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Blue Straggler Stars in Galactic Open Clusters and the Simple Stellar Population Model
The presence of blue straggler stars (BSs) as secure members of Galacticopen clusters (OCs) poses a major challenge to the conventional pictureof simple stellar population (SSP) models. These are based on thestellar evolution theory of single stars, whereas the major formationmechanisms of BSs are all correlated with stellar interactions. We haveillustrated this in a previous study based on a small sample of old (age>=1 Gyr) Galactic OCs. However, for the purpose of demonstrating thecontributions of BSs to the conventional SSP models statistically andsystematically, a large database with sufficient coverage of age andmetallicity is definitely needed. The working sample now includes 100Galactic OCs with ages ranging from 0.1 to 10 Gyr. The contributions ofBSs to the integrated light of their host clusters are calculated on anindividual cluster basis. The general existence of BSs in our starcluster sample dramatically alters the predictions of conventional SSPmodels in terms of their integrated properties. Neglecting theconsequences of nonstandard evolutionary products, such as BSs, instellar populations, very large uncertainties can be made in analyzingtheir integrated spectral energy distributions at unresolvableconditions. The current work strongly suggests that when evolutionarypopulation synthesis technique is used to study the properties ofunresolved stellar populations in galaxies, the contributions of BSsshould be taken into account.

Young Stars in the Camelopardalis Dust and Molecular Clouds. I. The Cam OB1 Association
The distribution of dust and molecular clouds in the direction ofGalactic longitudes 132--158° and latitudes ± 12\degr\ isinvestigated. The maps of dust distribution in the area were plottedfrom the following surveys: the star counts in the DSS I database byDobashi et al. (2005), the survey of the average infrared color excessesby Froebrich et al. (2007) and the thermal dust emission survey at 100μ m by Schlegel et al. (1998). The distribution of molecular cloudswas taken from the whole sky CO survey by Dame et al. (2001). All thesesurveys show very similar cloud patterns in the area. Using the radialvelocities of CO, the distances to separate clouds are estimated. Arevised list of the Cam OB1 association members contains 43 stars andthe open cluster NGC 1502. 18 young irregular variable and Hαemission stars are identified in the area. All this proves that the starforming process in the Camelopardalis clouds is still in progress.

Kinematics of the Open Cluster System in the Galaxy
Absolute proper motions and radial velocities of 202 open clusters inthe solar neighborhood, which can be used as tracers of the Galacticdisk, are used to investigate the kinematics of the Galaxy in the solarvicinity, including the mean heliocentric velocity components(u1,u2,u3) of the open cluster system,the characteristic velocity dispersions(σ1,σ2,σ3), Oortconstants (A,B) and the large-scale radial motion parameters (C,D) ofthe Galaxy. The results derived from the observational data of propermotions and radial velocities of a subgroup of 117 thin disk young openclusters by means of a maximum likelihood algorithm are:(u1,u2,u3) =(-16.1+/-1.0,-7.9+/-1.4,-10.4+/-1.5) km s-1,(σ1,σ2,σ3) =(17.0+/-0.7,12.2+/-0.9,8.0+/-1.3) km s-1,(A,B) =(14.8+/-1.0,-13.0+/-2.7) km s-1 kpc-1, and (C,D) =(1.5+/-0.7,-1.2+/-1.5) km s-1 k pc-1. A discussionon the results and comparisons with what was obtained by other authorsis given.

Astrophysical parameters of Galactic open clusters
We present a catalogue of astrophysical data for 520 Galactic openclusters. These are the clusters for which at least three most probablemembers (18 on average) could be identified in the ASCC-2.5, a catalogueof stars based on the Tycho-2 observations from the Hipparcos mission.We applied homogeneous methods and algorithms to determine angular sizesof cluster cores and coronae, heliocentric distances, mean propermotions, mean radial velocities, and ages. For the first time we derivedistances for 200 clusters, radial velocities for 94 clusters, and agesof 196 clusters. This homogeneous new parameter set is compared withearlier determinations, where we find, in particular, that the angularsizes were systematically underestimated in the literature.

