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The stellar dynamics of spiral arms in barred spiral galaxies
A dynamical mechanism is proposed that explains the spiral structureobserved frequently as a continuation of the bars in barred spiralgalaxies. It is argued that the part of the spirals attached to the baris due to chaotic orbits. These are chaotic orbits that exhibit for longtime intervals a 4:1-resonance orbital behaviour. They are of the sametype of orbit as is responsible for the boxiness of the outer isophotesof the bar in cases like NGC 4314, as indicated by Patsis, Athanassoula& Quillen. The spirals formed this way are faint with respect to thebar, open as they wind out, and do not extend over an angle larger thanπ/2. A possible continuation of the spiral structure towards largerangles can be due to orbits trapped around stable periodic orbits at thecorotation region. We present a family of stable, banana-like periodicorbits, precessing as EJ increases, that can play this role.

Multiwavelength Star Formation Indicators: Observations
We present a compilation of multiwavelength data on different starformation indicators for a sample of nearby star forming galaxies. Herewe discuss the observations, reductions and measurements of ultravioletimages obtained with STIS on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST),ground-based Hα, and VLA 8.46 GHz radio images. These observationsare complemented with infrared fluxes, as well as large-apertureoptical, radio, and ultraviolet data from the literature. This databasewill be used in a forthcoming paper to compare star formation rates atdifferent wave bands. We also present spectral energy distributions(SEDs) for those galaxies with at least one far-infrared measurementsfrom ISO, longward of 100 μm. These SEDs are divided in two groups,those that are dominated by the far-infrared emission, and those forwhich the contribution from the far-infrared and optical emission iscomparable. These SEDs are useful tools to study the properties ofhigh-redshift galaxies.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 mtelescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical ResearchConsortium.

Ultraviolet-to-Far-Infrared Properties of Local Star-forming Galaxies
We present the results of a multiwavelength study of nearby galaxiesaimed at understanding the relation between the ultraviolet andfar-infrared emission in star-forming galaxies. The data set comprisesnew ultraviolet (from HST STIS), ground-based Hα, and radiocontinuum observations, together with archival infrared data (from IRASand ISO). The local galaxies are used as benchmarks for comparison ofthe infrared-to-ultraviolet properties with two populations ofhigh-redshift galaxies: the submillimeter star-forming galaxies detectedby SCUBA and the ultraviolet-selected Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). Inaddition, the long wavelength baseline covered by the present dataenables us to compare the star formation rates (SFRs) derived from theobserved ultraviolet, Hα, infrared, and radio luminosities and togauge the impact of dust opacity in the local galaxies. We also derive anew calibration for the nonthermal part of the radio SFR estimator,based on the comparison of 1.4 GHz measurements with a new estimator ofthe bolometric luminosity of the star-forming regions. We find that moreactively star-forming galaxies show higher dust opacities, which is inline with previous results. We find that the local star-forming galaxieshave a lower Fλ(205 μm)/Fλ(UV)ratio by 2-3 orders of magnitude than the submillimeter-selectedgalaxies and may have a similar or somewhat higherFλ(205 μm)/Fλ(UV) ratio thanLBGs. The Fλ(205 μm)/Fλ(UV) ratioof the local galaxy population may be influenced by the cool dustemission in the far-infrared heated by nonionizing stellar populations,which may be reduced or absent in the LBGs.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 mtelescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical ResearchConsortium.

Double Nucleus in M83
M83 is one of the nearest galaxies with enhanced nuclear star formation,and it presents one of the best opportunities to study the kinematicsand physical properties of a circumnuclear starburst. Ourthree-dimensional spectroscopy data in the R band confirm the presenceof a secondary nucleus or mass concentration (previously suggested byThatte and coworkers). We determine the position of this hidden nucleus,which would be more massive than the visible one and was not detected inthe optical Hubble Space Telescope images due, probably, to the strongdust extinction. Using a Keplerian approximation, we estimated for theoptical nucleus a mass of (5.0+/-0.8)×106Msolar/sini (r<1.5"), and for the hidden nucleus, located4''+/-1'' to the northwest (position angle of271deg+/-15deg) of the optical nucleus, a mass of(1.00+/-0.08)×107 Msolar/sini (r<1.5").The emission-line ratio map also unveils the presence of a secondcircumnuclear ring structure, previously discovered by IR imaging(Elmegreen and coworkers). The data allow us to resolve the behavior ofthe interstellar medium inside the circumnuclear ring and around thebinary mass concentration.

Toward a clean sample of ultra-luminous X-ray sources
Context: .Observational follow-up programmes for the characterization ofultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) require the construction of cleansamples of such sources in which the contamination byforeground/background sources is minimum. Aims: .We calculate thedegree of foreground/background contaminants among the ULX samplecandidates in a published catalogue and compare these computations withavailable spectroscopic identifications. Methods: .We usestatistics based on known densities of X-ray sources and AGN/QSOsselected in the optical. The analysis is done individually for eachparent galaxy. The existing identifications of the optical counterpartsare compiled from the literature. Results: .More than a half ofthe ULXs, within twice the distance of the major axis of the 25mag/arcsec2 isophote from RC3 nearby galaxies and with X-rayluminosities L_X[ 2-10 keV] ≥ 1039 erg/s, are expected tobe high redshift background QSOs. A list of 25 objects (clean sample)confirmed to be real ULXs or to have a low probability of beingcontaminant foreground/background objects is provided.

