Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

NGC 1587



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

HI content in galaxies in loose groups
Gas deficiency in cluster spirals is well known and ram-pressurestripping is considered the main gas removal mechanism. In some compactgroups too gas deficiency is reported. However, gas deficiency in loosegroups is not yet well established. Lower dispersion of the membervelocities and the lower density of the intragroup medium in small loosegroups favour tidal stripping as the main gas removal process in them.Recent releases of data from the HI Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS) andcatalogues of nearby loose groups with associated diffuse X-ray emissionhave allowed us to test this notion. In this paper, we address thefollowing questions: (i) do galaxies in groups with diffuse X-rayemission statistically have lower gas content compared to the ones ingroups without diffuse X-ray emission? (ii) does HI deficiency vary withthe X-ray luminosity, LX, of the loose group in a systematicway? We find that (i) galaxies in groups with diffuse X-ray emission, onaverage, are HI deficient, and have lost more gas compared to those ingroups without X-ray emission; the latter are found not to havesignificant HI deficiency; (ii) no systematic dependence of the HIdeficiency with LX is found. Ram-pressure-assisted tidalstripping and evaporation by thermal conduction are the two possiblemechanisms to account for this excess gas loss.

Evidence for radio-source heating of groups
We report evidence that the gas properties of X-ray groups containingradio galaxies differ from those of radio-quiet groups. For awell-studied sample of ROSAT-observed groups, we found that more thanhalf of the elliptical-dominated groups can be considered `radio-loud',and that radio-loud groups are likely to be hotter at a given X-rayluminosity than radio-quiet groups. We tested three different models forthe origin of the effect and conclude that radio-source heating is themost likely explanation. We found several examples of groups where thereis strong evidence from Chandra or XMM-Newton images for interactionsbetween the radio source and the group gas. A variety of radio-sourceheating processes are important, including shock-heating by youngsources and gentler heating by larger sources. The heating effects canbe longer-lasting than the radio emission. We show that the sample ofX-ray groups used in our study is not significantly biased in thefraction of radio-loud groups that it contains. This allows us toconclude that the energy per particle that low-power radio galaxies caninject over the group lifetime is comparable to the requirements ofstructure formation models.

Chandra Observations of Low Velocity Dispersion Groups
Deviations of galaxy groups from cluster scaling relations can beunderstood in terms of an excess of entropy in groups. The main effectof this excess is to reduce the density and thus the luminosity of theintragroup gas. Given this, groups should also show a steep relationshipbetween X-ray luminosity and velocity dispersion. However, previous worksuggests that this is not the case, with many measuring slopes flatterthan the cluster relation. Examining the group LX-σrelation shows that much of the flattening is caused by a small subsetof groups that show very high X-ray luminosities for their velocitydispersions (or vice versa). Detailed Chandra study of two such groupsshows that earlier ROSAT results were subject to significant (~30%-40%)point-source contamination but confirm that a significant hotintergalactic medium is present in these groups, although these are twoof the coolest systems in which intergalactic X-ray emission has beendetected. Their X-ray properties are shown to be broadly consistent withthose of other galaxy groups, although the gas entropy in NGC 1587 isunusually low, and its X-ray luminosity is correspondingly high for itstemperature when compared with most groups. This leads us to suggestthat the velocity dispersion in these systems has been reduced in someway, and we consider how this might have come about.

The Group Evolution Multiwavelength Study (GEMS): bimodal luminosity functions in galaxy groups
We present B- and R-band luminosity functions (LFs) for a sample of 25nearby groups of galaxies. We find that the LFs of the groups with lowX-ray luminosity (LX < 1041.7 ergs-1) are significantly different from those of the X-raybrighter groups, showing a prominent dip around MB=-18. Whileboth categories show lack of late-type galaxies in their centralregions, X-ray dim groups also show a more marked concentration ofoptical luminosity towards the centre. A toy simulation shows that inthe low velocity dispersion environment, as in the X-ray dim group,dynamical friction would facilitate more rapid merging, thus depletingintermediate-luminosity galaxies to form a few giant central galaxies,resulting in the prominent dip seen in our LFs. We suggest that X-raydim (or low velocity dispersion) groups are the present sites of rapiddynamical evolution rather than their X-ray bright counterparts, and maybe the modern precursors of fossil groups. We predict that these groupsof low velocity dispersion would harbour younger stellar populationsthan groups or clusters with higher velocity dispersion.

