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On the current status of open-cluster parameters
We aim to characterize the current status of knowledge on the accuracyof open-cluster parameters such as the age, reddening and distance.These astrophysical quantities are often used to study the globalcharacteristics of the Milky Way down to the very local stellarphenomena. In general, the errors of these quantities are neglected orset to some kind of heuristic standard value. We attempt to give somerealistic estimates for the accuracy of available cluster parameters byusing the independently derived values published in the literature. Intotal, 6437 individual estimates for 395 open clusters were used in ourstatistical analysis. We discuss the error sources depending ontheoretical as well as observational methods and compare our resultswith those parameters listed in the widely used catalogue by Dias et al.In addition, we establish a list of 72 open clusters with the mostaccurate known parameters which should serve as a standard table in thefuture for testing isochrones and stellar models.

Kinematics of the Open Cluster System in the Galaxy
Absolute proper motions and radial velocities of 202 open clusters inthe solar neighborhood, which can be used as tracers of the Galacticdisk, are used to investigate the kinematics of the Galaxy in the solarvicinity, including the mean heliocentric velocity components(u1,u2,u3) of the open cluster system,the characteristic velocity dispersions(σ1,σ2,σ3), Oortconstants (A,B) and the large-scale radial motion parameters (C,D) ofthe Galaxy. The results derived from the observational data of propermotions and radial velocities of a subgroup of 117 thin disk young openclusters by means of a maximum likelihood algorithm are:(u1,u2,u3) =(-16.1+/-1.0,-7.9+/-1.4,-10.4+/-1.5) km s-1,(σ1,σ2,σ3) =(17.0+/-0.7,12.2+/-0.9,8.0+/-1.3) km s-1,(A,B) =(14.8+/-1.0,-13.0+/-2.7) km s-1 kpc-1, and (C,D) =(1.5+/-0.7,-1.2+/-1.5) km s-1 k pc-1. A discussionon the results and comparisons with what was obtained by other authorsis given.

Proper motion determination of open clusters based on the UCAC2 catalogue
We present the kinematics of hundreds of open clusters, based on theUCAC2 Catalogue positions and proper motions. Membership probabilitieswere obtained for the stars in the cluster fields by applying astatistical method uses stellar proper motions. All open clusters withknown distance were investigated, and for 75 clusters this is the firstdetermination of the mean proper motion. The results, including the DSSimages of the cluster's fields with the kinematic members marked, areincorporated in the Open Clusters Catalogue supported on line by ourgroup.

Astrophysical parameters of Galactic open clusters
We present a catalogue of astrophysical data for 520 Galactic openclusters. These are the clusters for which at least three most probablemembers (18 on average) could be identified in the ASCC-2.5, a catalogueof stars based on the Tycho-2 observations from the Hipparcos mission.We applied homogeneous methods and algorithms to determine angular sizesof cluster cores and coronae, heliocentric distances, mean propermotions, mean radial velocities, and ages. For the first time we derivedistances for 200 clusters, radial velocities for 94 clusters, and agesof 196 clusters. This homogeneous new parameter set is compared withearlier determinations, where we find, in particular, that the angularsizes were systematically underestimated in the literature.

On the Galactic Disk Metallicity Distribution from Open Clusters. I. New Catalogs and Abundance Gradient
We have compiled two new open cluster catalogs. In the first one, thereare 119 objects with ages, distances, and metallicities available, whilein the second one, 144 objects have both absolute proper motion andradial velocity data, of which 45 clusters also have metallicity dataavailable. Taking advantage of the large number of objects included inour sample, we present an iron radial gradient of about -0.063+/-0.008dex kpc-1 from the first sample, which is quite consistentwith the most recent determination of the oxygen gradient from nebulaeand young stars, about -0.07 dex kpc-1. By dividing clustersinto age groups, we show that the iron gradient was steeper in the past,which is consistent with the recent result from Galactic planetarynebulae data, and also consistent with inside-out galactic diskformation scenarios. Based on the cluster sample, we also discuss themetallicity distribution, cluster kinematics, and space distribution. Adisk age-metallicity relation could be implied by those properties,although we cannot give conclusive result from the age- metallicitydiagram based on the current sample. More observations are needed formetal-poor clusters. From the second catalog, we have calculated thevelocity components in cylindrical coordinates with respect to theGalactic standard of rest for 144 open clusters. The velocitydispersions of the older clusters are larger than those of youngclusters, but they are all much smaller than that of the Galactic thickdisk stars.