The K-band properties of Seyfert 2 galaxies
Aims. It is well known that the [O iii]λ5007 emission line andhard X-ray (2-10 keV) luminosities are good indicators of AGN activitiesand that the near and mid-infrared emission of AGN originates fromre-radiation of dusty clouds heated by the UV/optical radiation from theaccretion disk. In this paper we present a study of the near-infraredK-band (2.2 μm) properties for a sample of 65 Seyfert 2 galaxies. Methods: .By using the AGN/Bulge/Disk decomposition technique, weanalyzed the 2MASS K_S-band images for Seyfert 2 galaxies in order toderive the K_S-band magnitudes for the central engine, bulge, and diskcomponents. Results: .We find that the K_S-band magnitudes of thecentral AGN component in Seyfert 2 galaxies are tightly correlated withthe [O iii]λ5007 and the hard X-ray luminosities, which suggeststhat the AGN K-band emission is also an excellent indicator of thenuclear activities at least for Seyfert 2 galaxies. We also confirm thegood relation between the central black hole masses and bulge's K-bandmagnitudes for Seyfert 2s.

An atlas of calcium triplet spectra of active galaxies
We present a spectroscopic atlas of active galactic nuclei covering theregion around the λλ8498, 8542, 8662 calcium triplet(CaT). The sample comprises 78 objects, divided into 43 Seyfert 2s, 26Seyfert 1s, three starburst and six normal galaxies. The spectra pertainto the inner ~300 pc in radius, and thus sample the central kinematicsand stellar populations of active galaxies. The data are used to measurestellar velocity dispersions (σ*) with bothcross-correlation and direct fitting methods. These measurements arefound to be in good agreement with each other and with those in previousstudies for objects in common. The CaT equivalent width is alsomeasured. We find average values and sample dispersions ofWCaT of 4.6 +/- 2.0, 7.0 +/- 1.0 and 7.7 +/- 1.0 Å forSeyfert 1s, Seyfert 2s and normal galaxies, respectively. We furtherpresent an atlas of [SIII]λ9069 emission-line profiles for asubset of 40 galaxies. These data are analysed in a companion paperwhich addresses the connection between stellar and narrow-line regionkinematics, the behaviour of the CaT equivalent width as a function ofσ*, activity type and stellar population properties.

XMM-Newton observations of the interacting galaxy pairs NGC 7771/0 and NGC 2342/1
We present XMM-Newton X-ray observations of the interacting galaxy pairsNGC 7771/7770 and NGC 2342/2341. In NGC 7771, for the first time we areable to resolve the X-ray emission into a bright central source plus twobright (LX > 1040 erg s-1)ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) located either end of the bar. In thebright central source (LX~ 1041 ergs-1), the soft emission is well-modelled by a two-temperaturethermal plasma with kT= 0.4/0.7 keV. The hard emission is modelled witha flat absorbed power-law (Γ~ 1.7, NH~ 1022cm-2), and this together with a low-significance (1.7σ)~ 300 eV equivalent width emission line at ~6 keV are the firstindications that NGC 7771 may host a low-luminosity AGN. For the barULXs, a power-law fit to X-1 is improved at the 2.5σ level withthe addition of a thermal plasma component (kT~ 0.3 keV), while X-2 isimproved only at the 1.3σ level with the addition of a discblackbody component with Tin~ 0.2 keV. Both sources arevariable on short time-scales implying that their emission is dominatedby single accreting X-ray binaries (XRBs). The three remaining galaxies,NGC 7770, NGC 2342 and NGC 2341, have observed X-ray luminosities of0.2, 1.8 and 0.9 × 1041 erg s-1,respectively (0.3-10 keV). Their integrated spectra are alsowell-modelled by multi-temperature thermal plasma components with kT=0.2-0.7 keV, plus power-law continua with slopes of Γ= 1.8-2.3that are likely to represent the integrated emission of populations ofXRBs as observed in other nearby merger systems. A comparison with otherisolated, interacting and merging systems shows that all four galaxiesfollow the established correlations for starburst galaxies betweenX-ray, far-infrared and radio luminosities, demonstrating that theirX-ray outputs are dominated by their starburst components.