On the Galactic Disk Metallicity Distribution from Open Clusters. I. New Catalogs and Abundance Gradient
We have compiled two new open cluster catalogs. In the first one, thereare 119 objects with ages, distances, and metallicities available, whilein the second one, 144 objects have both absolute proper motion andradial velocity data, of which 45 clusters also have metallicity dataavailable. Taking advantage of the large number of objects included inour sample, we present an iron radial gradient of about -0.063+/-0.008dex kpc-1 from the first sample, which is quite consistentwith the most recent determination of the oxygen gradient from nebulaeand young stars, about -0.07 dex kpc-1. By dividing clustersinto age groups, we show that the iron gradient was steeper in the past,which is consistent with the recent result from Galactic planetarynebulae data, and also consistent with inside-out galactic diskformation scenarios. Based on the cluster sample, we also discuss themetallicity distribution, cluster kinematics, and space distribution. Adisk age-metallicity relation could be implied by those properties,although we cannot give conclusive result from the age- metallicitydiagram based on the current sample. More observations are needed formetal-poor clusters. From the second catalog, we have calculated thevelocity components in cylindrical coordinates with respect to theGalactic standard of rest for 144 open clusters. The velocitydispersions of the older clusters are larger than those of youngclusters, but they are all much smaller than that of the Galactic thickdisk stars.

Proper Motions of Open Star Clusters and the Rotation Rate of the Galaxy
The mean proper motions of 167 Galactic open clusters withradial-velocity measurements are computed from the data of the Tycho-2catalog using kinematic and photometric cluster membership criteria. Theresulting catalog is compared to the results of other studies. The newproper motions are used to infer the Galactic rotation rate at the solarcircle, which is found to be ω0=+24.6±0.8 km s-1 kpc-1.Analysis of the dependence of the dispersion of ω0 estimates onheliocentric velocity showed that even the proper motions of clusterswith distances r>3 kpc contain enough useful information to be usedin kinematic studies demonstrating that the determination of propermotions is quite justified even for very distant clusters.

Abundance Gradient from Open Clusters and Implications for the Galactic Disk Evolution
We compile a new sample of 89 open clusters with ages, distances andmetallicities available. We derive a radial iron gradient of about-0.099±0.008 dexkpc (unweighted) for the whole sample, which issomewhat greater than the most recent determination of oxygen gradientfrom nebulae and young stars. By dividing the clusters into age groups,we show that the iron gradient was steeper in the past and has evolvedslowly in time. Current data show a substantial scatter of the clustermetallicities indicating that the Galactic disk has undergone a veryrapid, inhomogeneous enrichment.Also, based on a simple, but quitesuccessful model of chemical evolution of the Milky Way disk, we make adetailed calculation of the iron abundance gradient and its timeevolution. The predicted current iron gradient is about -0.072 dexkpc.The model also predicts a steady flattening of the iron gradient withtime, which agrees with the result from our open cluster sample.

Proper motions of open clusters within 1 kpc based on the TYCHO2 Catalogue
We present mean absolute proper motions of 112 open clusters, determinedusing the data from the Tycho2 Catalogue. For 28 clusters, this is thefirst determination of proper motion. The measurements made use of alarge number of stars (usually several tens) for each cluster. The totalnumber of stars studied in the fields of the 164 open clusters is 5016,of which 4006 were considered members. The mean proper motions of theclusters and membership probability of individual stars were obtainedfrom the proper motion data by applying the statistical method proposedby Sanders (\cite{Sanders71}). Based on observations of the ESAHipparcos satellite. Tables 1, 2 and 5 to 117 are only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/376/441

Absolute proper motions of open clusters. I. Observational data
Mean proper motions and parallaxes of 205 open clusters were determinedfrom their member stars found in the Hipparcos Catalogue. 360 clusterswere searched for possible members, excluding nearby clusters withdistances D < 200 pc. Members were selected using ground basedinformation (photometry, radial velocity, proper motion, distance fromthe cluster centre) and information provided by Hipparcos (propermotion, parallax). Altogether 630 certain and 100 possible members werefound. A comparison of the Hipparcos parallaxes with photometricdistances of open clusters shows good agreement. The Hipparcos dataconfirm or reject the membership of several Cepheids in the studiedclusters. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