Proper Motions of Open Star Clusters and the Rotation Rate of the Galaxy
The mean proper motions of 167 Galactic open clusters withradial-velocity measurements are computed from the data of the Tycho-2catalog using kinematic and photometric cluster membership criteria. Theresulting catalog is compared to the results of other studies. The newproper motions are used to infer the Galactic rotation rate at the solarcircle, which is found to be ω0=+24.6±0.8 km s-1 kpc-1.Analysis of the dependence of the dispersion of ω0 estimates onheliocentric velocity showed that even the proper motions of clusterswith distances r>3 kpc contain enough useful information to be usedin kinematic studies demonstrating that the determination of propermotions is quite justified even for very distant clusters.

The CFHT Open Star Cluster Survey. I. Cluster Selection and Data Reduction
We present this paper in conjunction with a companion paper as the firstresults in the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Open Star Cluster Survey.This survey is a large BVR imaging data set of 19 open star clusters inour Galaxy. This data set was taken with the CFH12K mosaic CCD(42'×28'), and the majority of the clusters were imaged underexcellent photometric, subarcsecond seeing, conditions. The combinationof multiple exposures extending to deep (V~25) magnitudes with short(<=10 s) frames allows for studies ranging from faint white dwarfstars to bright turnoff, variable, and red giant stars. The primary aimof this survey is to catalog the white dwarf stars in these clusters andestablish observational constraints on the initial-final massrelationship for these stars and the upper mass limit to white dwarfproduction. Additionally, we hope to better determine the properties ofthe clusters, such as age and distance, and also test evolution anddynamical theories by analyzing luminosity and mass functions. In orderto more easily incorporate these data in further studies, we haveproduced a catalog of positions, magnitudes, colors, and stellarityconfidence for all stars in each cluster of the survey. This reduction,along with the computed calibration parameters for all three nights ofthe observing run will encourage others to use these data in differentastrophysical studies outside of our goals. Additionally, the data setis reduced using the new TERAPIX photometric reduction package, PSFex,which is found to compare well with other packages. This paper isintended both as a source for the astronomical community to obtaininformation on the clusters in the survey and as a detailed reference ofreduction procedures for further publications of individual clusters. Wediscuss the methods employed to reduce the data and compute thephotometric catalog. We reserve both the scientific results for eachindividual cluster and global results from the study of the entiresurvey for future publications. The first of these further publicationsis devoted to the old rich open star cluster, NGC 6819, and appears as acompanion paper in the same issue of the Journal.

Absolute proper motions of open clusters. I. Observational data
Mean proper motions and parallaxes of 205 open clusters were determinedfrom their member stars found in the Hipparcos Catalogue. 360 clusterswere searched for possible members, excluding nearby clusters withdistances D < 200 pc. Members were selected using ground basedinformation (photometry, radial velocity, proper motion, distance fromthe cluster centre) and information provided by Hipparcos (propermotion, parallax). Altogether 630 certain and 100 possible members werefound. A comparison of the Hipparcos parallaxes with photometricdistances of open clusters shows good agreement. The Hipparcos dataconfirm or reject the membership of several Cepheids in the studiedclusters. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Statistical parallaxes and kinematical parameters of classical Cepheids and young star clusters
The statistical-parallax method is applied for the first time to spacevelocities of 270 classical Cepheids with proper motions adopted fromHIPPARCOS (1997) and TRC (Hog et al. 1998) catalogs and distances basedon the period-luminosity relation by Berdnikov et al. (1996). Thedistance scale of short-period Cepheids (with periods less than 9 days)is shown to require an average correction of 15-20%, whereas statisticalparallaxes of Cepheids with periods > 9 days are found to agree wellwith photometric distances. It is shown that the luminosities ofshort-period Cepheids must have been underestimated partly due to thecontamination of this subsample by a substantial (20 to 40%) fraction offirst-overtone pulsators. The statistical-parallax technique is alsoapplied for the first time to 117 open clusters younger than 100 millionyears and with proper motions reduced to the HIPPARCOS reference system.It is concluded that a 0.12-0.15 mag increase of the distance scales ofopen clusters and Cepheids would be sufficient to reconcile thestatistical-parallax results inferred for these two types of objects.Such approach leads to an LMC distance modulus of less than 18.40 mag,which agrees, within the errors, with the short distance scale for RRLyrae variables and is at variance with the conclusions by Feast andCatchpole (1998) and Feast et al. (1998), who argue that the LMCdistance modulus should be increased to 18.70 mag. The distance scalebased on the Cepheid period-luminosity relation by Berdnikov and Efremov(1985) seems to be a good compromise. Extragalactic distances, whichrely on long-period Cepheids, seem to require no substantial correction.In addition to statistical parallaxes, kinematical parameters have beeninferred for the combined sample consisting of Cepheids andopen-clusters: solar-motion components (U0 ,V0,W0) = (9, 12, 7) km/s (+/- 1 km/s); velocity-ellipsoid axes(σU; σV; σW) = (15.0,10.3, 8.5) km/s (+/- 1 km/s); the angular velocity of rotation of thesubsystem, ω0 = 28.7 +/- 1 km/s/kpc, the Oort constantA = 17.4 +/- 1.5 km/s, and the second derivative of angular velocity,⋰ω0= 1.15 +/- 0.2 km/s/kpc3.

