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|Spiral galaxies observed in the near-infrared K band. I. Data analysis and structural parameters|
Deep surface photometry in the K band was obtained for 54 normal spiralgalaxies, with the aim of quantifying the percentage of faint bars andstudying the morphology of spiral arms. The sample was chosen to cover awider range of morphological types while inclination angles anddistances were limited to allow a detailed investigation of the internalstructure of their disks and future observations and studies of the diskkinematics. An additional constraint for a well defined subsample wasthat no bar structure was seen on images in the visual bands. Accuratesky projection parameters were determined from the K maps comparingseveral different methods. The surface brightness distribution wasdecomposed into axisymmetric components while bars and spiral structureswere analyzed using Fourier techniques.Bulges were best represented by a Sérsic r1/n law withan index in the typical range of 1-2. The central surface brightness ofthe exponential disk and bulge-to-disk ratio only showed weakcorrelation with Hubble type. Indications of a central point source werefound in many of the galaxies. An additional central, steep, exponentialdisk improved the fit for more than 80% of the galaxies suggesting thatmany of the bulges are oblate.Bars down to the detection level at a relative amplitude of 3% weredetected in 26 of 30 galaxies in a subsample classified as ordinary SAspirals. This would correspond to only 5% of all spiral galaxies beingnon-barred at this level. In several cases, bars are significantlyoffset compared to the starting points of the main spiral pattern whichindicates that bar and spiral have different pattern speeds. A smallfraction (10%) of the sample has complex central structuresconsisting of several sets of bars, arcs or spirals.A majority of the galaxies (60%) displays a two-armed, grand-designspiral pattern in their inner parts which often breaks up into multiplearms in their outer regions. Phase shifts between the inner and outerpatterns suggest in some cases that they belong to different spiralmodes. The pitch angles of the main two-armed symmetric spiral patternin the galaxies have a typical range of 5-30 °. The sample shows alack of strong, tight spirals which could indicate that such patternsare damped by non-linear, dynamical effects due to their high radialforce perturbations.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile; programs: ESO 63.N-0343, 65.N-0287, 66.N-0257.Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/423/849Appendix A is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org
|The ISOPHOT 170 μm Serendipity Survey II. The catalog of optically identified galaxies%|
The ISOPHOT Serendipity Sky Survey strip-scanning measurements covering≈15% of the far-infrared (FIR) sky at 170 μm were searched forcompact sources associated with optically identified galaxies. CompactSerendipity Survey sources with a high signal-to-noise ratio in at leasttwo ISOPHOT C200 detector pixels were selected that have a positionalassociation with a galaxy identification in the NED and/or Simbaddatabases and a galaxy counterpart visible on the Digitized Sky Surveyplates. A catalog with 170 μm fluxes for more than 1900 galaxies hasbeen established, 200 of which were measured several times. The faintest170 μm fluxes reach values just below 0.5 Jy, while the brightest,already somewhat extended galaxies have fluxes up to ≈600 Jy. For thevast majority of listed galaxies, the 170 μm fluxes were measured forthe first time. While most of the galaxies are spirals, about 70 of thesources are classified as ellipticals or lenticulars. This is the onlycurrently available large-scale galaxy catalog containing a sufficientnumber of sources with 170 μm fluxes to allow further statisticalstudies of various FIR properties.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, TheNetherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.Members of the Consortium on the ISOPHOT Serendipity Survey (CISS) areMPIA Heidelberg, ESA ISO SOC Villafranca, AIP Potsdam, IPAC Pasadena,Imperial College London.Full Table 4 and Table 6 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/422/39
|The UZC-SSRS2 Group Catalog|
We apply a friends-of-friends algorithm to the combined Updated ZwickyCatalog and Southern Sky Redshift Survey to construct a catalog of 1168groups of galaxies; 411 of these groups have five or more members withinthe redshift survey. The group catalog covers 4.69 sr, and all groupsexceed the number density contrast threshold, δρ/ρ=80. Wedemonstrate that the groups catalog is homogeneous across the twounderlying redshift surveys; the catalog of groups and their membersthus provides a basis for other statistical studies of the large-scaledistribution of groups and their physical properties. The medianphysical properties of the groups are similar to those for groupsderived from independent surveys, including the ESO Key Programme andthe Las Campanas Redshift Survey. We include tables of groups and theirmembers.
|Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups|
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|The I-Band Tully-Fisher Relation for SC Galaxies: 21 Centimeter H I Line Data|
A compilation of 21 cm line spectral parameters specifically designedfor application of the Tully-Fisher (TF) distance method is presentedfor 1201 spiral galaxies, primarily field Sc galaxies, for which opticalI-band photometric imaging is also available. New H I line spectra havebeen obtained for 881 galaxies. For an additional 320 galaxies, spectraavailable in a digital archive have been reexamined to allow applicationof a single algorithm for the derivation of the TF velocity widthparameter. A velocity width algorithm is used that provides a robustmeasurement of rotational velocity and permits an estimate of the erroron that width taking into account the effects of instrumental broadeningand signal-to-noise. The digital data are used to establish regressionrelations between measurements of velocity widths using other commonprescriptions so that comparable widths can be derived throughconversion of values published in the literature. The uniform H I linewidths presented here provide the rotational velocity measurement to beused in deriving peculiar velocities via the TF method.
|The I-Band Tully-Fisher Relation for SC Galaxies: Optical Imaging Data|
Properties derived from the analysis of photometric I-band imagingobservations are presented for 1727 inclined spiral galaxies, mostly oftypes Sbc and Sc. The reduction, parameter extraction, and errorestimation procedures are discussed in detail. The asymptotic behaviorof the magnitude curve of growth and the radial variation in ellipticityand position angle are used in combination with the linearity of thesurface brightness falloff to fit the disk portion of the profile. TotalI-band magnitudes are calculated by extrapolating the detected surfacebrightness profile to a radius of eight disk scale lengths. Errors inthe magnitudes, typically ~0.04 mag, are dominated by uncertainties inthe sky subtraction and disk-fitting procedures. Comparison is made withthe similar imaging database of Mathewson, Ford, & Buchhorn, both aspresented originally by those authors and after reanalyzing theirdigital reduction files using identical disk-fitting procedures. Directcomparison is made of profile details for 292 galaxies observed incommon. Although some differences occur, good agreement is found,proving that the two data sets can be used in combination with onlyminor accommodation of those differences. The compilation of opticalproperties presented here is optimized for use in applications of theTully-Fisher relation as a secondary distance indicator in studies ofthe local peculiar velocity field.
|Extensive Spiral Structure and Corotation Resonance|
Spiral density wave theories demand that grand-design spiral structurebe bounded, at most, between the inner and outer Lindblad resonances ofthe spiral pattern. The corotation resonance lies between the outer andthe inner Lindblad resonances. The locations of the resonances are atradii whose ratios to each other are rather independent of the shape ofthe rotation curve. The measured ratio of outer to inner extent ofspiral structure for a given spiral galaxy can be compared to thestandard ratio of corotation to inner Lindblad resonance radius. In thecase that the measured ratio far exceeds the standard ratio, it islikely that the corotation resonance is within the bright optical disk.Studying such galaxies can teach us how the action of resonances sculptsthe appearance of spiral disks. This paper reports observations of 140disk galaxies, leading to resonance ratio tests for 109 qualified spiralgalaxies. It lists candidates that have a good chance of having thecorotation resonance radius within the bright optical disk.
|Active Galactic Nucleus Activity in Giant, Low Surface Brightness Galaxies|
A search of large, H i-rich disk galaxies finds a significantly higherfraction of low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN) signaturescompared with other late-type galaxies. Approximately half the galaxiesselected in this sample have AGN-like behavior in their cores; the resthave H ii nuclei resulting from simple star formation. Since AGNbehavior is not evident in all the sample galaxies, which where selectedby high gas mass, we speculate that it is the fuel flow rate that is thecommon feature between late-type low surface brightness disks and otheractive nuclear galaxies.
|Catalogue of HI maps of galaxies. I.|
A catalogue is presented of galaxies having large-scale observations inthe HI line. This catalogue collects from the literature the informationthat characterizes the observations in the 21-cm line and the way thatthese data were presented by means of maps, graphics and tables, forshowing the distribution and kinematics of the gas. It containsfurthermore a measure of the HI extension that is detected at the levelof the maximum sensitivity reached in the observations. This catalogueis intended as a guide for references on the HI maps published in theliterature from 1953 to 1995 and is the basis for the analysis of thedata presented in Paper II. The catalogue is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp 126.96.36.199 orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|Spatial coincidence between a number of Hickson compact groups and loose groups or clusters|
Spatial coincidences have been detected between Hickson compact groupsand 36 loose groups and seven Abell clusters. The coincidences werefound from examination of (a) prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, (b)galaxy redshift information in the de Vaucouleurs et al. (1992) ThirdReference Catalog of Bright Galaxies, (c) locational information forloose groups in recent catalogs by Fouque et al. (1992, A&AS, 93, 211),Nolthenius (1993, ApJS, 85, 1), Garcia (1993, A&AS, 100, 47), and (d)locational information for Abell clusters. Seven-tenths (0.7) of theHickson compact groups with redshift z less than or equal to 0.02 arelocated within loose groups.
|General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups|
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.
|Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members|
This paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent.
