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Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Spectroscopic Data
We present central velocity dispersions and Mg2 line indicesfor an all-sky sample of ~1178 elliptical and S0 galaxies, of which 984had no previous measures. This sample contains the largest set ofhomogeneous spectroscopic data for a uniform sample of ellipticalgalaxies in the nearby universe. These galaxies were observed as part ofthe ENEAR project, designed to study the peculiar motions and internalproperties of the local early-type galaxies. Using 523 repeatedobservations of 317 galaxies obtained during different runs, the dataare brought to a common zero point. These multiple observations, takenduring the many runs and different instrumental setups employed for thisproject, are used to derive statistical corrections to the data and arefound to be relatively small, typically <~5% of the velocitydispersion and 0.01 mag in the Mg2 line strength. Typicalerrors are about 8% in velocity dispersion and 0.01 mag inMg2, in good agreement with values published elsewhere.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

The Optical and Near-Infrared Morphologies of Isolated Early-Type Galaxies
To study early-type galaxies in their simplest environments, we haveconstructed a well-defined sample of 30 isolated galaxies. The samplecontains all early-type galaxies listed in the Third Reference Catalogueof Bright Galaxies (RC3) with no other cataloged galaxy with a knownredshift lying within a projected radius of 1h-1100 Mpc and +/-1000 km s-1 (where weuse the recession velocities in the RC3). We have obtained optical andnear-infrared images of 23 of the galaxies and of a comparison sample of13 early-type galaxies in X-ray-detected poor groups of galaxies. Wehave applied the techniques of unsharp-masking, galaxy model division,and color maps to search for morphological features that might provideclues to the evolution of these galaxies. Evidence for dust features isfound in approximately 75% of both the isolated and group galaxies (17of 22 and 9 of 12, respectively). However, shells or tidal features aremuch more prevalent in our isolated sample than in our group sample (9of 22=41% vs. 1 of 12=8%, respectively). The isolation and colors ofthese shell galaxies make it unlikely that tidal interactions orasymmetric star formation are the causes of such features. One modelthat is not ruled out is that mergers produce the shells. If shells anddust are both merger signatures, the absence of shells in groupelliptical galaxies implies that shells (1) form more easily, (2) areyounger, and/or (3) are longer lived in isolated environments.

Background galaxies as reddening probes throughout the Magellanic Clouds
We study the spectral properties in the range 3600 Å-6800 Åof the nuclear region of galaxies behind the Magellanic Clouds. Theradial velocities clarified the nature of the objects as backgroundgalaxies or extended objects belonging to the Clouds. For most galaxiesbehind the main bodies of the LMC and SMC, radial velocities weremeasured for the first time. In the present sample typical LMCbackground galaxies are nearby (4000 < V(km s-1) <6000), while SMC's are considerably more distant (10 000 < V(kms-1) < 20 000). We determine the reddening in each line ofsight by matching a reddening-free galaxy template with comparablestellar population. For the LMC main body we derive a combined Milky Wayand internal reddening value E(B-V)MW+i = 0.12 +/- 0.10,while for the SMC E(B-V)MW+i = 0.05 +/- 0.05. By subtractingMilky Way reddening values for galaxies projected onto the surroundingsof each Cloud, we estimate average internal reddening values DeltaE(B-V)i = 0.06 and 0.04, respectively for the main bodies ofthe LMC and SMC. The Clouds are optically thin, at least in thedirections of the studied background galaxies which are often difficultto be identified as such on ESO/SERC sky survey images. Nevertheless,more reddened zones may occur where it is difficult to identifygalaxies.

A Test for Large-Scale Systematic Errors in Maps of Galactic Reddening
Accurate maps of Galactic reddening are important for a number ofapplications, such as mapping the peculiar velocity field in the nearbyuniverse. Of particular concern are systematic errors which vary slowlyas a function of position on the sky, as these would induce spuriousbulk flow. We have compared the reddenings of Burstein & Heiles (BH)and those of Schlegel, Finkbeiner, & Davis (SFD) to independentestimates of the reddening, for Galactic latitudes |b|>10^deg. Ourprimary source of Galactic reddening estimates comes from comparing thedifference between the observed B-V colors of early-type galaxies, andthe predicted B-V color determined from the B-V-Mg_2 relation. We havefitted a dipole to the residuals in order to look for large-scalesystematic deviations. There is marginal evidence for a dipolar residualin the comparison between the SFD maps and the observed early-typegalaxy reddenings. If this is due to an error in the SFD maps, then itcan be corrected with a small (13%) multiplicative dipole term. Weargue, however, that this difference is more likely to be due to a small(0.01 mag) systematic error in the measured B-V colors of the early-typegalaxies. This interpretation is supported by a smaller, independentdata set (globular cluster and RR Lyrae stars), which yields a resultinconsistent with the early-type galaxy residual dipole. BH reddeningsare found to have no significant systematic residuals, apart from theknown problem in the region 230^deg

The Southern Sky Redshift Survey
We report redshifts, magnitudes, and morphological classifications for5369 galaxies with m_B <= 15.5 and for 57 galaxies fainter than thislimit, in two regions covering a total of 1.70 sr in the southerncelestial hemisphere. The galaxy catalog is drawn primarily from thelist of nonstellar objects identified in the Hubble Space TelescopeGuide Star Catalog (GSC). The galaxies have positions accurate to ~1"and magnitudes with an rms scatter of ~0.3 mag. We compute magnitudes(m_SSRS2) from the relation between instrumental GSC magnitudes and thephotometry by Lauberts & Valentijn. From a comparison with CCDphotometry, we find that our system is homogeneous across the sky andcorresponds to magnitudes measured at the isophotal level ~26 magarcsec^-2. The precision of the radial velocities is ~40 km s^-1, andthe redshift survey is more than 99% complete to the m_SSRS2 = 15.5 maglimit. This sample is in the direction opposite that of the CfA2; incombination the two surveys provide an important database for studies ofthe properties of galaxies and their large-scale distribution in thenearby universe. Based on observations obtained at Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories,operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation;Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between theConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile, partially under the bilateral ESO-ObservatórioNacional agreement; Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory;Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil; and the SouthAfrican Astronomical Observatory.

A catalogue of Mg_2 indices of galaxies and globular clusters
We present a catalogue of published absorption-line Mg_2 indices ofgalaxies and globular clusters. The catalogue is maintained up-to-datein the HYPERCAT database. The measurements are listed together with thereferences to the articles where the data were published. A codeddescription of the observations is provided. The catalogue gathers 3541measurements for 1491 objects (galaxies or globular clusters) from 55datasets. Compiled raw data for 1060 galaxies are zero-point correctedand transformed to a homogeneous system. Tables 1, 3, and 4 areavailable in electronic form only at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymousftp Table 2 is available both in text and electronic form.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.

A Catalog of Stellar Velocity Dispersions. II. 1994 Update
A catalog of central velocity dispersion measurements is presented,current through 1993 September. The catalog includes 2474 measurementsof 1563 galaxies. A standard set of 86 galaxies is defined, consistingof galaxies with at least three reliable, concordant measurements. It issuggested that future studies observe some of these standard galaxies sothat different studies can be normalized to a consistent system. Allmeasurements are reduced to a normalized system using these standards.

Galaxy properties in different environments. 1: The sample
This paper presents two galaxy samples, respectively in a high and in alow local density environments, that were generated from the SouthernSky Redshift Survey (SSRS) catalog using objective criteria. Apreliminary comparison of physical properties in these two samplesreveals that galaxies in high-density environments tend to be under ahigher starbursting activity, have a deficiency of the neutral hydrogencontent, present a higher fractional Seyfert population and a higherfraction of barred spirals as well. The present samples are intended tobe used in future spectroscopic observations for more detailedinvestigation.

Multicolor surface photometry of early-type galaxies. I.
We have obtained v,g,r and i CCD surface photometry for a sample of 109early-type galaxies. Many of the galaxies covered have no previouslypublished CCD or aperture photometry. Our surface brightness profilestypically extend down to a surface brightness ofμ_r_~24mag/arcsec^2^. Detailed comparisons with previously publishedwork, and internal and external error estimates for all quantities areprovided. The complete surface photometry data set is made available ina computer-readable form.