A report on the studies of star clusters with the UPSO 104-cm Sampurnanand telescope during last 25 years
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Absolute proper motions of 181 young open clusters.
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On Coagulation and the Stellar Mass Spectrum
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...452..652A&db_key=AST

Optical monitoring of the superluminal quasar 3C 345 in 1984-1991
This article continues a series of publications containing results of aprogram of optical monitoring of OVV quasars, blazars, and similarobjects (the Petersburg Quasar Monitoring Program), which has beenconducted at the Byurakan station of the St. Petersburg AstronomicalInstitute since 1968. Results of long-term monitoring of the quasar 3C345 in 1984-1991 are presented. The observations were conducted in the Bband and consist of 365 brightness estimates obtained on 219 nights. Theoptical variability of 3C 345 on time scales from tens of years to tensof minutes is discussed. In 1991, the appearance of a new largeamplitude slow outburst is noted (the characteristic time for brightnessvariation is of the order of a year). This outburst is similar tooutbursts in 1967-1968, 1970-1972, 1976-1977, and 1982-1983, which wereassociated with the emergence of superluminal components in themilliarcsecond radio jet of 3C 345. The 1991 outburst suggests theemergence from the core of a new superluminal component. Analysis of thefull known optical brightness curve for 3C 345 (1965-1993) shows thepossible existence of a (quasi-)period of 700 days, which implies theappearance of a new brightness maximum in the 1994 observing season.

Catalogue of blue stragglers in open clusters.
An extensive survey of blue straggler candidates in galactic openclusters of both hemispheres is presented. The blue stragglers wereselected considering their positions in the cluster colour-magnitudediagrams.They were categorized according to the accuracy of thephotometric measurements and membership probabilities. An amount of 959blue straggler candidates in 390 open clusters of all ages wereidentified and classified. A set of basic data is given for everycluster and blue straggler. The information is arranged in the form of acatalogue. Blue stragglers are found in clusters of all ages. Thepercentage of clusters with blue stragglers generally grows with age andrichness of the clusters. The mean ratio of the number of bluestragglers to the number of cluster main sequence stars is approximatelyconstant up to a cluster age of about 10^8.6^ yr and rises for olderclusters. In general, the blue stragglers show a remarkable degree ofcentral concentration.

More radial-velocity measurements in young open clusters
Further high resolution radial-velocity measurements are reported in 23young open clusters using the Kitt Peak CCD coude spectrograph on the0.9-m feed telescope. The radial velocities for the cluster stars arederived with the technique of cross correlation. The internal precisionof the velocity measurements is typically 2 km/s for early type stars.From these new data and previously published velocities, the observedstars in two clusters, NGC 663 and NGC 2287, were found to show arelatively small dispersion in the measured mean velocities. Furtherobservations of stars in young clusters will be useful in helping toestablish an early-type-star-velocity standard system.