The GEMS project: X-ray analysis and statistical properties of the group sample
The Group Evolution Multiwavelength Study (GEMS) involves amultiwavelength study of a sample of 60 galaxy groups, chosen to span awide range of group properties. Substantial ROSAT Position SensitiveProportional Counter (PSPC) observations, available for all of thesegroups, are used to characterize the state of the intergalactic mediumin each. We present the results of a uniform analysis of these ROSATdata and a statistical investigation of the relationship between X-rayand optical properties across the sample. Our analysis improves inseveral respects on previous work: (i) we distinguish between systems inwhich the hot gas is a group-scale medium and those in which it appearsto be just a hot halo associated with a central galaxy; (ii) weextrapolate X-ray luminosities to a fixed overdensity radius(r500) using fitted surface brightness models, in order toavoid biases arising from the fact that cooler systems are detectable tosmaller radii, and (iii) optical properties have been rederived in auniform manner from the NASA Extragalactic Database, rather than relyingon the data in the disparate collection of group catalogues from whichour systems are drawn.The steepening of the LX-TX relation in the groupregime reported previously is not seen in our sample, which fits well onto the cluster trend, albeit with large non-statistical scatter. Anumber of biases affect the fitting of regression lines under thesecircumstances, and until the impact of these has been thoroughlyinvestigated it seems best to regard the slope of the groupLX-TX relation as being poorly determined. Asignificant problem in comparing the properties of groups and clustersis the derivation of system radii, to allow different systems to becompared within regions having the same overdensity. We find evidencethat group velocity dispersion (σv) provides a veryunreliable measure of system mass (and hence radius), with a number ofgroups having remarkably low values of σv, given thatthey appear from their X-ray properties to be collapsed systems. Weconfirm that the surface brightness profiles of groups are significantlyflatter than those of clusters - the maximum value of theβfit parameter for our sample is 0.58, lower than thetypical value of 0.67 seen in clusters - however, we find no significanttendency within our sample for cooler groups to show flatter profiles.This result is inconsistent with simple universal pre-heating models.The morphology of the galaxies in the GEMS groups is correlated to theirX-ray properties in a number of ways: we confirm the very strongrelationship between X-ray emission and a dominant early-type centralgalaxy, which has been noted since the early X-ray studies of groups,and also find that spiral fraction is correlated with the temperature ofthe hot gas and hence the depth of the gravitational potential. A classof spiral-rich groups with little or no X-ray emission probablycorresponds to groups that have not yet fully collapsed.

Scaling relations in early-type galaxies belonging to groups
We present a photometric analysis of a large sample of early-typegalaxies in 16 nearby groups, imaged with the Wide-Field Camera on theIsaac Newton Telescope. Using a two-dimensional surface brightnessdecomposition routine, we fit Sersic (r1/n) and exponentialmodels to their bulge and disc components, respectively. Dividing thegalaxies into three subsamples according to the X-ray luminosities oftheir parent groups, we compare their photometric properties. Galaxiesin X-ray luminous groups tend to be larger and more luminous than thosein groups with undetected or low X-ray luminosities, but no significantdifferences in n are seen. Both normal and dwarf elliptical galaxies inthe central regions of groups are found to have cuspier profiles thantheir counterparts in group outskirts.Structural differences between dwarf and normal elliptical galaxies areapparent in terms of an offset between their `photometric planes' in thespace of n, re and μ0. Dwarf ellipticals arefound to populate a surface, with remarkably low scatter, in this spacewith significant curvature, somewhat similar to the surfaces of constantentropy proposed by Màrquez et al. Normal ellipticals are offsetfrom this distribution in a direction of higher specific entropy. Thismay indicate that the two populations are distinguished by the action ofgalaxy merging on larger galaxies.

