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|The relation between radio flux density and ionising ultra-violet flux for HII regions and supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud|
We present a comparison between the Parkes radio surveys (Filipovic etal. 1995) and Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV) surveys (Smith et al. 1987) ofthe Large Magellanic Clouds (LMC). We have found 72 sources in common inthe LMC which are known HII regions (52) and supernova remnants (SNRs)(19). Some of these radio sources are associated with two or more UVstellar associations. A comparison of the radio flux densities andionising UV flux for HII regions shows a very good correlation, asexpected from theory. Many of the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) SNRs areembedded in HII regions, so there is also a relation between radio andUV which we attribute to the surrounding HII regions.
|Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Massive LMC Multiple Systems Sk-67^0m#circ;18 (Br 5) and HD 36402 (Br 31)|
Following previous IUE-based spectroscopic studies of WR+O binaries inthe Galaxy and in the SMC, we present a similar study of the twosystems, Br 5 [O3 If^*(+O) + O8-B0 I(+OB?)] and Br 31 [WC4(+O?) + O8 I:]in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We detect wind eclipse effects in theWC4+O (P = 3.033 d) pair in Br 31 similar to, but weaker than thoseobserved in the Small Magellanic Cloud system Sk 188 (WO4+O4 V). Alow-amplitude ( ~ 0 km s-1) variation in the radial velocity of UVphotospheric absorption lines and the O V 1371 emission with the 3 dayperiod is detected. The radial velocity variations of the photosphericlines may be due to the superposition of the stationary set ofabsorption lines belonging to the O8 I: star and a broader set of linesbelonging to the O-type companion in the close binary pair. The UVcontinuum energy distribution of Br 31 also supports the optical resultsthat the system contains at least 3 bright stars, one of which is a lateO-type supergiant. Contrasting with Br 31, the absence of significant SiIV 1400 Å emission in the UV spectrum of Br 5 contradicts theresults from optical spectroscopy that imply that it is triple, with thepresence of a late O-type supergiant in the system. Orbitalphase-coverage of the IUE observations does not allow the detection ofpossible atmospheric eclipse effects in Br 5, with P = 2.001 d, butradial velocity variations attributable to orbital motion of the O3 If^*star are detected.
|The nature of Sk -67°18 in the Large Magellanic Cloud: A multiple system with an O3f* component|
We present the results of photometric and spectroscopic observationsobtained between 1980 and 1996, which show that the bright star Sk-67°18 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is a multiple star whichcontains an eclipsing binary system. Our spectra show that this is an Of+ O type binary, where the primary is probably of type O3f*.The orbital period of the eclipsing binary is almost exactly 2 days,which considerably compromises the obtaining of data with suitable phasecoverage. Furthermore, from our radial velocity analysis of the spectrallines, Sk -67°18 appears to be a multiple system consisting of atleast two pairs of short-period binaries.
|Ultraviolet Imaging Polarimetry of the Large Magellanic Cloud. II. Models|
Motivated by new sounding-rocket wide-field polarimetric images of theLarge Magellanic Cloud (reported simultaneously by Cole et al.), we haveused a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiation transfer code toinvestigate the escape of near-ultraviolet photons from young stellarassociations embedded within a disk of dusty material (i.e., a galaxy).As photons propagate through the disk, they may be scattered or absorbedby dust. Scattered photons are polarized and tracked until they escapethe dust layer, allowing them to be observed; absorbed photons heat thedust, which radiates isotropically in the far-infrared where the galaxyis optically thin. The code produces four output images: near-UV andfar-IR flux, and near-UV images in the linear Stokes parameters Q and U.From these images we construct simulated UV polarization maps of theLMC. We use these maps to place constraints on the star+dust geometry ofthe LMC and the optical properties of its dust grains. By tuning themodel input parameters to produce maps that match the observedpolarization maps, we derive information about the inclination of theLMC disk to the plane of the sky and about the scattering phase functiong. We compute a grid of models with i=28 deg, 36 deg, and 45 deg, andg=0.64, 0.70, 0.77, 0.83, and 0.90. The model that best reproduces theobserved polarization maps has i=36 deg+2-5 andg~0.7. Because of the low signal-to-noise in the data, we cannot placefirm constraints on the value of g. The highly inclined models do notmatch the observed centrosymmetric polarization patterns around brightOB associations or the distribution of polarization values. Our modelsapproximately reproduce the observed ultraviolet photopolarimetry of thewestern side of the LMC; however, the output images depend on many inputparameters and are nonunique. We discuss some of the limitations of themodels and outline future steps to be taken; our models make somepredictions regarding the polarization properties of diffuse lightacross the rest of the LMC.
