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|Properties of tidally-triggered vertical disk perturbations|
We present a detailed analysis of the properties of warps andtidally-triggered perturbations perpendicular to the plane of 47interacting/merging edge-on spiral galaxies. The derived parameters arecompared with those obtained for a sample of 61 non-interacting edge-onspirals. The entire optical (R-band) sample used for this study waspresented in two previous papers. We find that the scale height of disksin the interacting/merging sample is characterized by perturbations onboth large ( =~ disk cut-off radius) and short ( =~ z0)scales, with amplitudes of the order of 280 pc and 130 pc on average,respectively. The size of these large (short) -scale instabilitiescorresponds to 14% (6%) of the mean disk scale height. This is a factorof 2 (1.5) larger than the value found for non-interacting galaxies. Ahallmark of nearly all tidally distorted disks is a scale height thatincreases systematically with radial distance. The frequent occurrenceand the significantly larger size of these gradients indicate that diskasymmetries on large scales are a common and persistent phenomenon,while local disturbances and bending instabilities decline on shortertimescales. Nearly all (93%) of the interacting/merging and 45% of thenon-interacting galaxies studied are noticeably warped. Warps ofinteracting/merging galaxies are ~ 2.5 times larger on average thanthose observed in the non-interacting sample, with sizes of the order of340 pc and 140 pc, respectively. This indicates that tidal distortionsdo considerably contribute to the formation and size of warps. However,they cannot entirely explain the frequent occurrence of warped disks.Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory(ESO, La Silla, Chile), Calar Alto Observatory operated by the MPIA(DSAZ, Spain), Lowell Observatory (Flagstaff,AZ, USA), and Hoher ListObservatory (Germany).
|The influence of interactions and minor mergers on the structure of galactic disks I. Observations and disk models|
This paper is the first part in our series on the influence of tidalinteractions and minor mergers on the radial and vertical disk structureof spiral galaxies. We report on the sample selection, our observations,and data reduction. Surface photometry of the optical and near infrareddata of a sample of 110 highly-inclined/edge-on disk galaxies arepresented. This sample consists of two subsamples of 61 non-interactinggalaxies (control sample) and of 49 interacting galaxies/minor mergingcandidates. Additionally, 41 of these galaxies were observed in the nearinfrared. We show that the distribution of morphological types of bothsubsamples is almost indistinguishable, covering the range between 0<= T <= 9. An improved, 3-dimensional disk modelling- and fittingprocedure is described in order to analyze and to compare the diskstructure of our sample galaxies by using characteristic parameters. Wefind that the vertical brightness profiles of galactic disks respondvery sensitive even to small deviations from the perfect edge-onorientation. Hence, projection effects of slightly inclined disks maycause substantial changes in the value of the disk scale height and musttherefore be considered in the subsequent study. Based on observationsobtained at the European Southern Observatory (ESO, La Silla, Chile),Calar Alto Observatory operated by the MPIA (DSAZ, Spain), LowellObservatory (Flagstaff/AZ, USA), and Hoher List Observatory (Germany).
|The influence of interactions and minor mergers on the structure of galactic disks. II. Results and interpretations|
We present the second part of a detailed statistical study focussed onthe effects of tidal interactions and minor mergers on the radial andvertical disk structure of spiral galaxies. In the first part wereported on the sample selection, observations, and applied disk models.In this paper the results are presented, based on disk parametersderived from a sample of 110 highly-inclined/edge-on galaxies. Thissample consists of two subsamples of 49 interacting/merging and 61non-interacting galaxies. Additionally, 41 of these galaxies wereobserved in the NIR. We find significant changes of the disk structurein vertical direction, resulting in ~ 1.5 times larger scale heights andthus vertical velocity dispersions. The radial disk structure,characterized by the cut-off radius and the scale length, shows nostatistically significant changes. Thus, the ratio of radial to verticalscale parameters, h/z0, is ~ 1.7 times smaller for the sampleof interacting/merging galaxies. The total lack of typical flat diskratios h/z0 > 7 in the latter sample implies that verticaldisk heating is most efficient for (extremely) thin disks. Statisticallynearly all galactic disks in the sample (93%) possess non-isothermalvertical luminosity profiles like the sech (60%) and exp (33%)distribution, independent of the sample and passband investigated. Thisindicates that, in spite of tidal perturbations and disk thickening, theinitial vertical distribution of disk stars is not destroyed byinteractions or minor mergers. Based on observations obtained at theEuropean Southern Observatory (ESO, La Silla, Chile), Calar AltoObservatory operated by the MPIA (DSAZ, Spain), Lowell Observatory(Flagstaff/AZ, USA), and Hoher List Observatory (Germany).
|Galaxy coordinates. II. Accurate equatorial coordinates for 17298 galaxies|
Using images of the Digitized Sky Survey we measured coodinates for17298 galaxies having poorly defined coordinates. As a control, wemeasured with the same method 1522 galaxies having accurate coordinates.The comparison with our own measurements shows that the accuracy of themethod is about 6 arcsec on each axis (RA and DEC).
|Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies|
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.