An X-Ray Atlas of Groups of Galaxies
A search was conducted for a hot intragroup medium in 109 low-redshiftgalaxy groups observed with the ROSAT PSPC. Evidence for diffuse,extended X-ray emission is found in at least 61 groups. Approximatelyone-third of these detections have not been previously reported in theliterature. Most of the groups are detected out to less than half of thevirial radius with ROSAT. Although some spiral-rich groups do contain anintragroup medium, diffuse emission is restricted to groups that containat least one early-type galaxy.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Spectroscopic Data
We present central velocity dispersions and Mg2 line indicesfor an all-sky sample of ~1178 elliptical and S0 galaxies, of which 984had no previous measures. This sample contains the largest set ofhomogeneous spectroscopic data for a uniform sample of ellipticalgalaxies in the nearby universe. These galaxies were observed as part ofthe ENEAR project, designed to study the peculiar motions and internalproperties of the local early-type galaxies. Using 523 repeatedobservations of 317 galaxies obtained during different runs, the dataare brought to a common zero point. These multiple observations, takenduring the many runs and different instrumental setups employed for thisproject, are used to derive statistical corrections to the data and arefound to be relatively small, typically <~5% of the velocitydispersion and 0.01 mag in the Mg2 line strength. Typicalerrors are about 8% in velocity dispersion and 0.01 mag inMg2, in good agreement with values published elsewhere.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

Spectroscopic study of blue compact galaxies. III. Empirical population synthesis
This is the third paper of a series dedicated to the study of the starformation rates, star formation histories, metallicities and dustcontents of a sample of blue compact galaxies (BCGs). We constrain thestellar contents of 73 blue compact galaxies by analyzing theircontinuum spectra and the equivalent widths of strong stellar absorptionfeatures using a technique of empirical population synthesis based on alibrary of observed star-cluster spectra. Our results indicate that bluecompact galaxies are typically age-composite stellar systems; inaddition to young stars, intermediate-age and old stars contributesignificantly to the 5870 Å continuum emission of most galaxies inour sample. The stellar populations of blue compact galaxies also span avariety of metallicities. The ongoing episodes of star formation startedtypically less than a billion years ago. Some galaxies may be undergoingtheir first global episode of star formation, while for most galaxies inour sample, older stars are found to contribute up to half the opticalemission. Our results suggest that BCGs are primarily old galaxies withdiscontinuous star formation histories. These results are consistentwith the results from deep imaging observations of the color-magnitudediagrams of a few nearby BCGs using HST and large ground-basedtelescopes. The good quality of our population synthesis fits of BCGspectra allow us to estimate the contamination of the Hβox{Hα }, Hβ , Hγ and Hdelta Balmer emission lines bystellar absorption. The absorption equivalent widths measured in thesynthetic spectra range from typically 1.5 Å for Hβox{Hα }, to 2-5 Å for Hβ , Hγ , and Hdelta . Theimplied accurate measurements of emission-line intensities will be usedin a later study to constrain the star formation rates and gas-phasechemical element abundances of blue compact galaxies.

A Search for H2O Maser Emission in Southern Active Galactic Nuclei and Star-forming Galaxies: Discovery of a Maser in the Edge-on Galaxy IRAS F01063-8034
We report the cumulative results of five surveys for H2Omaser emission at 1.35 cm wavelength in 131 active galactic nuclei(AGNs) and star-forming galaxies, conducted at the Parkes Observatorybetween 1993 and 1998. We detected one new maser, in the edge-on galaxyIRAS F01063-8034, which exhibits a single ~0.1 Jy spectral feature at4282+/-6 km s-1 (heliocentric) with an unusually large54+/-16 km s-1 half-power full width. The centroid velocityof the emission increased to 4319.6+/-0.6 km s-1 (38+/-2 kms-1 width) over the 13 days between discovery andconfirmation of the detection. A similarly broad-line width and largechange in velocity has been noted for the maser in NGC 1052, wherein jetactivity excites the emission. Neither optical spectroscopy,radio-infrared correlations, nor infrared colors provide compellingevidence of unusual activity in the nucleus of IRAS F01063-8034. Sincethe galaxy appears to be outwardly normal at optical and infraredwavelengths, detection of an H2O maser therein is unique. Themaser emission is evidence that the galaxy harbors an AGN that isprobably obscured by the edge-on galactic disk. The detection highlightsthe possibility that undetected AGNs could be hidden in other relativelynearby galaxies. No other maser emission features have been identifiedat velocities between 3084 and 6181 km s-1.