The hot side of the lithium dip - LiBeB abundances beyond the main sequence
We extend to the case of A and early-F type stars our study of thetransport of matter and angular momentum by wind-driven meridionalcirculation and shear turbulence. We show that our fully consistenttreatment of the same hydrodynamical processes which can account for Cand N anomalies in B type stars (Talon et al. 1997) and for the shape ofthe hot side of the Li dip in the open clusters (Talon & Charbonnel1998) also explains LiBeB observations in stars with T_eff higher than7000 K on the main sequence as well as in their evolved counterparts.

Some Revised Observational Constraints on the Formation and Evolution of the Galactic Disk
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114.2556T&db_key=AST

DDO Metal Abundances of High-Luminosity Late-Type Stars in Galactic Open Clusters
Results from UBV and DDO photometry are presented for 54 high-luminositylate-type stars in the fields of 23 open clusters. The probability ofcluster membership for each observed star is evaluated using twoindependent photometric criteria. It is found that 32 stars are verylikely cluster members, the remaining ones being almost certainly fieldobjects. The recently improved calibrations of the DDO system have beenused to derive MK spectral types, effective temperatures, andmetallicities, while E(B-V) color excesses have been determined throughknown photometric and spectroscopic procedures. The DDO metallicitiesrange between values typical of moderately metal-poor ([Fe/H]=~ -0.3) tomoderately metal-rich ([Fe/H] =~ 0.2) clusters. The masses of thecluster giants range between 1 and 4 solar masses, with the scatterwithin a cluster being less than 1 solar mass. (SECTION: StellarClusters and Associations)

Chemical Evolution of the Galactic Disk: Evidence for a Gradient Perpendicular to the Galactic Plane
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995AJ....110.2813P&db_key=AST

Probable binary open star clusters in the Galaxy.
The existence of double/binary clusters in the Magellanic Clouds isfairly well established, whereas only one such pair, h + χ Persei,is known in the Galaxy. From the catalogues of open clusters of theGalaxy, we have identified 18 probable pairs of clusters (with knowndistances), with spatial separations less than 20pc. The tidaldisruption timescales for these pairs, due to Galactic differentialrotation are calculated, using cluster data where available or byassuming typical values. In some cases, these timescales are larger thanthe average open cluster lifetime, =~10^8^yr. About 8% of open clustersappear to be members of binary systems, and hence binary cluster systemsmay not be very uncommon in the Galaxy.

Estimates of geometric and dynamic parameters of star-gas complexes in the Galaxy
Parameters of geometric models of 11 gas-star complexes (GSCs) wereobtained. We used information about GSC projections onto the celestialsphere and the Galactic plane and about GSC extension along the line ofsight. GSCs were represented as triaxial ellipsoids. To estimate thesemiminor axis of the GSC ellipsoidal model and GSC slope angle to theGalactic plane, we used data on spatial location of open stellarclusters (OSCs) entering GSCs. GSC slopes to the Galactic plane varybetween 2.5 and 20.5 deg. Their semiminor axes are between 11 and 164pc. GSC total masses are estimated from GSC tidal effect on OSCs thatare members of the corresponding GSCs. The effect manifests itself insmaller sizes of young OSCs as compared to their tidal sizes in theforce field of the Galaxy. We used studies of stability of an OSC movingin the joint force field of the Galaxy and spheroidal stationary GSC, aswell as studies of evolution of a virialized cluster located at thecenter of a nonstationary ellipsoidal GSC. Estimated total masses fordifferent GSCs lie between 0.65 x 10 exp 5 solar masses and 11.5 x 10exp 7 solar masses.

Catalogue of blue stragglers in open clusters.
An extensive survey of blue straggler candidates in galactic openclusters of both hemispheres is presented. The blue stragglers wereselected considering their positions in the cluster colour-magnitudediagrams.They were categorized according to the accuracy of thephotometric measurements and membership probabilities. An amount of 959blue straggler candidates in 390 open clusters of all ages wereidentified and classified. A set of basic data is given for everycluster and blue straggler. The information is arranged in the form of acatalogue. Blue stragglers are found in clusters of all ages. Thepercentage of clusters with blue stragglers generally grows with age andrichness of the clusters. The mean ratio of the number of bluestragglers to the number of cluster main sequence stars is approximatelyconstant up to a cluster age of about 10^8.6^ yr and rises for olderclusters. In general, the blue stragglers show a remarkable degree ofcentral concentration.

Demonstrating Cluster Main-Sequence Fitting to best Advantage
Not Available

CNO isotopes in red giants: theory versus observations
Evolutionary models in the mass range 1.7 to 15 Msun_ havingsolar-like initial composition are presented. The models are calculatedwith the latest opacities and with the Schwarzschild criterion forconvective instability. In test cases, core overshooting has beenincluded in a parameterized way. Up-dated nuclear reactions have beenused to follow the nucleosynthesis during the evolution which has beencarried out beyond core He-burning at masses > 2 Msun_.The 2 Msun_ model has been evolved through the core He-flash.The resulting surface CNO isotopic ratios after the first and seconddredge-up phases are compared with observations of field giants as wellas with data obtained for galactic open clusters. A comparison betweenrecent theoretical predictions of these ratios is also presented. Thegoal of this work is twofold: (i) to test mass estimations of theobserved giants on the basis of the predicted surface abundance ratiosof ^12^C/^13^C, ^16^O/^17^O and ^16^O/^18^O, and the evolutionarytracks, (ii) to show that ^16^O/^17^O ratio obtained in giant models atM>2 Msun_ is rather sensitive to the still uncertain^17^O(p,α)^14^N reaction. The main results of the present work areas follows: (i) our one-dimensional dynamical calculations show that the2 Msun_ model survives the core He-flash, (ii) we are able toestimate the masses of 6 observed giants out of 11. In addition, thesupergiant star α Sco is well described by a model of initially 15Msun_. (iii) the observed low ^12^C/^13^C ratios in manygiants with M>2 Msun_ cannot be explained in terms of asimple dredge-up scenario or by the variation of the initial value.These ratios are barely influenced by the effect of "moderate"overshooting, (iv) We find that the calculated Na enrichment resultingfrom the Ne-Na cycle does not match the values suggested by currentobservations.

A detailed study of the sparce open cluster Roslund 3 - A case for circumstellar extinction
A photometric study of the Roslund 3 cluster is presented whose B6-B9member stars exhibit the evidence for the presence of circumstellarextinction. The cluster is about 9 x 10 exp 7 yrs old, 2.29 +/-0.05 kpcdistant, with a radial velocity of -2.6 +/-1.1 km/s, and is estimated tocontain roughly 294 +/-36 solar masses of late B, A, and lower-massstars within its 10.0 +/-0.7 pc tidal radius. It is hypothesized that anexcess reddening for cluster B7-B9 stars originates in circumstellardust rings located around the equatorial regions of late B stars, whichare rotating at close to breakup velocity. The phenomenon may be relatedto beta Pictoris-type dust rings.

Radial velocities of stars in open clusters
A CORAVEL type spectrometer was used to measure precise radialvelocities of 116 late-type stars of spectral classes F5 - M5 in thefields of 18 open clusters. Probable cluster members were selected onthe basis of kinematic and photometric data. New or improved radialvelocities for 12 open clusters were thus obtained.