|The Montreal Blue Galaxy Survey.III.Third List of UV-Bright Candidates|
We present and discuss the latest addition of the Montreal Blue Galaxy(MBG) survey. Inspection of 59 Curtis Schmidt plates resulted in theidentification of 135 new UV-bright galaxies with B < 15.5. Thisbrings the total number of MBGs to 469. New results of the V/V_m testshow that our survey is complete to B = 14.7. From our most recentspectroscopic follow-up, we confirm the discovery of one new Seyfert 1galaxy and possibly one new Seyfert 2 galaxy. We confirm also the biasof the MBG survey towards the low-excitation and metal rich StarburstNucleus Galaxies (SBNGs). The spectral characteristics of the MBGs aresimilar to those of the infrared luminous IRAS galaxies. As a commoncharacteristic, they show a mean ratio Log([NII]/Hα ) in excess of0.2 dex as compared to normal disk HII regions. In general, the MBGshave lower far-infrared luminosities (LIR < 10(11)Lsun) and are nearer (z < 0.05) than the luminous IRASgalaxies. The distribution of the morphologies of the MBGs indicates ahigh number of early-type spirals (Sb and earlier). Nearly half of thesegalaxies also possess a bar. In our sample, the fraction of galaxieswith bars depends on the morphology and increases towards the late-typespirals. However, if we consider only isolated galaxies, the late-typespirals show a clear tendency to be barred. Signs of a recentinteraction with neighbor galaxies are obvious only in 24% of ourcandidates. Although this number is only a lower limit, it isnevertheless sufficiently low to suggest that in a majority of massivegalaxies the burst of star formation do not depends solely on dynamicalprocesses.
|Parameters of 2447 Southern Spiral Galaxies for Use in the Tully-Fisher Relation|
I-band luminosities, rotational velocities, and redshifts of 1092 spiralgalaxies have been measured by CCD photometry and Hα spectroscopyusing the 1 m and 2.3 m telescopes at Siding Spring Observatory,respectively. The results are tabulated. Luminosity profiles andHα rotation curves are given for the galaxies. When these resultsare combined with similar data for 1355 spiral galaxies publishedpreviously (Mathewson, Ford, & Buchhorn, hereafter Paper I), itprovides a large, uniform, and unique data set with which to measure,via the Tully-Fisher relation, the peculiar velocities of galaxies inthe local universe to a distance of 11,000 km s^-1^ (Mathewson &Ford). Taking advantage of the opportunity for publishing this data inmachine-readable form, in the CD-ROM, we have also included similar datafor the 1355 galaxies in Paper I.
|Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV system|
The photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3.
|A southern sky survey of the peculiar velocities of 1355 spiral galaxies|
The paper presents data from photometric and spectroscopic observationsof 1355 southern spiral galaxies and uses them to determine theirdistances and peculiar velocities via the Tully-Fisher (TF) relation.I-band CCD surface photometry was carried out using the 1-m and 3.9-mtelescopes at Siding Spring Observatory. H-alpha rotation curves for 965galaxies and 551 H I profiles are presented. The physical parameters,photometric and velocity data, distances, and peculiar velocities of thegalaxies are presented in tabular form. The mean distance, systemicvelocity, and average peculiar velocity of 24 clusters in the sample aregiven. TF diagrams are presented for each cluster.
|Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members|
This paper gives a catalog of the groups and associations obtained bymeans of a revised hierarchical algorithm applied to a sample of 4143galaxies with diameters larger than 100 arcsec and redshifts smallerthan 6000 km/s. The 264 groups of galaxies obtained in this way (andwhich contain at least three sample galaxies) are listed, with the looseassociations surrounding them and the individual members of eachaggregate as well; moreover, the location of every entity among 13regions corresponding roughly to superclusters is specified. Finally,1729 galaxies belong to the groups, and 466 to the associations, i.e.,the total fraction of galaxies within the various aggregates amounts to53 percent.
|Southern Sky Redshift Survey - The catalog|
The catalog of radial velocities for galaxies which comprise thediameter-limited sample of the Southern Sky Redshift Survey ispresented. It consolidates the data of observations carried out at theLas Campanas Observatory, Observatorio Nacional, and South AfricanAstronomical Observatory. The criteria used for the sample selection aredescribed, as well as the observational procedures and the techniqueutilized to obtain the final radial velocities. The intercomparisonbetween radial velocity measurements from different telescopes indicatesthat the final data base is fairly homogeneous with a typical error ofabout 40 km/s. The sample is at present 90 percent complete, and themissing galaxies are predominantly objects with very low surfacebrightness for which it is very difficult to obtain optical redshifts.
|A catalog of southern groups of galaxies|
A catalog of groups of galaxies identified in the southern Galactic capis presented. This catalog was constructed utilizing the group-findingalgorithm developed by Huchra and Geller (1982) to analyze galaxysamples with well-defined selection criteria and complete velocityinformation.
|The Southern Supercluster|
The Southern Supercluster is described using data compiled from fivecatalogs, reduced to a homogeneous system following RC2. In terms ofmass, luminosity, and mass-to-light ratio, the Southern Superclustercompares well with the Coma and Hercules superclusters, but is lessmassive than the Local Supercluster. It is shown that, even though theSouthern Supercluster is the nearest supercluster to the LocalSupercluster, it is well separated from the Local Supercluster. However,there is evidence of a tenuous stream of galaxies connecting theSouthern Supercluster with the Perseus Supercluster.
|Stellar kinematics of bulge, disk and nucleus in NGC 4594|
Stellar kinematic data for NGC 4594 reveal a steep velocity gradient andenlarged velocity dispersion in the center which can be explained by alarge central mass concentration. The rotation curve and radialvariation of the velocity dispersions are shown to be highlynonmonotonic, with the shoulders and peaks being due to thesuperposition of two separate components with different kinematicalbehavior. The difference in the rotational velocities of the twocomponents produces a large width in the correlation function. A lowintrinsic velocity dispersion is found for both components.
|Southern Galaxy Catalogue.|
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