Environment, Ram Pressure, and Shell Formation in Holmberg II
Neutral hydrogen VLA D-array observations of the dwarf irregular galaxyHoII, a prototype galaxy for studies of shell formation, are presented.These were extracted from the multiconfiguration data set of Puche andcolleagues. H I is detected to radii over 16' or 4R25, almosta factor of 2 better than previous studies. The total H I massMHI=6.44×108 Msolar. Theintegrated H I map has a comet-like appearance, with a large but faintcomponent extending to the northwest and the H I appearing compressed onthe opposite side. This suggests that HoII is affected by ram pressurefrom an intragroup medium (IGM). The velocity field shows a clearrotating disk pattern, and a rotation curve corrected for asymmetricdrift was derived. However, the gas at large radii may not be inequilibrium. Puche and colleagues' multiconfiguration data were alsoreanalyzed, and it is shown that they overestimated their fluxes by over20%. The rotation curve derived for HoII is well defined for r<~10kpc. For 10<~r<~18 kpc, however, velocities are only defined onthe approaching side, such that this part of the rotation curve shouldbe used with caution. An analysis of the mass distribution, using thewhole extent of this rotation curve, yields a total mass of6.3×109 Msolar, of which ~80% is dark.Similarly to what is seen in many dwarfs, there is more luminous mass inH I than in stars. One peculiarity, however, is that luminous matterdominates within the optical body of the galaxy and dark matter only inthe outer parts, analogous to what is seen in massive spirals ratherthan dwarfs. HoII lies northeast of the M81 Group's core, along with Kar52 (M81 dwarf A) and UGC 4483. No signs of interaction are observed,however, and it is argued that HoII is part of the NGC 2403 subgroup,infalling toward M81. A case is made for ram pressure stripping and anIGM in the M81 Group. Stripping of the outer parts of the disk wouldrequire an IGM density nIGM>~4.0×10-6atoms cm-3 at the location of HoII. This corresponds to ~1%of the virial mass of the group uniformly distributed over a volume justenclosing HoII and is consistent with the known X-ray properties ofsmall groups. The H I tail is consistent with additional turbulentviscous stripping and evaporation, at least for low IGM temperatures. Itis argued that existing observations of HoII do not supportself-propagating star formation scenarios, whereby the H I holes andshells are created by supernova explosions and stellar winds. Many H Iholes are located in low surface density regions of the disk, where nostar formation is expected or observed. Alternative mechanisms arediscussed, and it is suggested that ram pressure can help. Ram pressurehas the capacity to enlarge preexisting holes and lower their creationenergies, helping to bridge the gap between the observed star formationrate and that required to create the holes.

Compact groups in the UZC galaxy sample
Applying an automatic neighbour search algorithm to the 3D UZC galaxycatalogue (Falco et al. \cite{Falco}) we have identified 291 compactgroups (CGs) with radial velocity between 1000 and 10 000 kms-1. The sample is analysed to investigate whether Tripletsdisplay kinematical and morphological characteristics similar to higherorder CGs (Multiplets). It is found that Triplets constitute lowvelocity dispersion structures, have a gas-rich galaxy population andare typically retrieved in sparse environments. Conversely Multipletsshow higher velocity dispersion, include few gas-rich members and aregenerally embedded structures. Evidence hence emerges indicating thatTriplets and Multiplets, though sharing a common scale, correspond todifferent galaxy systems. Triplets are typically field structures whilstMultiplets are mainly subclumps (either temporarily projected orcollapsing) within larger structures. Simulations show that selectioneffects can only partially account for differences, but significantcontamination of Triplets by field galaxy interlopers could eventuallyinduce the observed dependences on multiplicity. Tables 1 and 2 are onlyavailable in electronic at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/391/35