Carbon isotope ratios and lithium abundances in open cluster giants
New high-resolution, high S/N spectra of CN lines at 8000 A and Li linesat 6707 A have been obtained for giants in about 20 Galactic openclusters and C-12/C-13 ratios and Li abundances determined for thesestars. The ages of the clusters vary from about 50 million years to 5billion years, and their turn-off masses vary from 1 solar mass to about6 solar masses. The ages and turn-off masses were determined by fittingtheoretical isochrones to the cluster color-magnitude diagrams.Correlation of the isotope ratio and the Li abundances with the clusterturn-off masses indicates the following: (1) the C-12/C-13 ratioincreases steeply with the turn-off mass until a mass of approximately2.2 solar masses when the ratio levels off abruptly to a value near 26;(2) older clusters with turn-off masses lower than about 2.2 solarmasses in general exhibit C-12/C-13 ratios that are considerably lowerthan the theoretically predicted values while those with larger turn-offmasses show ratios close to standard predictions; and (3) no strongcorrelation exists between the Li abundances and the cluster turn-offmass, and the Li abundances in giants are, in general, lower thantheoretically predicted values. Various theories to explain the observedabundance trends are discussed.

A Star-Hop from Capella
Not Available

Multiple shell planetary nebulae.
Not Available

On the universality of initial mass function of open star clusters
The luminosity functions of 23 open star clusters of age less than 1 Gyrare determined by the method of star counts on astronegatives obtainedwith the Schmidt telescope at the Radioastrophysical Observatory of theAcademy of Sciences of the Latvian SSR. The differential and integralluminosity functions are then used to calculate the initial luminosity(mass) functions, and the results are presented in tables. It isconcluded that, for time intervals up to 1 Gyr and distances up to 2kpc, the process of star formation leads to identical mass distributionsin different protoclouds, confirming the hypothesis that theopen-cluster zero-age luminosity function is universally valid.

Theoretical color-magnitude diagrams of open clusters
Theoretical isochrones were constructed for clusters with ages between10 to the 7th and 10 to the 9th yrs. The isochrones are transformed toM(v)-(B-V) coordinates. The ages of 40 open clusters are obtained on thebasis of these isochrones.

Young stellar-gas complexes in the Galaxy
It is found that about 90 percent of OB-associations and o-b2 clusterssituated within 3 kpc of the sun can be united into complexes withdiameters of 150-700 pc. Almost all of these clusters contain giantmolecular clouds with a mass greater than about 100,000 solar masses. Anumber of complexes are associated with giant H I clouds; a few of thesmall complexes are situated in the HI caverns. The concentration ofOB-associations and young clusters in star complexes attests to theircommon origin in the supergiant gaseous clouds.

The classification of open clusters by the centroid method of cluster analysis
The distribution of open clusters in the Galaxy are considered, withspace coordinates including mass, absolute magnitude, integrated colorindex, diameter, metallicity, and age. It is shown that the majority ofclusters belong to several classes which have parameter values in asufficiently narrow range. The classes form a linear sequence by age andmonotonic sequence on a color-magnitude diagram. They are not isolated,but move into each other continuously. This suggests that the process ofcluster formation contains no significant gaps. The bifurcation of theage sequence of classes depending on the mass and diameter values isfound. This bifucation makes an evolutionary interpretation possible.

Yellow evolved stars in open clusters
This paper describes a program in which Galactic cluster post-AGBcandidates were first identified and then analyzed for clustermembership via radial velocities, monitored for possible photometricvariations, examined for evidence of mass loss, and classified ascompletely as possible in terms of their basic stellar parameters. Theintrinsically brightest supergiants are found in the youngest clusters.With increasing cluster age, the absolute luminosities attained by thesupergiants decline. It appears that the evolutionary tracks ofluminosity class II stars are more similar to those of class I than ofclass III. Only two superluminous giant star candidates are found inopen clusters.

Mass-losing red giants in open clusters
Mass-losing stars in open clusters with main-sequence turn-offs atintermediate mass have been searched for by using the IRAS data base.The absence of many strong 60 micron sources in open clusters impliesthat intermediate-mass stars lose much of their mass during an intensewind phase of rather short duration. For stars of about seven solarmasses, this phase, if it exists at all, lasts for not much more than100,000 yr. For stars of about four solar masses, the intense wind phaseappears to last considerably less than 10 million yr; it may well lastfor less than a million yr.

Catalogue of UBV Photometry and MK Spectral Types in Open Clusters (Third Edition)
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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:04h20m54.00s
Apparent magnitude:6.2

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NGC 2000.0NGC 1545

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