|Ultraviolet Imaging Polarimetry of the Large Magellanic Cloud. I. Observations|
We have used the rocketborne Wide-Field Imaging Survey Polarimeter(WISP) to image a 1.5dx4.8d area of the western side of the LargeMagellanic Cloud (LMC) at a wavelength of λ=2150 Å and aresolution of 1'x1.5′. These are the first wide-field ultravioletpolarimetric images in astronomy. We find the UV background light of theLMC to be linearly polarized at levels ranging from our sensitivitylimit of 4% to as high as ~40%. In general, the polarization in a pixelincreases as the flux decreases; the weighted mean value of polarizationacross the WISP field is 12.6%+/-2.3%. The LMC's diffuse UV background,in uncrowded areas, rises from a minimum of (5.6+/-3.1)x10-8ergs s-1 cm-2 Å-1 sr-1(23.6+/-0.5 mag arcsec-2) to (9.3+/-1.1)x10-8 ergss-1 cm-2 Å-1 sr-1(23.1+/-0.2 mag arcsec-2) in regions near the brightassociations. We use our polarization maps to investigate the geometryof the interstellar medium in the LMC and to search for evidence of asignificant contribution of scattered light from OB associations to thediffuse galactic light of the LMC. Through a statistical analysis of ourpolarization map, we identify nine regions of intense UV emission whichmay be giving rise to scattering halos in our image. We find thatstarlight from the N11 complex and the LH 15 association are thestrongest contributors to the scattered light component of the LMC'sdiffuse galactic light. This region of the northwestern LMC can bethought of as a kiloparsec-scale reflection nebula in which OB starsilluminate distant dust grains that scatter the light into our sightline. In contrast, the polarization map does not support the scatteringof light from the large B2 complex in the southern WISP field; thiseffect may be astrophysical, or it may be the result of bias in ouranalysis.
|A Revised and Extended Catalog of Magellanic System Clusters, Associations, and Emission Nebulae. II. The Large Magellanic Cloud|
A survey of extended objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud was carriedout on the ESO/SERC R and J Sky Survey Atlases, checking entries inprevious catalogs and searching for new objects. The census provided6659 objects including star clusters, emission-free associations, andobjects related to emission nebulae. Each of these classes containsthree subclasses with intermediate properties, which are used to infertotal populations. The survey includes cross identifications amongcatalogs, and we present 3246 new objects. We provide accuratepositions, classification, and homogeneous measurements of sizes andposition angles, as well as information on cluster pairs andhierarchical relation for superimposed objects. This unification andenlargement of catalogs is important for future searches of fainter andsmaller new objects. We discuss the angular and size distributions ofthe objects of the different classes. The angular distributions show twooff-centered systems with different inclinations, suggesting that theLMC disk is warped. The present catalog together with its previouscounterpart for the SMC and the inter-Cloud region provide a totalpopulation of 7847 extended objects in the Magellanic System. Theangular distribution of the ensemble reveals important clues on theinteraction between the LMC and SMC.
|Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope Observations of the Magellanic Clouds|
We present wide-field far-ultraviolet (FUV; 1300-1800 Å) images ofthe Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC, SMC). These data wereobtained by the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) during the Astro-1(1990 December 1-10) and Astro-2 (1995 March 2-18) missions; the imagesprovide an extensive FUV mosaic of the SMC and contain numerous regionsin the LMC, covering a wide range of stellar densities and current starformation activity. A total of 47 LMC/Lucke-Hodge and 37 SMC/Hodge OBassociations are completely or partially included in the observedfields. FUV data can identify the hottest OB stars more easily than canoptical photometry, and these stars dominate the ionizing flux, which iscorrelated to the observed Hα flux of the associated H ii regions.Of the H ii regions in the catalog of Davies, Elliott, & Meaburn(DEM), the UIT fields completely or partially include 102 DEM regions inthe LMC and 74 DEM regions in the SMC. We present a catalog of FUVmagnitudes derived from point-spread function photometry for 37,333stars in the LMC (the UIT FUV magnitudes for 11,306 stars in the SMCwere presented recently by Cornett et al.), with a completeness limit ofm_UV ~ 15 mag and a detection limit of m_UV ~ 17.5. The averageuncertainty in the photometry is ~0.1 mag. The full catalog withastrometric positions, photometry, and other information is alsoavailable from publicly accessible astronomical data archives. We dividethe catalog into field stars and stars that are in DEM regions. Weanalyze each of these two sets of stars independently, comparing thecomposite UV luminosity function of our data with UV magnitudes derivedfrom stellar evolution and atmosphere models in order to derive theunderlying stellar formation parameters. We find a most probable initialmass function (IMF) slope for the LMC field stars of Gamma = -1.80 +/-0.09. The statistical significance of this single slope for the LMCfield stars is extremely high, though we also find some evidence for afield star IMF slope of Gamma ~ -1.4, roughly equal to the Salpeterslope. However, in the case of the stars in the DEM regions (the starsin all the regions were analyzed together as a single group), we findthree IMF slopes of roughly equal likelihood: Gamma = -1.0, -1.6, and-2.0. No typical age for the field stars is found in our data for timeperiods up to a continuous star formation age of 500 Myr, which is themaximum age consistent with the completeness limit magnitude of thecatalog's luminosity function. The best age for the collection ofcluster stars was found to be t_0 = 3.4 +/- 1.9 Myr; this is consistentwith the age expected for a collection of OB stars from many differentclusters.
|LMC HII region luminosities versus observed ionizing stars|
We use the stellar census of OB associations in the Large MagellanicCloud (LMC) to predict the H-alpha luminosities of the host HII regions,based on results from stellar atmosphere models. These values arecompared to the observed HII region luminosities, yielding an estimatefor the mean fraction of H-ionizing photons that escape the localnebulae in this sample. We formally estimate that, overall, 0% to 51% ofthe ionizing radiation escapes the local HII regions and is available toionize the warm, ionized medium in the LMC. We find both nebulae thatappear to be density-bounded, and ones that appear to beradiation-bounded.
|Comparison of H II region luminosities with observed stellar ionizing sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud|
We estimate the total predicted Lyman continuum emission rates of OBassociations for which the complete census of O star spectral typesexists. The results are compared to the observed H-alpha luminosities ofthe host H II regions. We find evidence for substantial leakage ofionizing photons from some H II regions, while others appear to beradiation-bounded. We estimate that overall for the LMC, 0-51 percent ofthe ionizing radiation escapes the local nebulae, and would be availableto ionize the diffuse, warm, ionized medium (WIM) in that galaxy. Thisrange of values is consistent with the observed 35 percent fraction ofH-alpha luminosity emitted by the WIM in the LMC, as well as thecorresponding fractions observed in other nearby galaxies. It istherefore possible that photoionization by O stars is indeed thedominant ionization mechanism for the WIM.
|Supernova Remnants in OB Associations|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997AJ....113.1815C
|The Dynamics of Superbubbles in the Large Magellanic Cloud|
Based on the stellar populations observed within this sample of LMCsuperbubbles, I use a numerical version of the standard, pressure-drivenbubble model to investigate the shell dynamics. The results fall intotwo distinct categories corresponding to (1) a subset of objects forwhich the observed expansion velocity is too large for the observedshell radius ("high-velocity" superbubbles) and (2) a subset of objectsthat appears more dynamically consistent with the model ("low-velocity"superbubbles). Both subsets of objects imply an overestimate in theshell growth rate equivalent to an overestimate in input power by up toan order of magnitude. The high-velocity objects exhibit X-ray evidenceof supernova activity, suggesting that the dynamical discrepancy is dueto acceleration by supernova remnant impacts.
|Stellar Content of Superbubble H II Regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud|
I examine the stellar population enclosed within a sample of 6 LMCsuperbubbles and compare these clusters with previously studied OBassociations in classical H II regions. The H-R diagrams, constructedwith spectral classifications of the most massive stars, do not revealany systematic differences between OB associations resident withinsuperbubbles and classical nebulae: the main-sequence turnoffs showstars as massive and luminous as those in classical H II regions.Assuming the superbubble structures result from the stellar winds and/orsupernovae of the associations, the similarity of the stellarpopulations to those of classical H II regions implies that the shellformation timescale is somewhat shorter than the cluster evolutionarytimescale for these objects. The stellar winds and/or supernovae of theone or two most massive stars must therefore dominate the formation ofthe superbubbles. The star-forming events for the superbubbleassociations are also no more extended in duration than those of otherOB associations. Finally, the initial mass function slopes are notsystematically different from those previously found. Since the OBassociations within superbubbles appear normal, the shell structuresmust be the result of normal OB stellar influences. I also present a fewspectrograms of interesting massive stars, including S149, a probablenew B[e] supergiant.
|UBV Photometry of OB Associations within Superbubbles of the Large Magellanic Cloud|
This work presents UBV photometry of the stellar populations associatedwith seven superbubble nebulae and five classical H II regions in theLarge Magellanic Cloud. Although the nebular morphology of thesuperbubbles appears to be substantially evolved compared to theclassical nebulae, the color-magnitude diagrams do not reveal anynoticeable correlation between the resident stellar population andnebular morphology. The photometry presented here will be used in aforthcoming paper to examine further the stellar content and dynamics ofthese superbubbles.
|Integrated UBV Photometry of 624 Star Clusters and Associations in the Large Magellanic Cloud|
We present a catalog of integrated UBV photometry of 504 star clustersand 120 stellar associations in the LMC, part of them still embedded inemitting gas. We study age groups in terms of equivalent SWB typesderived from the (U-B) X (B-V) diagram. The size of the spatialdistributions increases steadily with age (SWB types), whereas adifference of axial ratio exists between the groups younger than 30 Myrand those older, which implies a nearly face-on orientation for theformer and a tilt of ~45^deg^ for the latter groups. Asymmetries arepresent in the spatial distributions, which, together with thenoncoincidence of the centroids for different age groups, suggest thatthe LMC disk was severely perturbed in the past.
|X-Rays from Superbubbles in the Large Magellanic Cloud. III. X-Ray--dim Superbubbles|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995ApJ...450..157C
|A radio continuum study of the Magellanic Clouds. IV. Catalogues of radio sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud at 1.40, 2.45, 4.75, 4.85 and 8.55 GHz.|
From observations with the Parkes radio telescope, we present cataloguesof radio sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud at four frequencies:1.40, 2.45, 4.75 and 8.55GHz, and an additional catalogue from a sourceanalysis of the Parkes-MIT-NRAO survey at 4.85GHz. A total of 469sources have been detected at least one of these frequencies, 132 ofwhich are reported here for the first time as radio sources.
|Ultraviolet interstellar absorption lines in the LMC: Searching for hidden SNRs|
Strong x-ray emission detected in Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC)superbubbles has been explained as the result of interior supernovaremnants (SNRs) hitting the dense superbubble shell. Such SNRs cannot befound using conventional criteria. We thus investigate the possibilityof using the interstellar absorption properties in the ultraviolet (UV)as a diagnostic of hidden SNR shocks. The International UltravioletExplorer (IUE) archives provide the database for this pilot study. Theycontain high-dispersion spectra of several stars in x-ray brightsuperbubbles. To distinguish the effects of SNR shocks from those oflocal stellar winds and a global hot halo around the LMC, we includedcontrol objects in different environments. We find that almost allinterstellar absorption properties can be explained by the interstellarenvironment associated with the objects. Summarizing the two mostimportant results of this study: (1) a large velocity shift between thehigh-ionization species (C IV and Si IV) and the low-ionization species(S II, Si II, and C II*) is a diagnostic of hidden SNR shocks; however,the absence of a velocity shift does not preclude the existence of SNRshocks; (2) there is no evidence that the LMC is uniformly surrounded byhot gas; hot gas is preferentially found associated with largeinterstellar structures like superbubbles and supergiant shells, whichmay extend to large distances from the plane.
|Two new supernova remnants in OB associations in the Large Magellanic Cloud|
We discovered two extended x-ray sources in a Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT)Positron Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) observation pointed atthe H II region N9 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. These two sources arein the H II regions N4D and N9. The x-ray characteristics suggest thatboth might be supernova remnants (SNRs). Follow-up charge coupled device(CCD) images taken with interference filters show high (S II)/H-alpharatios in the optical nebulae of these x-ray sources, confirming thepresence of high velocity shocks commonly seen in SNRs. These twosources are also detected in the radio continuum at 8.55 and 4.75 GHz;both appear nonthermal compared to nearby H II regions. The confirmationof these two SNRs demonstrates that many SNRs in or near H II regionshave been overlooked in previous surveys, and that the ROSAT x-raysurvey combined with an optical CCD imaging survey of the MagellanicClouds would provide the most effective way to uncover SNRs.
|Young stars and bubbles in the Large Megellanic Cloud|
The generating mechanisms of bubbles are investigated on a galaxy-widescale for the Large Magellanic Cloud. Several formation processes forring-shaped and filamentary emission regions are considered, andformulas are given for the time dependence of the shell radius takingthe interaction of supernovas and stellar winds into account. Theparameters of associations and H II regions are compiled, reduced to ahomogeneous system, and presented. Correlations between associationparameters and emission region parameters are investigated. It is foundthat stellar content versus emission region diameter, H-alpha fluxversus FUV flux, star surface density versus H-alpha brightness, and FUVflux versus stellar content of blue stars all show correlations withcoefficients greater than 0.4. A diameter-age diagram for bubbleevolution is depicted in which the H II region evolution effect and thestellar wind effect are separated.
|A catalogue of stellar associations in the Large Magellanic Cloud.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1970AJ.....75..171L
|A Catalogue of Clusters in The LMC|
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