A wide-field HI study of the NGC 1566 group
We report on neutral hydrogen observations of a ~ 5.5 × 5.5deg2 field around the NGC 1566 galaxy group with themultibeam narrow-band system on the 64-m Parkes Telescope. We detected13 HI sources in the field, including two galaxies not previously knownto be members of the group, bringing the total number of confirmedgalaxies in this group to 26. Each of the HI galaxies can be associatedwith an optically catalogued galaxy. No `intergalactic HI clouds' werefound to an HI mass limit of ~3.5 ×108Msolar. We have estimated the expected HIcontent of the late-type galaxies in this group and find that the totaldetected HI is consistent with our expectations. However, while noglobal HI deficiency is inferred for this group, two galaxies exhibitindividual HI deficiencies. Further observations are needed to determinethe gas removal mechanisms in these galaxies.

Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources in Nearby Galaxies from ROSAT High Resolution Imager Observations I. Data Analysis
X-ray observations have revealed in other galaxies a class ofextranuclear X-ray point sources with X-ray luminosities of1039-1041 ergs s-1, exceeding theEddington luminosity for stellar mass X-ray binaries. Theseultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) may be powered by intermediate-massblack holes of a few thousand Msolar or stellar mass blackholes with special radiation processes. In this paper, we present asurvey of ULXs in 313 nearby galaxies withD25>1' within 40 Mpc with 467 ROSAT HighResolution Imager (HRI) archival observations. The HRI observations arereduced with uniform procedures, refined by simulations that help definethe point source detection algorithm employed in this survey. A sampleof 562 extragalactic X-ray point sources withLX=1038-1043 ergs s-1 isextracted from 173 survey galaxies, including 106 ULX candidates withinthe D25 isophotes of 63 galaxies and 110 ULX candidatesbetween 1D25 and 2D25 of 64 galaxies, from which aclean sample of 109 ULXs is constructed to minimize the contaminationfrom foreground or background objects. The strong connection betweenULXs and star formation is confirmed based on the striking preference ofULXs to occur in late-type galaxies, especially in star-forming regionssuch as spiral arms. ULXs are variable on timescales over days to yearsand exhibit a variety of long term variability patterns. Theidentifications of ULXs in the clean sample show some ULXs identified assupernovae (remnants), H II regions/nebulae, or young massive stars instar-forming regions, and a few other ULXs identified as old globularclusters. In a subsequent paper, the statistic properties of the surveywill be studied to calculate the occurrence frequencies and luminosityfunctions for ULXs in different types of galaxies to shed light on thenature of these enigmatic sources.

Magnetic fields in barred galaxies. IV. NGC 1097 and NGC 1365
We present λ3.5 cm and λ6.2 cm radio continuum maps intotal and polarized intensity of the barred galaxies NGC 1097 (at2´´-15´´ resolution) and NGC 1365 (at9´´-25´´ resolution). A previously unknown radiogalaxy southwest of NGC 1097 is reported. Apart from a smooth faintenvelope and a bright central region, both galaxies exhibit radio ridgesroughly overlapping with the massive dust lanes in the bar region. Thecontrast in total intensity across the radio ridges is compatible withcompression and shear of an isotropic random magnetic field, where thegas density compression ratio is approximately equal to 4 and the cosmicray density is constant across the ridges. The contrast in polarizedintensity is significantly smaller than that expected from compressionand shearing of the regular magnetic field; this could be the result ofdecoupling of the regular field from the dense molecular clouds. Theregular field in the ridge is probably strong enough to reducesignificantly shear in the diffuse gas (to which it is coupled) andhence to reduce magnetic field amplification by shearing. Thiscontributes to the misalignment of the observed field orientation withrespect to the velocity vectors of the dense gas. Our observations, forthe first time, indicate that magnetic forces can control the flow ofthe diffuse interstellar gas at kiloparsec scales. The total radiointensity reaches its maximum in the circumnuclear starburst regions,where the equipartition field strength is about 60 μG, amongst thestrongest fields detected in spiral galaxies so far. The regular fieldin the inner region has a spiral shape with large pitch angle,indicating the action of a dynamo. Magnetic stress leads to mass inflowtowards the centre, sufficient to feed the active nucleus in NGC 1097. -We detected diffuse X-ray emission, possibly forming a halo of hot gasaround NGC 1097.

A catalogue of ultraluminous X-ray sources in external galaxies
We present a catalogue of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in externalgalaxies. The aim of this catalogue is to provide easy access to theproperties of ULXs, their possible counterparts at other wavelengths(optical, IR, and radio), and their host galaxies. The cataloguecontains 229 ULXs reported in the literature until April 2004. Most ULXsare stellar-mass-black hole X-ray binaries, but it is not excluded thatsome ULXs could be intermediate-mass black holes. A small fraction ofthe candidate ULXs may be background Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) andSupernova Remnants (SNRs). ULXs with luminosity above 1040ergs s-1 are found in both starburst galaxies and in thehalos of early-type galaxies.Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/429/1125

The star formation history of Seyfert 2 nuclei
We present a study of the stellar populations in the central ~200 pc ofa large and homogeneous sample comprising 79 nearby galaxies, most ofwhich are Seyfert 2s. The star formation history of these nuclei isreconstructed by means of state-of-the-art population synthesismodelling of their spectra in the 3500-5200 Åinterval. Aquasar-like featureless continuum (FC) is added to the models to accountfor possible scattered light from a hidden active galactic nucleus(AGN).We find the following. (1) The star formation history of Seyfert 2nuclei is remarkably heterogeneous: young starbursts, intermediate-ageand old stellar populations all appear in significant and widely varyingproportions. (2) A significant fraction of the nuclei show a strong FCcomponent, but this FC is not always an indication of a hidden AGN: itcan also betray the presence of a young, dusty starburst. (3) We detectweak broad Hβ emission in several Seyfert 2s after cleaning theobserved spectrum by subtracting the synthesis model. These are mostlikely the weak scattered lines from the hidden broad-line regionenvisaged in the unified model, given that in most of these casesindependent spectropolarimetry data find a hidden Seyfert 1. (4) The FCstrengths obtained by the spectral decomposition are substantiallylarger for the Seyfert 2s which present evidence of broad lines,implying that the scattered non-stellar continuum is also detected. (5)There is no correlation between the star formation in the nucleus andeither the central or overall morphology of the parent galaxies.

LX-SFR relation in star-forming galaxies
We compare the results of Grimm, Gilfanov & Sunyaev and Ranalli,Comastri & Seti on the LX-SFR (X-ray luminosity-starformation rate) relation in normal galaxies. Based on theLX-stellar mass dependence for low-mass X-ray binaries(LMXBs), we show that low-SFR (<~1 Msolar yr-1)galaxies in the Ranalli et al. sample are contaminated by the X-rayemission from LMXBs, unrelated to the current star formation activity.However, the most important conclusion from our comparison is that,after the data are corrected for the `LMXB contamination', the two datasets become consistent with each other, despite differences in theircontent, variability effects, adopted source distances, X-ray fluxes andSFR determinations, and also in the cosmological parameters used ininterpreting the Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) data. They also agreewell, both in the low- and high-SFR regimes, with the predictedLX-SFR dependence derived from the parameters of the`universal' high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) luminosity function. Thisencouraging result emphasizes the potential of the X-ray luminosity asan independent SFR indicator for normal galaxies.

Circumnuclear Structure and Black Hole Fueling: Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Imaging of 250 Active and Normal Galaxies
Why are the nuclei of some galaxies more active than others? If mostgalaxies harbor a central massive black hole, the main difference isprobably in how well it is fueled by its surroundings. We investigatethe hypothesis that such a difference can be seen in the detailedcircumnuclear morphologies of galaxies using several quantitativelydefined features, including bars, isophotal twists, boxy and diskyisophotes, and strong nonaxisymmetric features in unsharp-masked images.These diagnostics are applied to 250 high-resolution images of galaxycenters obtained in the near-infrared with NICMOS on the Hubble SpaceTelescope. To guard against the influence of possible biases andselection effects, we have carefully matched samples of Seyfert 1,Seyfert 2, LINER, starburst, and normal galaxies in their basicproperties, taking particular care to ensure that each was observed witha similar average scale (10-15 pc pixel-1). Severalmorphological differences among our five different spectroscopicclassifications emerge from the analysis. The H II/starburst galaxiesshow the strongest deviations from smooth elliptical isophotes, whilethe normal galaxies and LINERs have the least disturbed morphology. TheSeyfert 2s have significantly more twisted isophotes than any othercategory, and the early-type Seyfert 2s are significantly more disturbedthan the early-type Seyfert 1s. The morphological differences betweenSeyfert 1s and Seyfert 2s suggest that more is at work than simply theviewing angle of the central engine. They may correspond to differentevolutionary stages.

Follow-Up Chandra Observations of Three Candidate Tidal Disruption Events
Large-amplitude, high-luminosity soft X-ray flares were detected by theROSAT All-Sky Survey in several galaxies with no evidence of Seyfertactivity in their ground-based optical spectra. These flares had theproperties predicted for a tidal disruption of a star by a centralsupermassive black hole. We report Chandra observations of three ofthese galaxies taken a decade after their flares that reveal weaknuclear X-ray sources that are from 240 to 6000 times fainter than theirluminosities at peak, supporting the theory that these were specialevents and not ongoing active galactic nucleus (AGN) variability. Thedecline of RX J1624.9+7554 by a factor of 6000 is consistent with the(t-tD)-5/3 decay predicted for the fallback phaseof a tidal disruption event, but only if ROSAT was lucky enough to catchthe event exactly at its peak in 1990 October. RX J1242.6-1119A hasdeclined by a factor of 240, also consistent with(t-tD)-5/3. In the H II galaxy NGC 5905 we findonly resolved, soft X-ray emission that is undoubtedly associated withstarburst activity. When accounting for the starburst component, theROSAT observations of NGC 5905, as well as the Chandra upper limit onits nuclear flux, are consistent with a (t-tD)-5/3decay by at least a factor of 1000. Although we found weak Seyfert 2emission lines in Hubble Space Telescope spectra of NGC 5905, indicatingthat a low-luminosity AGN was present prior to the X-ray flare, we favora tidal disruption explanation for the flare itself.