|The far-infrared properties of the CfA galaxy sample. I - The catalog|
IRAS flux densities are presented for all galaxies in the Center forAstrophysics magnitude-limited sample (mB not greater than 14.5)detected in the IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), a total of 1544galaxies. The detection rate in the FSS is slightly larger than in thePSC for the long-wavelength 60- and 100-micron bands, but improves by afactor of about 3 or more for the short wavelength 12- and 25-micronbands. This optically selected sample consists of galaxies which are, onaverage, much less IR-active than galaxies in IR-selected samples. Itpossesses accurate and complete redshift, morphological, and magnitudeinformation, along with observations at other wavelengths.
|Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. I - Grouping hierarchical method and statistical properties|
An all-sky sample of 4143 galaxies comprising all the objects with anapparent diameter D(25) larger than 100 arcsec and with recessionvelocities smaller than 6000 km/s (i.e., closer than 80 Mpc) wasanalyzed using a hierarchical algorithm similar to Tully's (1987)algorithm, in order to classify the galaxies into groups defined asentities having an average luminosity density higher than 8 x 10 exp 9solar luminosity in the B band/Mpc cubed. The hierarchy is built on themass density of the aggregates progressively formed by the method,corrected for the loss of faint galaxies with the distance. In this way,264 groups of at least three members were identified, among which 82have more than five members and are located at distances lower than 40Mpc. It was found that (1) almost all the crossing times are lower thanH0 exp -1, confirming the bound nature of the groups; (2) themedian virial mass to blue luminosity ratio of the groups is 74 solarmass per solar luminosity in the B band; and (3) the M/L ratio increaseswith the group size, indicating the presence of dark matter aroundgalaxies to a distance of 500 kpc.
|A case for H0 = 42 and Omega(0) = 1 using luminous spiral galaxies and the cosmological time scale test|
The two principal methods of finding the Hubble velocity-distance ratiosfor individual galaxies are compared, and it is shown that one route toH0 is flawed by selection effects when using flux-limited catalogs. Theproof is made by analyzing two sets of catalogs that reach differentapparent flux levels, so that selection effects are shown directly. Theoptical data on field spiral galaxies of the brightest van den Berghluminosity class are analyzed. Calibration using M31, M81, and M101which have Cepheid distances gives H0 = 42 + or - 11 km/s/Mpc. It isshown that all values of H0 derived by the method of assigning a fixedabsolute magnitude to any given distance indicator is subject tosystematic error, giving too large an H0 value if uncorrected for bias.The age of the globular clusters is adopted to be 13.5 + or - 1 Gyr, andthe age of the universe is put at 14.9 + or - 2 Gyr. A value of Omega(0)= 1.2 + 3 or - 0.9 with Lambda = 0 is obtained.
|Large-scale structure of the Hercules supercluster.|
|The peculiar velocity of the Local Group. I - H I observations of SB and SBC galaxies|
H I observations of a sample of 128 Sb and Sbc galaxies ranging inlinear diameter from 9-128 kpc, and in total mass from 6.3 x 10 to the9th solar masses to 1.3 x 10 to the 12th solar masses, are presented.Measurements of H I self-absorption are not found to vary withinclination, though a dependence of observed diameters and luminositieson inclination is noted. Total surface mass density and color index areshown to be highly correlated, implying that star-formation in thesegalaxies is governed by disk density rather than total mass or gasrichness. From 12-arcmin resolution local Galactic H I observations, newcorrection factors for diameters and luminosities are derived to allowfor the effects of galactic obscuration.
|Arm classifications for spiral galaxies|
The spiral arm classes of 762 galaxies are tabulated; 636 galaxies withlow inclinations and radii larger than 1 arcmin were classified on thebasis of their blue images on the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS),76 SA galaxies in the group catalog of Geller and Huchra were alsoclassified from the POSS, and 253 galaxies in high-resolution atlaseswere classified from their atlas photographs. This spiral armclassification system was previously shown to correlate with thepresence of density waves, and galaxies with such waves were shown tooccur primarily in the densest galactic groups. The present sampleindicates, in addition, that grand design galaxies (i.e., those whichtend to contain prominent density wave modes) are physically larger thanflocculent galaxies (which do not contain such prominent modes) by afactor of about 1.5. A larger group sample confirms the previous resultthat grand design galaxies are preferentially in dense groups.
|Structure of superclusters and supercluster formation. V - Spatial correlation and voids|
The galaxian spatial correlation function is calculated for variousobservational samples having different sample volume. It is demonstratedthat the correlation length increases with sample volume. For volumesconsiderably smaller than the size of the Local Supercluster thecorrelation length is about half the conventional value, 5/h Mpc, whichcorresponds to sizes of intermediate samples, containing the wholesupercluster. Samples containing several superclusters have correlationlengths twice the conventional one. Similar calculations have beencarried out for various theoretical models. Samples representingluminous matter in a neutrino-dominated universe and having differentsample volumes have correlation length which increases with volume untilthe sample size reaches the average size of voids. Further increase inthe sample size does not change the correlation length, indicating thatfair samples of the model universe have been reached. These calculationsand simple theoretical estimates indicate that the value of thecorrelation length reflects the filling factor of the sample and thepresence of large voids in galaxy distribution. The observed correlationfunction of galaxies reflects the distribution of luminous matter. Aftercorrecting for the difference between the correlation functions of truemass and galaxies, the correlation length for a fair sample of theuniverse is estimated to be 10/h Mpc.