Effect of the environment on the fundamental plane of elliptical galaxies
We present an analysis of the location of interacting E/S0 galaxies onthe Fundamental Plane (FP). Using the NEMO package, we performed N-bodysimulations of close encounters and mergers of two self-gravitatingspherical galaxies. Two models for encounting galaxies - Plummer's andHernquist's - were used. The number of particles ranged from 20 000 to50 000 per galaxy. The changes of central density, half-mass radius andcentral velocity dispersion were analysed. It was found that closeencounters between galaxies alter noticeably the above parameters withina very short time interval (107-108 years) justbefore the final merger. The amplitudes of parameter changes stronglydepend on the initial mass concentration of a model. In some experimentswe considered an encounter of two spherical galaxies with dark mattercomponents. The effect of parameter changes was less pronounced than forthe experiments without a dark halo. The results of the simulations wereused to discuss the FP for interacting early-type galaxies.

A catalogue and analysis of X-ray luminosities of early-type galaxies
We present a catalogue of X-ray luminosities for 401 early-typegalaxies, of which 136 are based on newly analysed ROSAT PSPC pointedobservations. The remaining luminosities are taken from the literatureand converted to a common energy band, spectral model and distancescale. Using this sample we fit the LX:LB relationfor early-type galaxies and find a best-fit slope for the catalogue of~2.2. We demonstrate the influence of group-dominant galaxies on the fitand present evidence that the relation is not well modelled by a singlepower-law fit. We also derive estimates of the contribution to galaxyX-ray luminosities from discrete-sources and conclude that they provideLdscr/LB~=29.5ergs-1LBsolar-1. Wecompare this result with luminosities from our catalogue. Lastly, weexamine the influence of environment on galaxy X-ray luminosity and onthe form of the LX:LB relation. We conclude thatalthough environment undoubtedly affects the X-ray properties ofindividual galaxies, particularly those in the centres of groups andclusters, it does not change the nature of whole populations.

A synthesis of data from fundamental plane and surface brightness fluctuation surveys
We perform a series of comparisons between distance-independentphotometric and spectroscopic properties used in the surface brightnessfluctuation (SBF) and fundamental plane (FP) methods of early-typegalaxy distance estimation. The data are taken from two recent surveys:the SBF Survey of Galaxy Distances and the Streaming Motions of AbellClusters (SMAC) FP survey. We derive a relation between(V-I)0 colour and Mg2 index using nearly 200galaxies and discuss implications for Galactic extinction estimates andearly-type galaxy stellar populations. We find that the reddenings fromSchlegel et al. for galaxies with E(B-V)>~0.2mag appear to beoverestimated by 5-10 per cent, but we do not find significant evidencefor large-scale dipole errors in the extinction map. In comparison withstellar population models having solar elemental abundance ratios, thegalaxies in our sample are generally too blue at a given Mg2;we ascribe this to the well-known enhancement of the α-elements inluminous early-type galaxies. We confirm a tight relation betweenstellar velocity dispersion σ and the SBF `fluctuation count'parameter N, which is a luminosity-weighted measure of the total numberof stars in a galaxy. The correlation between N and σ is eventighter than that between Mg2 and σ. Finally, we deriveFP photometric parameters for 280 galaxies from the SBF survey data set.Comparisons with external sources allow us to estimate the errors onthese parameters and derive the correction necessary to bring them on tothe SMAC system. The data are used in a forthcoming paper, whichcompares the distances derived from the FP and SBF methods.

X-ray luminosities of galaxies in groups
We have derived the X-ray luminosities of a sample of galaxies ingroups, making careful allowance for contaminating intragroup emission.The LX:LB and LX:LFIRrelations of spiral galaxies in groups appear to be indistinguishablefrom those in other environments, however the elliptical galaxies fallinto two distinct classes. The first class is central-dominant groupgalaxies, which are very X-ray luminous and may be the focus of groupcooling flows. All other early-type galaxies in groups belong to thesecond class, which populates an almost constant band ofLX/LB over the range9.8