Elusive active galactic nuclei
A fraction of active galactic nuclei do not show the classicalSeyfert-type signatures in their optical spectra, i.e. they areoptically `elusive'. X-ray observations are an optimal tool to identifythis class of objects. We combine new Chandra observations with archivalX-ray data in order to obtain a first estimate of the fraction ofelusive active galactic nuclei (AGN) in local galaxies and to constraintheir nature. Our results suggest that elusive AGN have a local densitycomparable to or even higher than optically classified Seyfert nuclei.Most elusive AGN are heavily absorbed in the X-rays, with gas columndensities exceeding 1024 cm-2, suggesting thattheir peculiar nature is associated with obscuration. It is likely thatin elusive AGN the nuclear UV source is completely embedded and theionizing photons cannot escape, which prevents the formation of aclassical narrow-line region. Elusive AGN may contribute significantlyto the 30-keV bump of the X-ray background.

The column density distribution function at z= 0 from HI selected galaxies
We have measured the column density distribution function, f(NHI), at z= 0 using 21-cm HI emission from galaxies selected from ablind HI survey. f(NH I) is found to be smaller and flatterat z= 0 than indicated by high-redshift measurements of damped Lymanα (DLA) systems, consistent with the predictions of hierarchicalgalaxy formation. The derived DLA number density per unit redshift,dNDLA/dz= 0.058, is in moderate agreement with valuescalculated from low-redshift QSO absorption line studies. We use twodifferent methods to determine the types of galaxies which contributemost to the DLA cross-section: comparing the power-law slope off(NH I) to theoretical predictions and analysingcontributions to dNDLA/dz. We find that comparison of thepower-law slope cannot rule out spiral discs as the dominant galaxy typeresponsible for DLA systems. Analysis of dNDLA/dz however, ismuch more discriminating. We find that galaxies with log MHI< 9.0 make up 34 per cent of dNDLA/dz Irregular andMagellanic types contribute 25 per cent; galaxies with surfacebrightness account for 22 per cent and sub-L* galaxiescontribute 45 per cent to dNDLA/dz. We conclude that a largerange of galaxy types give rise to DLA systems, not just large spiralgalaxies as previously speculated.

Circumnuclear Dust in Nearby Active and Inactive Galaxies. II. Bars, Nuclear Spirals, and the Fueling of Active Galactic Nuclei
We present a detailed study of the relation between circumnuclear dustmorphology, host-galaxy properties, and nuclear activity in nearbygalaxies. We use our sample of 123 nearby galaxies withvisible-near-infrared color maps from the Hubble Space Telescope tocreate well-matched, ``paired'' samples of 28 active and 28 inactivegalaxies, as well as 19 barred and 19 unbarred galaxies, that have thesame host-galaxy properties. Comparison of the barred and unbarredgalaxies shows that grand-design nuclear dust spirals are found only ingalaxies with a large-scale bar. These nuclear dust spirals, which arepresent in approximately one-third of all barred galaxies, also appearto be connected to the dust lanes along the leading edges of thelarge-scale bars. Grand-design nuclear spirals are more common thaninner rings, which are present in only a small minority of the barredgalaxies. Tightly wound nuclear dust spirals, in contrast, show a strongtendency to avoid galaxies with large-scale bars. Comparison of theactive galactic nuclei (AGNs)and inactive samples shows that nucleardust spirals, which may trace shocks and angular momentum dissipation inthe interstellar medium, occur with comparable frequency in both activeand inactive galaxies. The only difference between the active andinactive galaxies is that several inactive galaxies appear to completelylack dust structure in their circumnuclear region, while none of theAGNs lack this structure. The comparable frequency of nuclear spirals inactive and inactive galaxies, combined with previous work that finds nosignificant difference in the frequency of bars or interactions betweenwell-matched active and inactive galaxies, suggests that no universalfueling mechanism for low-luminosity AGNs operates at spatial scalesgreater than a ~100 pc radius from the galactic nuclei. The similaritiesof the circumnuclear environments of active and inactive galaxiessuggest that the lifetime of nuclear activity is less than thecharacteristic inflow time from these spatial scales. Anorder-of-magnitude estimate of this inflow time is the dynamicaltimescale. This sets an upper limit of several million years to thelifetime of an individual episode of nuclear activity.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS5-26555.

The IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample
IRAS flux densities, redshifts, and infrared luminosities are reportedfor all sources identified in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample(RBGS), a complete flux-limited survey of all extragalactic objects withtotal 60 μm flux density greater than 5.24 Jy, covering the entiresky surveyed by IRAS at Galactic latitudes |b|>5°. The RBGS includes629 objects, with median and mean sample redshifts of 0.0082 and 0.0126,respectively, and a maximum redshift of 0.0876. The RBGS supersedes theprevious two-part IRAS Bright Galaxy Samples(BGS1+BGS2), which were compiled before the final(Pass 3) calibration of the IRAS Level 1 Archive in 1990 May. The RBGSalso makes use of more accurate and consistent automated methods tomeasure the flux of objects with extended emission. The RBGS contains 39objects that were not present in the BGS1+BGS2,and 28 objects from the BGS1+BGS2 have beendropped from RBGS because their revised 60 μm flux densities are notgreater than 5.24 Jy. Comparison of revised flux measurements forsources in both surveys shows that most flux differences are in therange ~5%-25%, although some faint sources at 12 and 25 μm differ byas much as a factor of 2. Basic properties of the RBGS sources aresummarized, including estimated total infrared luminosities, as well asupdates to cross identifications with sources from optical galaxycatalogs established using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Inaddition, an atlas of images from the Digitized Sky Survey with overlaysof the IRAS position uncertainty ellipse and annotated scale bars isprovided for ease in visualizing the optical morphology in context withthe angular and metric size of each object. The revised bolometricinfrared luminosity function, φ(Lir), forinfrared-bright galaxies in the local universe remains best fit by adouble power law, φ(L)~Lα, withα=-0.6(+/-0.1) and α=-2.2(+/-0.1) below and above the``characteristic'' infrared luminosityL*ir~1010.5Lsolar,respectively. A companion paper provides IRAS High Resolution (HIRES)processing of over 100 RBGS sources where improved spatial resolutionoften provides better IRAS source positions or allows for deconvolutionof close galaxy pairs.

High-energy sources before INTEGRAL. INTEGRAL reference catalog
We describe the INTEGRAL reference catalog which classifies previouslyknown bright X-ray and gamma-ray sources before the launch of INTEGRAL.These sources are, or have been at least once, brighter than ~ 1 mCrababove 3 keV, and are expected to be detected by INTEGRAL. This catalogis being used in the INTEGRAL Quick Look Analysis to discover newsources or significantly variable sources. We compiled several publishedX-ray and gamma-ray catalogs, and surveyed recent publications for newsources. Consequently, there are 1122 sources in our INTEGRAL referencecatalog. In addition to the source positions, we show an approximatespectral model and expected flux for each source, based on which wederive expected INTEGRAL counting rates. Assuming the default instrumentperformances and at least ~ 105 s exposure time for anypart of the sky, we expect that INTEGRAL will detect at least ~ 700sources below 10 keV and ~ 400 sources above 20 keV over the missionlife.The Catalog is available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftpto cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?/A+A/411/L59

Do bulges of early- and late-type spirals have different morphology?
We study HST/NICMOS H-band images of bulges of two equal-sized samplesof early- (TRC3 <= 3) and late-type spiral (mainly Sbc-Sc)galaxies matched in outer disk axis ratio. We find that bulges oflate-type spirals are more elongated than their counterparts inearly-type spirals. Using a KS-test we find that the two distributionsare different at the 98.4% confidence level. We conclude that the twodata sets are different, i.e. late-type galaxies have a broaderellipticity distribution and contain more elongated features in theinner regions. We discuss the possibility that these would correspond tobars at a later evolutionary stage, i.e. secularly evolved bars.Consequent implications are raised, and we discuss relevant questionsregarding the formation and structure of bulges. Are bulges ofearly-type and late-type spirals different? Are their formationscenarios different? Can we talk about bulges in the same way fordifferent types of galaxies?

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

The 2-10 keV luminosity as a Star Formation Rate indicator
Radio and far infrared luminosities of star-forming galaxies follow atight linear relation. Making use of ASCA and BeppoSAX observations of awell-defined sample of nearby star-forming galaxies, we argue that tightlinear relations hold between the X-ray, radio and far infraredluminosities. The effect of intrinsic absorption is investigated takingNGC 3256 as a test case. It is suggested that the hard X-ray emission isdirectly related to the Star Formation Rate. Star formation processesmay also account for most of the 2-10 keV emission from LLAGNs of lowerX-ray luminosities (for the same FIR and radio luminosity). Deep Chandraobservations of a sample of radio-selected star-forming galaxies in theHubble Deep Field North show that the same relation holds also at high(0.2<~ z<~ 1.3) redshift. The X-ray/radio relations also allow aderivation of X-ray number counts up to very faint fluxes from the radioLog N-Log S a, which is consistent with current limits and models. Thusthe contribution of star-forming galaxies to the X-ray background can beestimated.

