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Massive young stellar objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud: water masers and ESO-VLT 3-4 μm spectroscopy
We investigate the conditions of star formation in the Large MagellanicCloud (LMC). We have conducted a survey for water maser emission arisingfrom massive young stellar objects in the 30 Doradus region (N157) andseveral other HII regions in the LMC (N105A, N113 and N160A). We haveidentified a new maser source in 30Dor at the systemic velocity of theLMC. We have obtained 3-4 μm spectra, with the European SouthernObservatory (ESO)-Very Large Telescope (VLT), of two candidate youngstellar objects. N105AIRS1 shows H recombination line emission, and itsSpectral Energy Distribution (SED) and mid-infrared colours areconsistent with a massive young star ionizing the molecular cloud.N157BIRS1 is identified as an embedded young object, based on its SEDand a tentative detection of water ice. The data on these four HIIregions are combined with mid-infrared archival images from the SpitzerSpace Telescope to study the location and nature of the embedded massiveyoung stellar objects and signatures of stellar feedback. Our analysisof 30Dor, N113 and N160A confirms the picture that the feedback from themassive O- and B-type stars, which creates the HII regions, alsotriggers further star formation on the interfaces of the ionized gas andthe surrounding molecular cloud. Although in the dense cloud N105A starformation seems to occur without evidence of massive star feedback, thegeneral conditions in the LMC seem favourable for sequential starformation as a result of feedback. In an Appendix, we present watermaser observations of the galactic red giants RDoradus and WHydrae.

The Role of Evolutionary Age and Metallicity in the Formation of Classical Be Circumstellar Disks. I. New Candidate Be Stars in the LMC, SMC, and Milky Way
We present B, V, R, and Hα photometry of eight clusters in theSmall Magellanic Cloud, five in the Large Magellanic Cloud, and threeGalactic clusters and use two-color diagrams (2-CDs) to identifycandidate Be star populations in these clusters. We find evidence thatthe Be phenomenon is enhanced in low-metallicity environments, based onthe observed fractional early-type candidate Be star content of clustersof age 10-25 Myr. Numerous candidate Be stars of spectral types B0-B5were identified in clusters of age 5-8 Myr, challenging the suggestionof Fabregat & Torrejon that classical Be stars should only be foundin clusters at least 10 Myr old. These results suggest that asignificant number of B-type stars must emerge onto the zero-age mainsequence as rapid rotators. We also detect an enhancement in thefractional content of early-type candidate Be stars in clusters of age10-25 Myr, suggesting that the Be phenomenon does become more prevalentwith evolutionary age. We briefly discuss the mechanisms that mightcontribute to such an evolutionary effect. A discussion of thelimitations of using the 2-CD technique to investigate the roleevolutionary age and/or metallicity play in the development of the Bephenomenon is offered, and we provide evidence that other B-type objectsof very different nature, such as candidate Herbig Ae/Be stars, maycontaminate the claimed detections of Be stars via 2-CDs.

Classical Cepheid Pulsation Models. X. The Period-Age Relation
We present new period-age (PA) and period-age-color (PAC) relations forfundamental and first-overtone classical Cepheids. Current predictionsrely on homogeneous sets of evolutionary and pulsation models covering abroad range of stellar masses and chemical compositions. We found thatPA and PAC relations present a mild dependence on metal content.Moreover, the use of different PA and PAC relations for fundamental andfirst-overtone Cepheids improves the accuracy of age estimates in theshort-period (logP<1) range (old Cepheids), because they presentsmaller intrinsic dispersions. At the same time, the use of the PACrelations improves the accuracy in the long-period (logP>=1) range(young Cepheids), since they account for the position of individualobjects inside the instability strip. We performed a detailed comparisonbetween evolutionary and pulsation ages for a sizable sample of LMC (15)and SMC (12) clusters which host at least two Cepheids. In order toavoid deceptive uncertainties in the photometric absolute zero point, weadopted the homogeneous set of B, V, and I data for clusters andCepheids collected by OGLE. We also adopted the same reddening scale.The different age estimates agree at the level of 20% for LMC clustersand of 10% for SMC clusters. We also performed the same comparison fortwo Galactic clusters (NGC 6067, NGC 7790), and the difference in age issmaller than 20%. These findings support the use of PA and PAC relationsto supply accurate estimates of individual stellar ages in the Galaxyand in external Galaxies. The main advantage of this approach is itsindependence from the distance.