ROSAT-HRI observations of six southern galaxy pairs
We present the detailed analysis of the X-ray data for 6 pairs, isolatedor in poor groups, observed at high resolution with the ROSAT HRI . Inall cases, the stronger X-ray source is associated with the brighterearly-type member and is extended. The extent varies from galactic togroup scale, from 3 (RR 210b) to 182 kpc( RR 22a). The fainter membersare detected only in two pairs, RR 210 and RR 259. Except for one case,no significant substructures have been detected in the X-ray maps,possibly also as a consequence of the poor statistics. The core radii ofthe X-ray surface brightness profiles are in the range 1-3 kpc. Thedistribution of the luminosities of galaxies in pairs encompasses a verywide range of both luminosities and LX / LBratios, in spite of the very small number of objects studied so far. Ourdata provide no evidence that pair membership affects the X-rayproperties of galaxies. Observation are discussed in the context of thepair/group evolution.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

A Test for Large-Scale Systematic Errors in Maps of Galactic Reddening
Accurate maps of Galactic reddening are important for a number ofapplications, such as mapping the peculiar velocity field in the nearbyuniverse. Of particular concern are systematic errors which vary slowlyas a function of position on the sky, as these would induce spuriousbulk flow. We have compared the reddenings of Burstein & Heiles (BH)and those of Schlegel, Finkbeiner, & Davis (SFD) to independentestimates of the reddening, for Galactic latitudes |b|>10^deg. Ourprimary source of Galactic reddening estimates comes from comparing thedifference between the observed B-V colors of early-type galaxies, andthe predicted B-V color determined from the B-V-Mg_2 relation. We havefitted a dipole to the residuals in order to look for large-scalesystematic deviations. There is marginal evidence for a dipolar residualin the comparison between the SFD maps and the observed early-typegalaxy reddenings. If this is due to an error in the SFD maps, then itcan be corrected with a small (13%) multiplicative dipole term. Weargue, however, that this difference is more likely to be due to a small(0.01 mag) systematic error in the measured B-V colors of the early-typegalaxies. This interpretation is supported by a smaller, independentdata set (globular cluster and RR Lyrae stars), which yields a resultinconsistent with the early-type galaxy residual dipole. BH reddeningsare found to have no significant systematic residuals, apart from theknown problem in the region 230^deg

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

An X-Ray Survey of Galaxies in Pairs
Results are reported from the first survey of X-ray emission fromgalaxies in pairs. The sample consists of 52 pairs of galaxies from theCatalog of Paired Galaxies whose coordinates overlap the ROSAT PositionSensitive Proportional Counter pointed observations. The mean observedlogl_X for early-type pairs is 41.35+/-0.21, while the mean logl_Xpredicted using the l_X-l_b relationship for isolated early-typegalaxies is 42.10+/-0.19. With 95% confidence, the galaxies in pairs areunderluminous in the X-ray, compared with isolated galaxies, for thesame l_b. A significant fraction of the mixed pair sample also appearssimilarly underluminous. A spatial analysis shows that the X-rayemission from pairs of both types typically has an extent of ~10-50 kpc,much smaller than the group intergalactic medium, and thus likelyoriginates from the galaxies. CPG 564, the most X-ray luminousearly-type pair, 4.7x10^42 ergs s^-1, is an exception. The extent of itsX-ray emission, greater than 169 kpc, and HWHM, ~80 kpc, is comparableto that expected from an intergalactic medium. The sample shows only aweak correlation, ~81% confidence, between l_X and l_b, presumably dueto variations in gas content within the galaxies. No correlation betweenl_X and the pair velocity difference (Deltav), separation (Deltar), orfar-infrared luminosity (l_fir) is found, although the detection rate islow, 22%.