|Morphology of spiral galaxies. I - General properties|
Red Palomar Sky Survey plates are scanned to characterize a completesample of 605 spiral galaxies north of declination -33 deg havinginclination angle less than 56 deg and blue diameter 2-15 arcmin. Theselection of the data and the reduction and parameter-extractionprocedures are explained, and the data and the results of statisticalanalysis are presented in tables and graphs. Findings reported include alow frequency of occurrence for small inclination angles (suggestingdistortion of outer structures), similar distributions of central diskbrightness for types Sa-Sc but not for types Sd-Sm (where mean valuesare smaller), fewer late-type galaxies with large exponential-disk scalelengths, no galaxies with both high central brightness and large scalelength (indicating a limit on angular momentum in galaxy formation), anda correlation between mean surface brightness and absolute magnitude forlater-type galaxies but not for types Sa-Scd.
|H I line studies of galaxies. IV - Distance moduli of 468 disk galaxies|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1985A&AS...59...43B&db_key=AST
|The distances and properties of a sample of SC I galaxies|
H I spectra, optical photometry, and H-band photometry have beenobtained for a 20-galaxy subsample of the Sandage and Tammann (1975) andRubin et al. (1976) lists of distant Sc I galaxies, and a Hubble ratioof 91 + or - 3 km/sec per Mpc has been derived. This is in agreementwith an earlier value based on a sample of distant cluster spiralgalaxies, for which the same reduction methods and diameter system asthe present had been used. It is suggested that the degree of agreementbetween the cluster and Sc I samples implies that environmental effectsdo not influence the slope of the spiral IR Tully-Fisher relation, andthat the zero point of the relation is universal. The data also providefurther verification of significant infall motion of the Local Grouptoward Virgo.
|H I line studies of galaxies. III - Distance moduli of 822 disk galaxies|
The distance scale established on the basis of a distance moduli catalog(for 822 galaxies) that was derived from 21-cm line widths via theB-band Tully-Fisher relation is compared with several independent scaleshaving a common zero point, that are based on the indicators forluminosity index, redshift, ring diameters, brightest superassociations,and effective diameters. These are in excellent systematic agreement,and confirm the linearity of the H I scale in the 24-35 modulusinterval, but indicate a small systematic zero point difference of about0.2 mag, which must be added to the H I moduli to place them on the same'short' distance scale defined by the others.
|A catalogue of HI diameters for 238 galaxies|
A large catalog of effective H I diameters for 238 galaxies has beencompiled from new measurements made with the Nancay radiotelescope (40percent of the catalog), and previously published diameters homogenizedto the same definition. A good covering both in morphological types andin luminosity within each type is thus achieved.
|Very large spiral galaxies|
As a first step in the systematic study of large spirals, which may beuseful in cosmological tests and studies of galaxy evolution, a catalogof the 107 largest known spiral galaxies is presented. Catalog galaxieshave isophotal diameters greater than 90 kpc, assuming an H(zero) valueof 50 km/sec per Mpc. UBVR photoelectric photometry is presented for 20of these galaxies, and absolute magnitudes are derived for all galaxiesin the catalog by transforming Zwicky magnitudes to the B(T) system.
|A survey of galaxy redshifts. IV - The data|
The complete list of the best available radial velocities for the 2401galaxies in the merged Zwicky-Nilson catalog brighter than 14.5mz and with b (II) above +40 deg or below -30 deg ispresented. Almost 60 percent of the redshifts are from the CfA surveyand are accurate to typically 35 km/s.
|Groups of galaxies. III - The CfA survey|
A statistically homogeneous group catalog (CfA) is based on the CfAredshift survey (Huchra et al.) is presented. Groups in the catalog areall density enhancements in redshift space of a factor greater than 20.Group members are identified according to the procedure described in aprevious study (Huchra and Geller) of a shallower whole-sky sample. Allgroups contain at least three members. Of the 176 groups in the CfAcatalog, 102 have been identified in one or more previous studies.Because the utilized algorithm searches for volume rather than surfacedensity enhancements, the groups in a given region generally change onlythrough the addition of fainter members when the magnitude limit of thegalaxy catalog increases. In the region of overlap, agreement betweenthe shallow catalog and the CfA catalog is excellent.
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