The relation between radio flux density and ionising ultra-violet flux for HII regions and supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud
We present a comparison between the Parkes radio surveys (Filipovic etal. 1995) and Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV) surveys (Smith et al. 1987) ofthe Large Magellanic Clouds (LMC). We have found 72 sources in common inthe LMC which are known HII regions (52) and supernova remnants (SNRs)(19). Some of these radio sources are associated with two or more UVstellar associations. A comparison of the radio flux densities andionising UV flux for HII regions shows a very good correlation, asexpected from theory. Many of the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) SNRs areembedded in HII regions, so there is also a relation between radio andUV which we attribute to the surrounding HII regions.

Accurate positions of H2 O masers in the Large Magellanic Cloud
Positions with subarcsecond accuracy have been measured for seven 22-GHzH2 O masers associated with Hii regions in the LargeMagellanic Cloud (LMC); two of the masers are new detections. Initialposition measurements were obtained with the 70-m antenna of theCanberra NASA Deep Space Network during a period of more than two yearsin which the antenna was used to monitor the maser emission. Thepositions were further improved using 22-GHz observations involvingthree antennas of the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The positionshave been compared with those of 1.6-GHz continuum emission and otherLMC masers (of OH and CH3 OH). The H2 O maserpositions range from within 1arcsec (270mpc) of the centre of a compactHii component to beyond the boundary of significant continuum emission.Three of the four masers located near continuum peaks are close to OHmasers. In two cases the positional agreement is better than 0.2arcsec(53mpc) in the third case the agreement is worse (0.9arcsec) but thepositions of the individual H2 O features appear to be spreadover more than 1arcsec. The velocities of the OH masers are within thespread of the H2 O velocities. The three H2 Omasers offset from continuum centres are located 3-7arcsec from opticalor infrared phenomena probably associated with very early stages of starformation; no other molecular masers are known in these directions.

A CO Survey of the LMC with NANTEN: III. Formation of Stellar Clusters and Evolution of Molecular Clouds
In order to elucidate star formation in the LMC, we made a completestudy of CO clouds with NANTEN. In the present paper, we compare 55giant molecular clouds (GMCs), whose physical quantities were welldetermined, with young objects, such as young stellar clusters and HIIregions. We find that the GMCs are actively forming stars and clusters;23 and 40 are found to be associated with the clusters and the HIIregions, respectively. The clusters associated with the GMCs aresignificantly young; ~ 85% of them are younger than ~ 10 Myr. Inaddition, compact groups of the young clusters are often found at thepeak position of the GMCs, e.g., N 159 and N 44, while much loosergroups are away from the GMCs. This suggests that the clusters areformed in groups and disperse as they become old. The distributions ofthe CO, [CII], and UV indicate that the GMCs are likely to be rapidlydissipated within several Myr due to UV photons from the clusters. Wealso estimate the evolutionary time scale of the GMCs; they form starsin a few Myr after their birth, and form clusters during the next fewMyr, and are dissipated in the subsequent few Myr.

X-Rays from Superbubbles in the Large Magellanic Cloud. VI. A Sample of Thirteen Superbubbles
We present ROSAT observations and analysis of thirteen superbubbles inthe Large Magellanic Cloud. Eleven of these observations have not beenpreviously reported. We have studied the X-ray morphology of thesuperbubbles and have extracted and analyzed their X-ray spectra.Diffuse X-ray emission is detected from each of these superbubbles, andX-ray emission is brighter than that theoretically expected for awind-blown bubble, suggesting that the X-ray emission from thesuperbubbles has been enhanced by interactions between the superbubbleshell and interior supernova remnants. We have also found significantpositive correlations between the X-ray luminosity of a superbubble andits Hα luminosity, expansion velocity, and OB star count. Further,we have found that a large fraction of the superbubbles in the sampleshow evidence of breakout regions, where hot X-ray-emitting gas extendsbeyond the Hα shell.