Fundamental plane distances to early-type field galaxies in the South Equatorial Strip. I. The spectroscopic data
Radial velocities and central velocity dispersions are derived for 238E/S0 galaxies from medium-resolution spectroscopy. New spectroscopicdata have been obtained as part of a study of the Fundamental Planedistances and peculiar motions of early-type galaxies in three selecteddirections of the South Equatorial Strip, undertaken in order toinvestigate the reality of large-scale streaming motion; results of thisstudy have been reported in Müller et al. (1998). The new APM SouthEquatorial Strip Catalog (-17fdg 5 < delta < +2fdg 5) was used toselect the sample of field galaxies in three directions: (1) 15h10 -16h10; (2) 20h30 - 21h50; (3) 00h10 - 01h30. The spectra obtained have amedian S/N per Å of 23, an instrumental resolution (FWHM) of ~ 4Å, and the spectrograph resolution (dispersion) is ~ 100 kms-1. The Fourier cross-correlation method was used to derivethe radial velocities and velocity dispersions. The velocity dispersionshave been corrected for the size of the aperture and for the galaxyeffective radius. Comparisons of the derived radial velocities with datafrom the literature show that our values are accurate to 40 kms-1. A comparison with results from Jo rgensen et al. (1995)shows that the derived central velocity dispersion have an rms scatterof 0.036 in log sigma . There is no offset relative to the velocitydispersions of Davies et al. (1987).

Groups of galaxies. III. Some empirical characteristics.
Not Available

A catalogue of Mg_2 indices of galaxies and globular clusters
We present a catalogue of published absorption-line Mg_2 indices ofgalaxies and globular clusters. The catalogue is maintained up-to-datein the HYPERCAT database. The measurements are listed together with thereferences to the articles where the data were published. A codeddescription of the observations is provided. The catalogue gathers 3541measurements for 1491 objects (galaxies or globular clusters) from 55datasets. Compiled raw data for 1060 galaxies are zero-point correctedand transformed to a homogeneous system. Tables 1, 3, and 4 areavailable in electronic form only at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymousftp Table 2 is available both in text and electronic form.

Morphology transformation in pairs of galaxies - the local sample
We present photometric analysis of a local sample of 14 isolated pairsof galaxies. The photometric properties analyzed in the local pairs are:colors, morphology, tidal effects and activity. We verify that closepairs have an excess of early-type galaxies and many elliptical galaxiesin this pairs are, in fact, lenticular galaxies. Many late-pairs in oursample show strong tidal damage and blue star formation regions. Weconclude that pairs of different morphologies may have passed throughdifferent evolution processes which violently transformed theirmorphology. Pairs with at least one early-type component may bedescendents of groups of galaxies. However, late-type pairs are probablylong-lived showing clearly signs of interaction. Some of them could beseen as an early stage of mergers. These photometric databases will beused for future comparison with more distant pairs in order to studygalaxy evolution.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

A catalogue of spatially resolved kinematics of galaxies: Bibliography
We present a catalogue of galaxies for which spatially resolved data ontheir internal kinematics have been published; there is no a priorirestriction regarding their morphological type. The catalogue lists thereferences to the articles where the data are published, as well as acoded description of these data: observed emission or absorption lines,velocity or velocity dispersion, radial profile or 2D field, positionangle. Tables 1, 2, and 3 are proposed in electronic form only, and areavailable from the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (to130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Testing the physical reality of binaries and compact groups. Properties of early-type galaxies in groups with diffuse X-ray emission
We present data on the stellar kinematics of the brightest ellipticalsin HCG 62, HCG 68, NGC 2300 groups. Moreover, we report on ASCA GIS aswell as optical observations of the early-type member of the pair K 416(NGC 5480/5481) similar, in many respects, to the dominant pair in theNGC 2300 group. The kinematics of HCG 62a/b and HCG 68a/b indicate thatthey are not interacting pairs. HCG 62a is instead possibly interactingwith HCG 62c, as suggested by their morphology (see Mendes de Oliveiraand Hickson 1994), In contrast to the results for the NGC 2300/2276group, ASCA observations indicate a significant absence of hot gas inthe K 416 system. Whether the NGC 2300 multiplet is viewed as a loosegroup or as a massive E+S pair, it is clear that similar morphologicalentities do not always show similar X-ray properties. Under thehypothesis that diffuse X-ray emission marks the group potential, weconsider the possibility that K 416 is an unbound encounter. In thisscenario, morphological distortions are indicative of the ongoinginteraction, but are only circumstantially correlated with the physicalreality of a pair/multiplet as a bound system. Based on observationsobtained at 1.93m telescope of Observatoire de Haute Provence operatedby INSU.

Classification of colliding galaxies
Not Available

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:04h30m40.00s
Aparent dimensions:2.042′ × 1.622′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 1587

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR