented. In addition, we provide extensive informationabout each galaxy obtained from the literature that will be usefulsubsequently for characterizing the sample and for comparison with ournear-IR data. Based on observations obtained with the Anglo-AustralianTelescope, Siding Spring, Australia, the European Southern Observatory,La Silla, the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of LaPalma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque delos Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, andthe Calar Alto 3.5 m, which is operated by the Max-Planck-Institutfür Astronomie, Heidelberg, Germany, jointly with the SpanishNational Commission for Astronomy.

Optical Color Gradients in Star-forming Ring Galaxies
We compute radial color gradients produced by an outwardly propagatingcircular wave of star formation and compare our results with colorgradients observed in the classical ring galaxy, the ``Cartwheel.'' Weinvoke two independent models of star formation in the ring galaxies.The first one is the conventional density wave scenario, in which anintruder galaxy creates a radially propagating density wave accompaniedby an enhanced star formation following the Schmidt's law. The secondscenario is a pure self-propagating star formation model, in which theintruder sets off only the first burst of stars at the point of impact.Both models give essentially the same results. Systematic reddening ofB-V, V-K colors toward the center, such as that observed in theCartwheel, can be obtained only if the abundance of heavy elements inthe star-forming gas is a few times below solar. The B-V and V-K colorgradients observed in the Cartwheel can be explained as a result ofmixing of stellar populations born in a star-forming wave propagatingthrough a low-metallicity gaseous disk, and a preexisting stellar diskof the size of the gaseous disk with color properties typical to thoseobserved in nearby disk galaxies.

Variable X-Ray Absorption in the Seyfert 2 Galaxy Markarian 348
We present Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer monitoring observations of theSeyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 348 spanning a 6 month period. The time-averagedspectrum in the 3-20 keV band shows many features characteristic of aCompton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxy, namely, a hard underlying power-lawcontinuum (Γ~1.8) with heavy soft X-ray absorption(NH~1023 cm-2) plus measurable ironKα emission (equivalent width ~100 eV) and, at high energy,evidence for a reflection component (R<~1). During the first half ofthe monitoring period, the X-ray continuum flux from Mrk 348 remainedrelatively steady. However, this was followed by a significantbrightening of the source (by roughly a factor of 4) with the fastestchange corresponding to a doubling of its X-ray flux on a timescale ofabout 20 days. The flux increase was accompanied by a marked softeningof the X-ray spectrum most likely attributable to a factor of ~3 declinein the intrinsic line-of-sight column density. In contrast, the ironKα line and the reflection components showed no evidence ofvariability. These observations suggest a scenario in which the centralX-ray source is surrounded by a patchy distribution of absorbingmaterial located within about a light-week of the nucleus of Mrk 348.The random movement of individual clouds within the absorbing screen,across our line of sight, produces substantial temporal variations inthe measured column density on timescales of weeks to months and givesrise to the observed X-ray spectral variability. However, as viewed fromthe nucleus, the global coverage and typical thickness of the cloudlayer remains relatively constant.

An Investigation into the Prominence of Spiral Galaxy Bulges
From a diameter-limited sample of 86 low-inclination (face-on) spiralgalaxies, the bulge-to-disk size and luminosity ratios and otherquantitative measurements for the prominence of the bulge are derived.The bulge and disk parameters have been estimated using aseeing-convolved Sérsic r1/n bulge and aseeing-convolved exponential disk that were fitted to the optical (B, R,and I) and near-infrared (K) galaxy light profiles. In general,early-type spiral galaxy bulges have Sérsic values of n>1, andlate-type spiral galaxy bulges have values of n<1. In the B band,only eight galaxies have a bulge shape parameter n consistent with theexponential value 1, and only five galaxies do in the K band. Use of theexponential bulge model is shown to restrict the range ofre/h and B/D values by more than a factor of 2. Applicationof the r1/n bulge models, unlike exponential bulge models,results in a larger mean re/h ratio for the early-type spiralgalaxies than for the late-type spiral galaxies, although this result isshown not to be statistically significant. The mean B/D luminosity ratiois, however, significantly larger (>3 σ) for the early-typespirals than for the late-type spirals. Two new parameters areintroduced to measure the prominence of the bulge. The first is thedifference between the central surface brightness of the galaxy and thesurface brightness level at which the bulge and disk contribute equally.The other test uses the radius at which the contribution from the diskand bulge light are equal, normalized for the effect of intrinsicallydifferent galaxy sizes. Both of these parameters reveal that theearly-type spiral galaxies ``appear'' to have significantly (more than 2σ in all passbands) bigger and brighter bulges than late-typespiral galaxies. This apparent contradiction with the re/hvalues can be explained with an iceberg-like scenario, in which thebulges in late-type spiral galaxies are relatively submerged in theirdisk. This can be achieved by varying the relative stellar density whilemaintaining the same effective bulge-to-disk ratio. The B/D luminosityratio and the concentration index C31, in agreement with paststudies, are positively correlated and decrease as one moves along thespiral Hubble sequence toward later spiral galaxy types, although forgalaxies with large extended bulges the concentration index no longertraces the B/D luminosity ratio in a one-to-one fashion. A strong(Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient, rs=0.80) andhighly significant positive correlation exists between the shape, n, ofthe bulge light profile and the bulge-to-disk luminosity ratio. Theabsolute bulge magnitude-logn diagram is used as a diagnostic tool forcomparative studies with dwarf elliptical and ordinary ellipticalgalaxies. At least in the B band these objects occupy distinctlydifferent regions of this parameter space. While the dwarf ellipticalgalaxies appear to be the faint extension to the brighter ellipticalgalaxies, the bulges of spiral galaxies do not; for a given luminositythey have a noticeably smaller shape parameter and hence a more dramaticdecline of stellar density at large radii.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Radio Sources in Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Very Long Baseline Interferometry Detections of Compact Radio Cores and Jets in a Sample of LINERs
We have used the VLBA at 5 GHz to observe all galaxies with nuclearradio flux densities above 3.5 mJy found in a VLA survey at 15 GHz of asample of nearby LINER galaxies. All galaxies were detected revealinghigh brightness temperature (Tb>~108 K) radiosources. Free-free emission is unlikely since it greatly overpredictsthe soft X-ray luminosities. We infer the presence of active galacticnucleus (AGN)-like, nonthermal radio emission most likely powered byunderfed black holes. Together with our VLA sample we estimate from ourobservations that at least one-half of LINER galaxies host genuine AGNs.We find no evidence for highly inverted radio cores as predicted in theadvection-dominated accretion flow model: the (nonsimultaneous) spectralindices are on average around α=0.0. In the two brightest sourceswe detect some extended emission, which appears to originate in jets inat least one of these galaxies. Together with the spectral indices thissuggests that the nuclear emission at centimeter radio waves is largelydominated by emission from radio jets, very similar to the situation inmore luminous AGNs. The energy released in these jets could be asignificant fraction of the energy budget in the accretion flow.