The Progenitor Masses of Wolf-Rayet Stars and Luminous Blue Variables Determined from Cluster Turnoffs. I. Results from 19 OB Associations in the Magellanic Clouds
We combine new CCD UBV photometry and spectroscopy with those from theliterature to investigate 19 Magellanic Cloud OB associations thatcontain Wolf-Rayet (W-R) and other types of evolved, massive stars. Ourspectroscopy reveals a wealth of newly identified interesting objects,including early O-type supergiants, a high-mass, double-lined binary inthe SMC, and, in the LMC, a newly confirmed luminous blue variable (LBV;R85), a newly discovered W-R star (Sk -69°194), and a newly foundluminous B[e] star (LH 85-10). We use these data to provide precisereddening determinations and construct physical H-R diagrams for theassociations. We find that about half of the associations may be highlycoeval, with the massive stars having formed over a short period(Δτ<1 Myr). The (initial) masses of the highest massunevolved stars in the coeval clusters may be used to estimate themasses of the progenitors of W-R and other evolved stars found in theseclusters. Similarly, the bolometric luminosities of the highest massunevolved stars can be used to determine the bolometric corrections(BCs) for the evolved stars, providing a valuable observational basisfor evaluating recent models of these complicated atmospheres. What wefind is the following: (1) Although their numbers is small, it appearsthat the W-R stars in the SMC come from only the highest mass (greaterthan 70 Msolar) stars. This is in accord with ourexpectations that at low metallicities only the most massive andluminous stars will have sufficient mass loss to become W-R stars. (2)In the LMC, the early-type WN (WNE) stars occur in clusters whoseturnoff masses range from 30 to 100 Msolar or more. Thissuggests that possibly all stars with mass greater than 30Msolar pass through a WNE stage at LMC metallicities. (3) Theone WC star in the SMC is found in a cluster with a turnoff mass of 70Msolar, the same as that for the SMC WN stars. In the LMC,the WC stars are found in clusters with turnoff masses of 45Msolar or higher, similar to what is found for the LMC WNstars. Thus we conclude that WC stars come from essentially the samemass range as do WN stars and indeed are often found in the sameclusters. This has important implications for interpreting therelationship between metallicity and the WC/WN ratio found in LocalGroup galaxies, which we discuss. (4) The LBVs in our sample come fromvery high mass stars (greater than 85 Msolar), similar towhat is known for the Galactic LBV η Car, suggesting that only themost massive stars go through an LBV phase. Recently, Ofpe/WN9 starshave been implicated as LBVs after one such star underwent an LBV-likeoutburst. However, our study includes two Ofpe/WN9 stars, BE 381 and Br18, which we find in clusters with much lower turnoff masses (25-35Msolar). We suggest that Ofpe/WN9 stars are unrelated to``true'' LBVs: not all ``LBV-like outbursts'' may have the same cause.Similarly, the B[e] stars have sometimes been described as LBV-like.Yet, the two stars in our sample appear to come from a large mass range(30-60 Msolar). This is consistent with other studies,suggesting that B[e] stars cover a large range in bolometricluminosities. (5) The bolometric corrections of early WN and WC starsare found to be extreme, with an average BC(WNE) of -6.0 mag and anaverage BC(WC4) of -5.5 mag. These values are considerably more negativethan those of even the hottest O-type stars. However, similar valueshave been found for WNE stars by applying Hillier's ``standard model''for W-R atmospheres. We find more modest BCs for the Ofpe/WN9 stars(BC=-2 to -4 mag), also consistent with recent analysis done with thestandard model. Extension of these studies to the Galactic clusters willprovide insight into how massive stars evolve at differentmetallicities.

The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. Cepheids in Star Clusters from the Magellanic Clouds
We present Cepheids located in the close neighborhood of star clustersfrom the Magellanic Clouds. 204 and 132 such stars were found in the LMCand SMC, respectively. The lists of objects were constructed based oncatalogs of Cepheids and star clusters, recently published by theOGLE-II collaboration. Location of selected Cepheids on the skyindicates that many of them are very likely cluster members. Photometricdata of Cepheids and clusters are available from the OGLE Internetarchive.

The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. Catalog of Star Clusters from the Large Magellanic Cloud
We present the catalog of star clusters found in the area of about 5.8square degree in the central regions of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Itcontains data for 745 clusters. 126 of them are new objects. For eachcluster equatorial coordinates, radius, approximate number of membersand cross-identification are provided. Photometric data for all clusterspresented in the catalog and Atlas consisting of finding charts andcolor-magnitude diagrams are available electronically from the OGLEInternet archive.

Ultraviolet Imaging Polarimetry of the Large Magellanic Cloud. II. Models
Motivated by new sounding-rocket wide-field polarimetric images of theLarge Magellanic Cloud (reported simultaneously by Cole et al.), we haveused a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiation transfer code toinvestigate the escape of near-ultraviolet photons from young stellarassociations embedded within a disk of dusty material (i.e., a galaxy).As photons propagate through the disk, they may be scattered or absorbedby dust. Scattered photons are polarized and tracked until they escapethe dust layer, allowing them to be observed; absorbed photons heat thedust, which radiates isotropically in the far-infrared where the galaxyis optically thin. The code produces four output images: near-UV andfar-IR flux, and near-UV images in the linear Stokes parameters Q and U.From these images we construct simulated UV polarization maps of theLMC. We use these maps to place constraints on the star+dust geometry ofthe LMC and the optical properties of its dust grains. By tuning themodel input parameters to produce maps that match the observedpolarization maps, we derive information about the inclination of theLMC disk to the plane of the sky and about the scattering phase functiong. We compute a grid of models with i=28 deg, 36 deg, and 45 deg, andg=0.64, 0.70, 0.77, 0.83, and 0.90. The model that best reproduces theobserved polarization maps has i=36 deg+2-5 andg~0.7. Because of the low signal-to-noise in the data, we cannot placefirm constraints on the value of g. The highly inclined models do notmatch the observed centrosymmetric polarization patterns around brightOB associations or the distribution of polarization values. Our modelsapproximately reproduce the observed ultraviolet photopolarimetry of thewestern side of the LMC; however, the output images depend on many inputparameters and are nonunique. We discuss some of the limitations of themodels and outline future steps to be taken; our models make somepredictions regarding the polarization properties of diffuse lightacross the rest of the LMC.

A Revised and Extended Catalog of Magellanic System Clusters, Associations, and Emission Nebulae. II. The Large Magellanic Cloud
A survey of extended objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud was carriedout on the ESO/SERC R and J Sky Survey Atlases, checking entries inprevious catalogs and searching for new objects. The census provided6659 objects including star clusters, emission-free associations, andobjects related to emission nebulae. Each of these classes containsthree subclasses with intermediate properties, which are used to infertotal populations. The survey includes cross identifications amongcatalogs, and we present 3246 new objects. We provide accuratepositions, classification, and homogeneous measurements of sizes andposition angles, as well as information on cluster pairs andhierarchical relation for superimposed objects. This unification andenlargement of catalogs is important for future searches of fainter andsmaller new objects. We discuss the angular and size distributions ofthe objects of the different classes. The angular distributions show twooff-centered systems with different inclinations, suggesting that theLMC disk is warped. The present catalog together with its previouscounterpart for the SMC and the inter-Cloud region provide a totalpopulation of 7847 extended objects in the Magellanic System. Theangular distribution of the ensemble reveals important clues on theinteraction between the LMC and SMC.

N 105 in the Large Magellanic Cloud: a newly evolved H II complex
The detailed radial velocity field of the H ii region N 105, in theLarge Magellanic Cloud, has been obtained for the Hα and [Oiii]5007 lines with a spatial sampling of 9'' and spectral ones of 16and 7 km s(-1) respectively. The line profiles present complex splittingand broadening in several places. The peculiar velocity field andmorphology indicate that N 105 contains four bubble shaped nebulae, andtwo bright distinct quasi spherical H ii regions, more or less coeval,embedded inside another large shell nebula. They are formed essentiallyby the action of the stellar winds of a few exciting stars, born deepinside their parental cloud. This result is deduced from the energyadded to the ionized gas by the stellar winds of early type stars andfrom dynamical simulations combining the effects of stellar winds withthose of high density gradients inside the neutral gas. The size and themorphology of the H ii region are conditioned by the depth inside thenatal cloud; the observed dynamic evolution of the H ii region starts atthe moment of blow out of the molecular cloud. The kinematics agreeswith the expected results from the stellar content and from themolecular studies. The positions of masers and of an infra-red (IR)source inside N 105 and the structure of this nebula suggest that suchan IR source may be the consequence of star formation triggered by thesurrounding wind pressure due to the progenitors of the presentlyevolved stars. Based on observations done at La Silla (ESO)

Extinction of H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud
The extinction properties of H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloudare investigated using radio continuum data obtained from the MolongloObservatory Synthesis Telescope, digitized and calibrated H-alpha data,and published Balmer decrement measurements. The resultingextinction-color excess diagram suggests that (1) most H II regions inthe Magellanic Clouds have similar extinction properties to the Galacticones, (2) all imaginable gas/dust configurations are possible, and (3)the extinction of some highly reddened H II region cores originatesexternally in cocoon shells. The puzzle of different extinction-colorexcess ratios of Galactic and extragalactic H II regions is explained asbeing due to the different populations of observed samples rather thanany intrinsic differences. The extinction of the observed Galactic H IIregions produced by foreground dust overwhelms the internal extinction,while the situation in the observed extragalactic H II regions is justthe opposite.

H_2 and its relation to CO in the LMC and other magellanic irregular galaxies
H_2 column densities towards CO clouds in the LMC and SMC are estimatedfrom their far-infrared surface brightness and HI column density. Thenewly derived H_2 column densities imply N(H_{2)}/I(CO) conversionfactors (in units of 10(21) mol cm(-2) (K km s(-1) )(-1) ) X_LMC =1.3+/-0.2 and X_SMC = 12+/-2. LMC and SMC contain total (warm) H_2masses of 1.0+/-0.3 x 10(8) Msun and 0.75+/-0.25 x 10(8)Msun respectively. Local H_2/HI mass ratios similar to thosein LMC and SMC are found in the magellanic irregulars NGC 55, 1569,4214, 4449 and 6822 and in the extragalactic HII region complexes NGC604, 595 and 5461 in M 33 and M 101 respectively. In these HII regionsand in NGC 4449, we find X = 1-2; in NGC 55, 4214 and 6822 X = 3-6 againin units of 10(21) mol cm(-2) (K km s(-1) )(-1) . The post-starburstgalaxy NGC 1569 has a very high value similar to that of the SMC. TheCO-H_2 conversion factor X is found to depend on both the ambientradiation field intensity per nucleon {sigma _FIR/{N_H and metallicity[O]/[H]: log X ~ 0.9+/-0.1 logfrac {sigma _FIR{N_H - 3.5+/-0.2log([O])/([H]). Neglecting dependency on radiation field, a reasonableapproximation is also provided by log X ~ -2.7+/-0.3 log([O])/([H]).Milky Way values are consistent with these relations. This result isinterpreted as the consequence of selective photodissociation of COsubjected to high radiation field energy densities and poor(self)shielding in low-metallicity environments, and especially thepreferential destruction of diffuse CO in `interclump' gas. Althoughlocally H_2 may be the dominant ISM-component, the average global H_2/HImass ratio is 0.2+/-0.04 and the average H_2 gas mass fraction is0.12+/-0.02. Magellanic irregulars have warm molecular gas fractionsvery similar to those of our Galaxy, whereas other global properties(mass, luminosity, metallicity, CO luminosity) are very different.

Observations of ground-state OH in the Large Magellanic Cloud
We have carried out a series of observations of the 1665- and 1667-MHztransitions of the 2Pi3/2, J = 3/2 OH ground state towards six selectedH II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud (IRAS 05011-6815 and MRC0510-689, 0513-694B, 0539-691, 0540-696B, 0540-697A) using the AustraliaTelescope Compact Array. The study has provided the first accuratepositions for known 1665- and 1667-MHz OH masers as well as detectingseveral new masers. The regions all contain H2O or CH3OH masers but OHmasers were detected in only four. The 1.6-GHz continuum emission wasalso imaged to investigate its spatial relationship to the associated OHmaser. Although some masers are close to compact continuum components,in other cases they are near the continuum distribution boundaries andperhaps have been created as a result of the H II region interactingwith the surrounding interstellar medium.