Southern Sky Redshift Survey - The catalog
The catalog of radial velocities for galaxies which comprise thediameter-limited sample of the Southern Sky Redshift Survey ispresented. It consolidates the data of observations carried out at theLas Campanas Observatory, Observatorio Nacional, and South AfricanAstronomical Observatory. The criteria used for the sample selection aredescribed, as well as the observational procedures and the techniqueutilized to obtain the final radial velocities. The intercomparisonbetween radial velocity measurements from different telescopes indicatesthat the final data base is fairly homogeneous with a typical error ofabout 40 km/s. The sample is at present 90 percent complete, and themissing galaxies are predominantly objects with very low surfacebrightness for which it is very difficult to obtain optical redshifts.

The plane W(Na I) X W(Mg I) - Effects of interstellar Na I in a sample of southern galaxies
Galaxy spectra from a subsample of the Southern Sky Redshift Survey databank were used to study the equivalent width plane for the lines Na Ilambda 5893 A vs Mg I lambda 5175 A. An estimate of how important thecontribution of the interstellar gas for the sodium line is compared tothat of the stellar population. The sample is made up of galaxies withmorphological types from E to Sc and are distributed up to radialvelocities of 25,000 km/s, most of them smaller than 15,000 km/s. Mostearly type galaxies with dust lanes, particularly nearly edge-on So's,present an enhancement of the Na I line. Inclined spiral galaxies tendto present enhanced Na I with respect to face-on spirals. This tendency,previously found in a smaller sample of galaxies limited to V equal toor less than 6000 km/s, is now confirmed for more distant ones. In thelarge velocity sample it shows the global bulge rather than the verynucleus; the persistence of the effect suggests that the scale height ofthe gas layer in the central disk can reach a considerable fraction ofthe bulge radius.

A southern redshift survey. I - Accurate redshifts for 500 galaxies observed at SAAO
Radial velocities are presented for about 500 galaxies observed with anintensified Reticon photon-counting detector attached to the 1.9 mtelescope at the Sutherland field station of SAAO. The velocities weredetermined by cross correlation with standard velocity templates, fromthe measured wavelengths of emission lines, or from both techniques,with spectra covering the wavelength range from 3700 to 5400 A. Thefinal velocities appear to have the same zero point as H I radiovelocities, and have standard deviations of the order of 35 km/s, thoughcross-correlation velocities on their own may have significantly largererrors.

The ON-CfA redshift survey of the southern hemisphere
A redshift survey of a diameter-limited sample of southern galaxies hasbeen performed by the Observatorio Nacional in collaboration with theHarvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Redshift data are presentedfor 442 galaxies. A relatively small mean difference of -5.2 km/s wasfound between the present redshifts and previous radio data.

Surface photometry of southern elliptical galaxies
The results of a surface photometry survey for 131 elliptical galaxiesin the southern hemisphere are presented. In this paper isophotal mapsand major-axis profiles are shown, deriving for each galaxy in thesample structural parameters using the de Vaucouleurs law as usefulparametric descriptor of the light distribution of elliptical galaxies.

Spectroscopy and photometry of elliptical galaxies. III - UBV aperture photometry, CCD photometry, and magnitude-related parameters
Photoelectric aperture photometry of nearly 2000 individual observationsof 449 elliptical galaxies combined with published measurements usingthe self-consistent UVB color catalog developed by Burstein et al.(1987) are presented. The data are placed on a standard magnitude andcolor system, and 'total' magnitudes and effective diameters are derivedby comparison with the standard elliptical magnitude growth curve. Agraphical representation of the standard growth curve and the residualsfrom it for each galaxy are given, and a new diameter measurement Dn ispresented which can be measured reliably for elliptical galaxies andserves as an accurate distance indicator when combined with centralvelocity dispersion. Individual magnitudes, surface brightnesses,effective diameters, and values of Dn are summarized for each galaxy incatalog form.

Spectroscopy and photometry of elliptical galaxies. II - The spectroscopic parameters
Radial velocities, velocity dispersions, and Mg line-strength indicesare measured for 469 elliptical galaxies using four telescope/detectorconfigurations. The data have been put on a common scale; the scatter ofrepeat measurements indicates an uncertainty of + or - 10 percent and +or - 0.01 mag for single determinations of sigma and Mg2, respectively.A correction for the change in linear aperture size as a function ofdistance has been derived, and mean corrected values of sigma and Mg2are adopted. The galaxies have been assigned to groups by combining thepresent velocities with those in the redshift catalog of Huchra et al.(1983) and using the algorithm of Huchra and Geller (1982).

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:00h37m46.20s
Aparent dimensions:1.122′ × 0.955′

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 179

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