A CO survey of regions around 34 open clusters. II - Physical properties of cataloged molecular clouds
The physical properties of the 148 molecular clouds found in a CO surveyof regions around 34 young open clusters have been examined. Expressionsare given for the cloud size spectrum and the mass spectrum. Themass-radius relation implies that clouds of all size larger than a fewpc have about the same mean volume density. Power laws with slopes of0.6 and 3 describe, respectively, the relations of CO linewidth andcloud mass to cloud size. The clouds are distinctly nonspherical andappear to be randomly oriented with respect to the Galactic plane. Theobservations can be explained by a model for molecular clouds in whichclouds are ensembles of dense clumps of gas. Based on such a model, itis shown that molecular clouds are perturbed on a time scale shortcompared to the time required for them to reestablish virialequilibrium.

A CO survey of regions around 34 open clusters
Results are presented from a systematic search for CO emission fromregions around 34 young open clusters in the outer Galaxy. The clustershave well-determined distances ranging from about 1 to 5 kpc and agesnot greater than about 100 Myr. It was found that some moderately youngclusters have no associated CO emission. All the surveyed clustersyounger than about 5 Myr have associated with them at least onemolecular cloud more massive than 10,000 solar mass, while the molecularclouds associated with clusters older than about 10 Myr are not moremassive than a few thousands solar masses. It was also found thatmolecular clouds are receding from young clusters at a rate of about 10km/sec, and that they seem to be destroyed by their interaction with thestars. Sites of ongoing star formation were identified in a number ofclouds associated with young clusters.

Radial-velocity measurements in 20 young open clusters
The further results of a program to determine the radial velocities ofyoung open clusters are presented. Using the KPNO coude spectrographcoupled with the 1-m feed and 2.1-m telescopes, radial velocities havebeen measured for nearly one hundred stars, most of which are ofspectral type B and A, in 20 young clusters. The combination ofinstruments and the use of cross-correlation techniques show that radialvelocities of B and A type stars as faint as 10th magnitude can bedetermined with an internal precision of less than about 2 km/s. Asexpected, the uncertainties in the velocity determination for the youngclusters are dominated by spectroscopic binary stars in these clusters.A third of the stars in the sample are found to be spectroscopicbinaries, but with a large variation in the frequency of binaries fromcluster to cluster. Because the time coverage is still limited, thisshould be considered a lower limit to the binary frequency. Clustervelocities are determined after eliminating binaries and known nonmemberstars. The new velocities are compared with a model galactic rotationcurve, as well as with previous velocity determinations.

Young stellar-gas complexes in the Galaxy
It is found that about 90 percent of OB-associations and o-b2 clusterssituated within 3 kpc of the sun can be united into complexes withdiameters of 150-700 pc. Almost all of these clusters contain giantmolecular clouds with a mass greater than about 100,000 solar masses. Anumber of complexes are associated with giant H I clouds; a few of thesmall complexes are situated in the HI caverns. The concentration ofOB-associations and young clusters in star complexes attests to theircommon origin in the supergiant gaseous clouds.

The classification of open clusters by the centroid method of cluster analysis
The distribution of open clusters in the Galaxy are considered, withspace coordinates including mass, absolute magnitude, integrated colorindex, diameter, metallicity, and age. It is shown that the majority ofclusters belong to several classes which have parameter values in asufficiently narrow range. The classes form a linear sequence by age andmonotonic sequence on a color-magnitude diagram. They are not isolated,but move into each other continuously. This suggests that the process ofcluster formation contains no significant gaps. The bifurcation of theage sequence of classes depending on the mass and diameter values isfound. This bifucation makes an evolutionary interpretation possible.

Stellar and molecular radial velocities for six young open clusters
Radial velocities for 24 stars in six young open clusters (Be 59, NGC581, NGC 637, NGC 654, NGC 1778, and NGC 2169) in the second and thirdgalactic-longitude quadrants have been obtained. Most of the observedstars are of spectral type B, and the present measurements have aninternal accuracy of about + or - 2 km/s. Mean cluster velocities werederived based on these velocity measurements. For Be 59 and NGC 1778,these are the first published cluster velocities. Radial velocities ofmolecular clouds near four of the six clusters - Be 59, NGC 581, NGC637, and NGC 654 - have also been determined by CO observations in orderto compare with the stellar velocities.

Catalog of open clusters and associated interstellar matter.
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Yellow evolved stars in open clusters
This paper describes a program in which Galactic cluster post-AGBcandidates were first identified and then analyzed for clustermembership via radial velocities, monitored for possible photometricvariations, examined for evidence of mass loss, and classified ascompletely as possible in terms of their basic stellar parameters. Theintrinsically brightest supergiants are found in the youngest clusters.With increasing cluster age, the absolute luminosities attained by thesupergiants decline. It appears that the evolutionary tracks ofluminosity class II stars are more similar to those of class I than ofclass III. Only two superluminous giant star candidates are found inopen clusters.

Age distribution of open clusters as a function of their linear diameter and age-dependence of cluster masses
From the well-observed data of star clusters, the age distribution ofgalactic clusters is obtianed as a function of their linear diameter andit is concluded that the observed age distribution of clusters fordifferent linear diameter intervals within 1500 pc, is not seriouslyaffected by the selection effects. If we assume that the rate offormation of clusters is constant, the lifetimes r112 of the clustersfor different linear diameter intervals have been obtained and it isfound that the clusters with a linear diameter in the range 0-1.9 Pchave longer lifetimes than the clusters having linear diameters largerthan 2.0 Pc. Total masses of 57 clusters have been obtained using thecatalogues of Piskunov (1983) and Myakutin et al. (1984). A study ofage-dependence of cluster masses, based on the total masses of theclusters obtained in the present study and the cluster masses given byBruch and Sanders (1983) and Lynga (1983b), shows that there is adecreasing trend in the total mass with the age, however, there is anincreasing trend after the age of about 108 yr. It is also concludedthat the initial rate of formation of rich clusters was relativelyhigher than the present rate of formation

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Catalogue of UBV Photometry and MK Spectral Types in Open Clusters (Third Edition)
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Mass and age distributions of stars in young open clusters
Mass and age distributions of stars, based on homogeneous photoelectricUBV data and reliable cluster membership, are studied in 11 young openclusters. Stellar masses and ages are determined by fitting thetheoretical stellar models to each star's position in the HR diagram bymeans of an interpolation procedure. The main conclusions about the massfunction derived from the analysis of seven appropriate clusters are:(1) The slope of the mass spectrum of stars, x in the five young andwell populated clusters is approximately the same, the average valuebeing x = 1.4. (2) Contrary to some results on the initial mass functionof field stars, no substantial increase in slope for massive stars (say,M greater than 5 solar masses) is found. (3) In general, the clustersunder discussion do not show significant variations of mass functionslope x with galactocentric distance, although two inner ones have aflat mass function (x = 0.85).

Integrated magnitudes and colors of open clusters
The integrated UBV characteristics of 50 galactic clusters, computed forthe clusters' physical members only (segregated on the basis of theproper motions or radial velocities) are discussed. On the basis of acomparison between the empirically-obtained dependences and theirtheoretical counterparts (Searle et al., 1973) a suggestion has beenmade that the number of the massive stars (with masses greater than 10solar mass) in the initial mass function must be considerably greater.Evolutionary effects on integrated parameters and their dependences havebeen discussed. An attempt at an evolutionary interpretation of theintegrated luminosity function for galactic clusters, obtained byStarikova (1962) in the light of the self-obtained dependences has beenmade.

Investigation of the initial mass spectrum of open star clusters
The mass spectra of 228 open star clusters were derived by comparison ofcolor-magnitude diagrams with evolutionary tracks. The application tobinary stars showed the reliability of the mass determination. Thederived mass spectra were fitted by power laws as well as exponentiallaws. It could be shown that both approximate the mass spectra of openstar clusters on the same average significance level. The presentinvestigation revealed a correlation of the slope of the mass spectrawith the cluster age, whereas a detected correlation of the slope withgalactocentric distance is slight. The results suggest that the slope ofthe mass spectrum increases with increasing cluster and galactocentricdistance. These findings are discussed with respect to their reasons andprevious results concerning open clusters and field stars.

Photometric investigation of open clusters.
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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:05h08m00.00s
Apparent magnitude:7.7

Catalogs and designations:
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NGC 2000.0NGC 1778

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