Molecular abundances in the Magellanic Clouds. I. A multiline study of five cloud cores.
Nine Hii regions of the LMC were mapped in ^13^CO(1-0) and three in^12^CO(1-0) to study the physical properties of the interstellar mediumin the Magellanic Clouds. For N113 the molecular core is found to have apeak position which differs from that of the associated Hii region by20". Toward this molecular core the ^12^CO and ^13^CO peak T_MB_ linetemperatures of 7.3K and 1.2K are the highest so far found in theMagellanic Clouds. The molecular concentrations associated with N113,N44BC, N159HW, and N214DE in the LMC and LIRS36 in the SMC wereinvestigated in a variety of molecular species to study the chemicalproperties of the interstellar medium. I(HCO^+^)/I(HCN) andI(HCN)/I(HNC) intensity ratios as well as lower limits to theI(^13^CO)/I(C^18^O) ratio were derived for the rotational 1-0transitions. Generally, HCO^+^ is stronger than HCN, and HCN is strongerthan HNC. The high relative HCO^+^ intensities are consistent with ahigh ionization flux from supernovae remnants and young stars, possiblycoupled with a large extent of the HCO^+^ emission region. The bulk ofthe HCN arises from relatively compact dense cloud cores. Warm orshocked gas enhances HCN relative to HNC. From chemical modelcalculations it is predicted that I(HCN)/I(HNC) close to one should beobtained with higher angular resolution (<~30") toward the cloudcores. Comparing virial masses with those obtained from the integratedCO intensity provides an H_2_ mass-to-CO luminosity conversion factor of1.8x10^20^mol/cm^2^(K.km/s)^-1^ for N113 and2.4x10^20^mol/cm^2^(K.km/s)^-1^ for N44BC. This is consistent withvalues derived for the Galactic disk.

A Methanol Maser Survey of IRAS-selected Regions in the Magellanic Clouds
We report the results of an Australia telescope 6.6 GHz methanol masersurvey of 55 positions in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds,selected on the basis of their IRAS colors to be ultracompact H IIregions. In addition, 12 regions in the LMC possessing compact Hαand radio continuum emission were observed. A new cluster of strongmasers ( 1-4 Jy) was detected from one source, IRAS 05011 -6815; noother detections are claimed above a typical 7 level of 700 mJy beam -1A comparison of the Galactic and Magellanic Cloud 6.6 GHz methanol maserpeak flux density distributions indicates a significantly lowerdetection rate in the latter. We examine the effects of the lower metaland dust abundances of the Magellanic Clouds on the production ofsaturated methanol masers, which may explain this deficiency.

Integrated UBV Photometry of 624 Star Clusters and Associations in the Large Magellanic Cloud
We present a catalog of integrated UBV photometry of 504 star clustersand 120 stellar associations in the LMC, part of them still embedded inemitting gas. We study age groups in terms of equivalent SWB typesderived from the (U-B) X (B-V) diagram. The size of the spatialdistributions increases steadily with age (SWB types), whereas adifference of axial ratio exists between the groups younger than 30 Myrand those older, which implies a nearly face-on orientation for theformer and a tilt of ~45^deg^ for the latter groups. Asymmetries arepresent in the spatial distributions, which, together with thenoncoincidence of the centroids for different age groups, suggest thatthe LMC disk was severely perturbed in the past.

A Catalog of the Youngest YSOs and Candidate Protostars
We have compiled a catalog of candidate protostars from the majorastronomical journals up to the end of 1993. The Beichman-Ichikawa colorcriterion was used as the main test of an author's claim that a sourceshould be deemed a candidate protostar. Names, positions (1950 and2000), LSR velocities, information on whether there are associatedoutflows, and references are provided. This catalog is meant to updatean earlier compilation by Wynn-Williams (1982). (SECTION: Stars)

A radio continuum study of the Magellanic Clouds. IV. Catalogues of radio sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud at 1.40, 2.45, 4.75, 4.85 and 8.55 GHz.
From observations with the Parkes radio telescope, we present cataloguesof radio sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud at four frequencies:1.40, 2.45, 4.75 and 8.55GHz, and an additional catalogue from a sourceanalysis of the Parkes-MIT-NRAO survey at 4.85GHz. A total of 469sources have been detected at least one of these frequencies, 132 ofwhich are reported here for the first time as radio sources.