Study of the X-Ray Background Spectrum and Its Large-Scale Fluctuation with ASCA
We studied the energy spectrum and the large-scale fluctuation of theX-ray background with the ASCA GIS instrument based on the ASCA MediumSensitivity Survey and Large Sky Survey observations. A total of 91fields with Galactic latitude |b| > 10° were selected with a skycoverage of 50 deg2 and 4.2 Ms of exposure. For each field,non-X-ray events were carefully subtracted and sources brighter than ~ 2× 1013 erg cm-2 s-1 (2-10keV)were eliminated. Spectral fits with a single power-law model for theindividual 0.7-10 keV spectra showed a significant excess below ~ 2keV,which could be expressed by an additional thermal model with kT ~= 0.4keV or a steep power-law model with a photon index ofΓsoft ~= 6. The 0.5-2keV intensities of the softthermal component varied significantly from field to field by 1 σ= 52 +4-5%, and showed a maximum toward theGalactic Center. This component is considered to be entirely Galactic.As for the hard power-law component, an average photon index of 91fields was obtained to be Γhard = 1.412 +/- 0.007 +/-0.025 and the average 2-10keV intensity was calculated asFhardX = (6.38 +/- 0.04 +/- 0.64) ×10-8erg cm-2 s-1 sr-1 (1σ statistical and systematic errors). The Galactic component ismarginally detected in the hard band. The 2-10keV intensities show a 1σ deviation of 6.49+0.56-0.61%, whiledeviation due to the reproducibility of the particle background is 3.2%.The observed deviation can be explained by the Poisson noise of thesource count in the f.o.v. (~ 0.5 deg2), even assuming asingle N-logS relation on the whole s ky. Based on the observedfluctuation and the absolute intensity, an acceptable region of theN-logS relation was derived, showing a consistent feature with therecent Chandra and XMM-Newton results. The fluctuation of the spectralindex was also examined; it implied a large amount of hard sources and asubstantial variation in the intrinsic source spectra(Γs ~= 1.1 +/- 1.0).

A New Database of Observed Spectral Energy Distributions of Nearby Starburst Galaxies from the Ultraviolet to the Far-Infrared
We present a database of UV-to-FIR data of 83 nearby starburst galaxies.The galaxies are selected based upon the availability of IUE data. Wehave recalibrated the IUE UV spectra for these galaxies by incorporatingthe most recent improvements. For 45 of these galaxies we useobservations by Storchi-Bergmann et al. and McQuade et al. for thespectra in the optical range. The NIR data are from new observationsobtained at the NASA/IRTF and the Mount Laguna Observatory, combinedwith the published results from observations at the Kitt Peak NationalObservatory. In addition, published calibrated ISO data are included toprovide mid-IR flux densities for some of the galaxies. Theoptical-to-IR data are matched as closely as possible to the IUE largeaperture. In conjunction with IRAS and ISO FIR flux densities, all thesedata form a set of observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of thenuclear regions of nearby starburst galaxies. The SEDs should be usefulin studying star formation and dust/gas attenuation in galaxies. We alsopresent the magnitudes in the standard BVRI and various HST/WFPC2bandpasses synthesized from the UV and optical wavelength ranges ofthese SEDs. For some of the galaxies, the HST/WFPC2 magnitudessynthesized from the SEDs are checked with those directly measured fromWFPC2 images to test the photometric errors of the optical data andtheir effective matching of apertures with the UV data. The implicationsof the new SEDs on the star formation rates and dust/gas attenuation arebriefly discussed.

A Catalog of Candidate Intermediate-Luminosity X-Ray Objects
ROSAT, and now Chandra, X-ray images allow studies of extranuclear X-raypoint sources in galaxies other than our own. X-ray observations ofnormal galaxies with ROSAT and Chandra have revealed that off-nuclear,compact, intermediate-luminosity(LX[2-10keV]>=1039.0 ergs s-1) X-rayobjects (IXOs, a.k.a. ULXs [ultraluminous X-ray sources]) are quitecommon. Here we present a catalog and finding charts for 87 IXOs in 54galaxies, derived from all of the ROSAT HRI imaging data for galaxieswith cz<=5000 km s-1 from the Third Reference Catalog ofBright Galaxies. We have defined the cutoff LX for IXOs sothat it is well above the Eddington luminosity of a 1.4Msolar black hole (1038.3 ergs s-1), soas not to confuse IXOs with ``normal'' black hole X-ray binaries. Thiscatalog is intended to provide a baseline for follow-up work withChandra and XMM-Newton, and with space- and ground-based survey work atwavelengths other than X-ray. We demonstrate that elliptical galaxieswith IXOs have a larger number of IXOs per galaxy than nonellipticalgalaxies with IXOs and note that they are not likely to be merelyhigh-mass X-ray binaries with beamed X-ray emission, as may be the casefor IXOs in starburst galaxies. Approximately half of the IXOs withmultiple observations show X-ray variability, and many (19) of the IXOshave faint optical counterparts in DSS optical B-band images. Follow-upobservations of these objects should be helpful in identifying theirnature.

X-Ray versus Optical Observations of Active Galactic Nuclei: Evidence for Large Grains?
Recently, Maiolino et al. constructed a sample of active galactic nucleifor which both the reddening E(B-V) and the column density NHto the nucleus could be determined. For most of the galaxies in theirsample, they found that E(B-V)/NH is substantially smallerthan for the diffuse interstellar medium of our Galaxy. They assertedthat either the dust-to-gas ratio is lower than in the Galaxy or thegrains are so large that they do not extinct or redden efficiently inthe optical. We show that there is no systematic increase in E(B-V) withNH for the Maiolino et al. galaxies, which suggests that theX-ray absorption and optical extinction occur in distinct media. In alater paper, Maiolino et al. suggested that the observed lines of sightfor the previous Maiolino et al. galaxies pass through the ``torus''that obscures the broad-line region and nuclear continuum in Seyfert 2galaxies and argued that the torus grains are larger than Galacticgrains. There is no reason to believe that the lines of sight for thesegalaxies pass through the torus, since the observed column densities arelower than those typically observed in Seyfert 2 galaxies. We suggestinstead that the X-ray absorption occurs in material located off thetorus and/or accretion disk, while the optical extinction occurs inmaterial located beyond the torus. The X-ray absorbing material couldeither be dust-free or contain large grains that do not extinctefficiently in the optical. There is no conclusive evidence that thegrains in active galactic nuclei are systematically larger than those inthe diffuse interstellar medium of our Galaxy. We discuss an alternativeway to probe the properties of dust in Seyfert tori but find thatobservations of Seyfert 2 nuclei with higher resolution than currentlyavailable will be needed in order to place stringent limits on the dust.

Nested and Single Bars in Seyfert and Non-Seyfert Galaxies
We analyze the observed properties of nested and single stellar barsystems in disk galaxies. The 112 galaxies in our sample comprise thelargest matched Seyfert versus non-Seyfert galaxy sample of nearbygalaxies with complete near-infrared or optical imaging sensitive tolength scales ranging from tens of parsecs to tens of kiloparsecs. Thepresence of bars is deduced by fitting ellipses to isophotes in HubbleSpace Telescope (HST) H-band images up to 10" radius and in ground-basednear-infrared and optical images outside the H-band images. This is aconservative approach that is likely to result in an underestimate ofthe true bar fraction. We find that a significant fraction of the samplegalaxies, 17%+/-4%, have more than one bar, and that 28%+/-5% of barredgalaxies have nested bars. The bar fractions appear to be stableaccording to reasonable changes in our adopted bar criteria. For thenested bars, we detect a clear division in length between thelarge-scale (primary) bars and small-scale (secondary) bars, in bothabsolute and normalized (to the size of the galaxy) length. We arguethat this bimodal distribution can be understood within the framework ofdisk resonances, specifically the inner Lindblad resonances (ILRs),which are located where the gravitational potential of the innermostgalaxy switches effectively from three-dimensional to two-dimensional.This conclusion is further strengthened by the observed distribution ofthe sizes of nuclear rings which are dynamically associated with theILRs. While primary bar sizes are found to correlate with the hostgalaxy sizes, no such correlation is observed for the secondary bars.Moreover, we find that secondary bars differ morphologically from singlebars. Our matched Seyfert and non-Seyfert samples show a statisticallysignificant excess of bars among the Seyfert galaxies at practically alllength scales. We confirm our previous results that bars are moreabundant in Seyfert hosts than in non-Seyfert galaxies and that Seyfertgalaxies always show a preponderance of ``thick'' bars compared to thebars in non-Seyfert galaxies. Finally, no correlation is observedbetween the presence of a bar and that of companion galaxies, evenrelatively bright ones. Overall, since star formation and dustextinction can be significant even in the H band, the stellar dynamicsof the central kiloparsec cannot always be revealed reliably by the useof near-infrared surface photometry alone.

Magnetic fields in barred galaxies. I. The atlas
The total and polarized radio continuum emission of 20 barred galaxieswas observed with the Very Large Array (VLA) at lambda 3, 6, 18 and 22cm and with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at lambda 6 cmand 13 cm. Maps at 30\arcsec angular resolution are presented here.Polarized emission (and therefore a large-scale regular magnetic field)was detected in 17 galaxies. Most galaxies of our sample are similar tonon-barred galaxies with respect to the radio/far-infrared fluxcorrelation and equipartition strength of the total magnetic field.Galaxies with highly elongated bars are not always radio-bright. Wediscuss the correlation of radio properties with the aspect ratio of thebar and other measures of the bar strength. We introduce a new measureof the bar strength, Lambda , related to the quadrupole moment of thebar's gravitational potential. The radio surface brightness I of thebarred galaxies in our sample is correlated with Lambda , I~Lambda0.4+/-0.1, and thus is highest in galaxies with a long barwhere the velocity field is distorted by the bar over a large fractionof the disc. In these galaxies, the pattern of the regular field issignificantly different from that in non-barred galaxies. In particular,field enhancements occur upstream of the dust lanes where the fieldlines are oriented at large angles to the bar's major axis. Polarizedradio emission seems to be a good indicator of large-scalenon-axisymmetric motions. Tables 3, 4 and Figs. 8-10, 13, 15, 16, 18 and22 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

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Right ascension:04h45m42.10s
Aparent dimensions:6.457′ × 5.37′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 1672

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