Radio Sources in Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei. I. VLA Detections of Compact, Flat-Spectrum Cores
We report a high-resolution (0.2"), 15 GHz survey of a sample of 48low-luminosity active galactic nuclei with the Very LargeArray.5 Compact radio emission has beendetected above a flux density of 1.1 mJy in 57% (17 of 30) oflow-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) nuclei andlow-luminosity Seyfert galaxies. The 2 cm radio power is significantlycorrelated with the emission-line ([O I] λ6300) luminosity. Usingradio fluxes at other frequencies from the literature, we find that atleast 15 of the 18 detected radio cores have a flat to inverted spectrum(α>=-0.3, Sν~να). While thepresent observations are consistent with the radio emission originatingin star-forming regions (the brightness temperatures are>=102.5-4.5 K), higher resolution radio observations of 10of the detected sources, reported in an accompanying paper, show thatthe cores are very compact (<~1 pc), of high brightness temperature(Tb>~108 K), and probably synchrotronself-absorbed, ruling out a starburst origin. Thus, our results suggestthat at least 50% of low-luminosity Seyfert galaxies and LINERs in thesample are accretion powered, with the radio emission presumably comingfrom jets or advection-dominated accretion flows. We have detected only1 of 18 ``transition'' (i.e., LINER+H II) nuclei observed, indicatingthat their radio cores are significantly weaker than those of ``pure''LINERs. Compact 2 cm radio cores are found in both type 1 (i.e., withbroad Hα) and type 2 (without broad Hα) nuclei. There isweak evidence, limited in significance by small numbers, thatlow-luminosity active galactic nuclei with compact radio cores exhibitradio ejecta preferentially aligned along the rotation axis of thegalaxy disk. If this result were confirmed by a larger sample, it wouldlend support to the idea that the misalignment of accretion disks withthe galaxy stellar disk in more luminous Seyfert galaxies is a result ofradiation-pressure-induced warping of their accretion disks.

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Bars and the symmetry of star formation patterns in the discs of spiral galaxies
We present a test for the degree of symmetry in the distribution of theHα brightness along the arms of a sample of spiral galaxies. Thetest consists of deriving the cross-correlation function of the Hαbrightness as a function of curvilinear distance along pairs of opposedarms, after unfolding the arms geometrically. Our results reveal asignificantly greater degree of symmetry in the non-barred populationthan in the barred. We derive parameters for both bar strength and barellipticity, and compare these with the derived cross-correlations tostrengthen this conclusion. We suggest that density waves are a probablecause for the appearance of global, i.e. disc-wide, two-fold symmetry inspiral discs. Comparison with published work on abundance gradients inthe discs of barred and non-barred galaxies indicates that, as for theabundances, mixing in the spiral disc as a result of the bar potentialmay well be responsible for our observation that stronger bars arerelated to reduced two-fold symmetry in the distribution of star-formingregions along the spiral arms.

Extensive Spiral Structure and Corotation Resonance
Spiral density wave theories demand that grand-design spiral structurebe bounded, at most, between the inner and outer Lindblad resonances ofthe spiral pattern. The corotation resonance lies between the outer andthe inner Lindblad resonances. The locations of the resonances are atradii whose ratios to each other are rather independent of the shape ofthe rotation curve. The measured ratio of outer to inner extent ofspiral structure for a given spiral galaxy can be compared to thestandard ratio of corotation to inner Lindblad resonance radius. In thecase that the measured ratio far exceeds the standard ratio, it islikely that the corotation resonance is within the bright optical disk.Studying such galaxies can teach us how the action of resonances sculptsthe appearance of spiral disks. This paper reports observations of 140disk galaxies, leading to resonance ratio tests for 109 qualified spiralgalaxies. It lists candidates that have a good chance of having thecorotation resonance radius within the bright optical disk.

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Right ascension:00h49m47.90s
Aparent dimensions:2.951′ × 2.884′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 266

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