Age distribution of LMC clusters from their integrated UBV colors: history of star formation.
In this paper we revise the relationship between ages and metallicitiesof LMC star clusters and their integrated UBV colors. The study standson the catalog of UBV colors of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC)clusters by Bica et al. (1994; BCDSP) and the photometric models ofsingle stellar populations (SSP) calculated by Bertelli et al. (1994).These photometric models nicely describe the color distribution of LMCclusters in the (U-B) vs. (B-V) plane together with the observeddispersion of the colors and the existence of a gap in a certain regionof this diagram. In the case of blue clusters, most of the dispersion inthe colors can be accounted for by the presence of stochastic effects onthe mass distribution of stars, whereas for the red ones additionaldispersion's of ~0.2dex in metallicity and of ~0.05mag in color excessare needed. From comparing the observed distribution of integratedcolors in the (U-B) vs. (B-V) diagram with the theoretical models, itturns out that: 1) The data are consistent with the presence of a gap(period of quiescence) in the history of cluster formation. If theage-metallicity relation (AMR) for the LMC obeys the simple model ofchemical evolution, the gap is well evident and corresponds to the ageinterval ~3Gyr to (12-15)Gyr. On the contrary, if the chemicalenrichment has been much slower than in the simple model, so thatintermediate age clusters are less metal rich, the gap is expected tooccur over a much narrower color range and to be hidden by effects ofcolor dispersion. 2) The bimodal distribution of B-V colors can bereproduced by a sequence of clusters almost evenly distributed in thelogarithm of the age, whose metallicity is governed by a normal AMR. Noneed is found of the so-called phase transitions in the integratedcolors of a cluster taking place at suitable ages (Renzini & Buzzoni1986). 3) The gap noticed by BCDSP in the (U-B) vs. (B-V) plane can beexplained by the particular direction along which cluster colors aredispersed in that part of the (U-B) vs. (B-V) diagram. Also in thiscase, no sudden changes in the integrated properties of clusters must beinvoked. The results of this analysis are used to revise the empiricalmethod proposed by Elson & Fall (1985, EF85) to attribute ages toLMC clusters according to their integrated UBV colors. We show that theEF85 method does not provide the correct relation between ages andcolors for clusters of low metallicity and hence its inability to datethe old clusters. We propose two modifications to the definition of theparameter S of EF85 such that the age sequence of red clusters issuitably described, and the intrinsic errors on ages caused by the heavypresence of various effects dispersing the colors are reduced to aminimum. The age sequence is calibrated on 24 template clusters forwhich ages were independently derived from recent color-magnitudediagrams (CMD). Finally, we attribute ages to all clusters present inBCDSP catalog, and derive the global age distribution function (ADF) forLMC clusters. The ADF presents new features that were not clear inprevious analyses of UBV data, but were already suggested by a number ofindependent observational studies. The features in question are periodsof enhanced cluster formation at ~100Myr and 1-2Gyr, and a gap in thecluster formation history between ~3 and (12-15)Gyr. The peaks observedin the distribution of B-V colors are found to be sensitive to thepresence of these periods of enhanced cluster formation and the lack ofextremely red clusters caused by the age gap between intermediate-ageand old clusters.

An excited-state OH maser in the Large Magellanic Cloud
A maser at the 6.035-GHz transition of excited OH has been discovered inthe Large Magellanic Cloud. It is the first extragalactic maser found atthis transition, and is at the position of a previously known 1.665-GHzground-state maser. It is stronger in the excited state than in theground state, a characteristic shared by only six of the 78 similarexcited-state OH masers detected in our Galaxy. An accurate position forthe maser and a high-resolution continuum map have also been obtained.These show that the maser is 50 arcsec south-west of the peak of an H IIregion known optically as N160a (not towards N159 as was suggested fromthe ground-state maser discovery measurements); it is at the location ofa 3-mJy continuum radio source, probably a weak H II region.

A Search for Methanol Masers in the Magellanic Clouds
We report the discovery of a second methanol maser in the LargeMagellanic Cloud and we present the results of synthesis observations ofthis and the methanol maser detected previously. The second discoverywas made using the Australia Telescope National Facility's 64-m Parkesradio telescope during an extensive maser search for 6.6-GHz maseremission from the 5_1_-6_0_ A^+^ transition in both Magellanic Clouds.Spectra were obtained towards 35 HII regions in the Large MagellanicCloud and 13 regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud, and also on a3-arcmin grid over an area 0.3^deg^ square, south of the 30 Doradusnebula. Parkes observations at 12.2 GHz towards the two maser sitesyielded no detectable emission from the 2_0_-3_-1_, E methanoltransition. The results suggest that methanol masers are less abundantin the Magellanic Clouds than in our Galaxy. Observations of the twomasers with the Australia Telescope Compact Array showed one to belocated near the continuum emission peak of the H II region MC18 (N11),while the other appeared to be centred near OH emission on thesouth-eastern boundary of MC23 (N105a).

An atlas of the interstellar environment of Wolf-Rayet stars in the Magellanic clouds
We have made a complete study of the interstellar environment around theWolf-Rayet stars in the Magellanic Clouds. We present, in the form of anatlas, the results of a complete imaging survey in Hα and of anextensive survey in the (O III) alpha 5007 emission line. As a result ofthis survey, we have more than doubled the total number of ring nebulaeknown. These include cases of both rings of stellar ejecta and ringnebulae resulting from the sweeping up of the surrounding interstellarmedium. We find that 34% of WN3-WN4 stars, 36% of late WN types, and 26%of WC4-WC5 stars are associated with a ring nebula of some kind. Thesefigures are very similar to the percentage of Wolf-Rayet stars havingring nebulae in the solar neighborhood. The size distribution of ringnebulae is also similar. From the fact that the majority of Wolf-Rayetstars do not show ring nebulae, it is clear that mass loss in earlierphases of evolution, and the collective effects of the energy input fromthe clusters of OB stars with which the Wolf-Rayet stars are frequentlyassociated, has profoundly modified the preexisting circumstellarenvironment. However, on the basis of statistics, we cannot exclude thepossibility that all Wolf-Rayet stars have possessed a ring nebula atsome stage in their evolution.

Active star formation regions at the edge of the LMC Bar: NGC 1850 and NGC 1858
We present UBV Johnson CCD photometry of two young clusters of the LargeMagellanic Cloud (LMC), namely NGC 1850 and NGC 1858, which are locatedat the NW part of the Bar. We determine their reddening, age and slopeof the initial mass function (IMF). The age of NGC 1858 is 8 x106 yr, while that for the majority of stars in NGC 1850 is70 x 106 yr. In this cluster a younger generation with age of8 x 106 yr is also present.

Results of the ESO / SEST Key Programme on Co/ in the Magellanic Clouds - Part One - a Survey of Co/ in the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Small Magellanic Cloud
As the first part of the ESO-Swedish SEST Key Programme on CO in theMagellanic Clouds, we have observed ^12^CO J = 1-0 towards 92 positionsin the LMC and 42 positions in the SMC. In the SMC we searched foremission from H II regions, dark clouds and IRAS infrared sources. Thegenerally negative detection rate of non-IRAS sources in the SMC led toan LMC source selection based on the IRAS results. In both galaxies, COwas detected towards the majority of sources observed. We also observed^13^C0 J = 1-0 towards the brighter ^12^CO sources in the LMC (37) andSMC (9). Compared to the strength of CO lines observed in the Milky WayGalaxy with identical linear resolutions, velocity-integrated COemission is weaker by at least a factor of three in the LMC sources andan order of magnitude in the SMC sources. The mean velocity-integratedisotopic intensity ratio I_12_/I_13_ is 12.5 in the LMC and about 15 inthe SMC. Individual ratios range from 8.5 to 20. These isotopicintensity ratios are two to three times higher than those found inGalactic molecular clouds.

A comparison of far infrared and H-alpha emission of H-II regions in the Magellanic Clouds
From a comparison of the IRAS and smoothed H-alpha maps of theMagellanic Clouds, it was found that H-II regions with core-halostructure usually have higher F(60 microns)/F(H-alpha) ratios andprobably emit more in the far infrared than do extended low-density H-IIregions. This is consistent with the idea that the far infrared emissionis mainly produced by dust within H-II regions.

Bar star clusters in the LMC - Formation history from UBV integrated photometry
The sample of star clusters in the LMC Bar region with integrated UBVphotometry was enlarged by approximately a factor four, totaling 129objects. The (B-V) histogram gap between blue and red clustersdisappears with this deeper sample. Age groups in terms of equivalentSWB types were derived and their spatial distribution studied. Clustersyounger than t about 200 Myr are not homogeneously distributed throughthe bar. In particular a strong star forming event at t about 100 Myrwas detected in the eastern part of the Bar, consisting of a compactgrouping of seven coeval clusters around NGC 2058 and NGC 2065. Also, 11close pairs and two trios are analyzed, and the colors indicate thatonly four pairs are clearly not coeval.

A Comparison of Far Infrared and Hα Emission of HII Regions in the Magellanic Clouds
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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:05h09m56.09s
Apparent magnitude:99.9

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NGC 2000.0NGC 1858

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