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|Star Formation in Satellite Galaxies|
We present narrowband observations of the Hα emission in a sampleof 31 satellites orbiting isolated giant spiral galaxies. The samplestudied spans the range -19 mag
|The Properties of Satellite Galaxies in External Systems. II. Photometry and Colors|
In this second paper dedicated to the study of satellite galaxies wepresent broadband photometry in the B, V, R, and I filters of 49satellite galaxies orbiting giant isolated spiral galaxies. Firstanalysis of the properties of these objects are presented by means ofcolor-color and color-magnitude diagrams for early- and late-typesatellites. Although we find differences in the slope of the V-I versusMv color magnitude diagram, as a whole, the relations are inagreement with the trends known to date for galaxies of similarmagnitudes in nearby clusters of galaxies. Comparison with the relationsfound for satellites in the Local Group allows us to sample better thebright end of the luminosity function of satellite galaxies and extendsfor brighter objects the validity of the color-magnitude relation foundfor dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. Most of the E/S0 galaxies in oursample show a negative color gradient with values similar to those knownfor early-type galaxies in other environments.
|The PDS versus Markarian starburst galaxies: comparing strong and weak IRAS emitter at 12 and 25 μm in the nearby Universe|
The characteristics of the starburst galaxies from the Pico dos Diassurvey (PDS) are compared with those of the nearby ultraviolet (UV)bright Markarian starburst galaxies, having the same limit in redshift(vh < 7500 km s-1) and absolute B magnitude(MB < -18). An important difference is found: theMarkarian galaxies are generally undetected at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS.This is consistent with the UV excess shown by these galaxies andsuggests that the youngest star-forming regions dominating thesegalaxies are relatively free of dust.The far-infrared selection criteria for the PDS are shown to introduce astrong bias towards massive (luminous) and large size late-type spiralgalaxies. This is contrary to the Markarian galaxies, which are found tobe remarkably rich in smaller size early-type galaxies. These resultssuggest that only late-type spirals with a large and massive disc arestrong emitters at 12 and 25 μm in IRAS in the nearby Universe.The Markarian and PDS starburst galaxies are shown to share the sameenvironment. This rules out an explanation of the differences observedin terms of external parameters. These differences may be explained byassuming two different levels of evolution, the Markarian being lessevolved than the PDS galaxies. This interpretation is fully consistentwith the disc formation hypothesis proposed by Coziol et al. to explainthe special properties of the Markarian SBNG.
|A Face-on Tully-Fisher Relation|
We construct the first ``face-on'' Tully-Fisher (TF) relation for 24galaxies with inclinations between 16° and 41°. The enablingmeasurements are integral-field echelle spectroscopy from the WIYN 3.5 mtelescope, which yield accurate kinematic estimates of disk inclinationto ~15°. Kinematic inclinations are of sufficient accuracy that ourmeasured TF scatter of 0.42 mag is comparable to other surveys evenwithout internal absorption corrections. Three of four galaxies withsignificant kinematic and photometric asymmetries also have the largestdeviations from our TF relation, suggesting that asymmetries make animportant contribution to TF scatter. By measuring inclinations below40°, we establish a direct path to linking this scatter to theunprojected structure of disks and making nondegenerate dynamical massdecompositions of spiral galaxies.
|The Properties of Satellite Galaxies in External Systems. I. Morphology and Structural Parameters|
We present the first results of an ongoing project to study themorphological, kinematical, dynamical, and chemical properties ofsatellite galaxies of external giant spiral galaxies. The sample ofobjects has been selected from the catalog by Zaritsky et al. The paperanalyzes the morphology and structural parameters of a subsample of 60such objects. The satellites span a great variety of morphologies andsurface brightness profiles. About two-thirds of the sample are spiralsand irregulars, the remaining third being early-types. Some casesshowing interaction between pairs of satellites are presented andbriefly discussed.
|Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies|
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.
|The Pico DOS Dias Survey Starburst Galaxies|
We discuss the nature of the galaxies found in the Pico dos Dias Survey(PDS) for young stellar objects. The PDS galaxies were selected from theIRAS Point Source catalog. They have flux density of moderate or highquality at 12, 25, and 60 μm and spectral indices in the ranges -3.00<= alpha(25, 12) <= + 0.35 and -2.50 <= alpha(60, 25) <=+0.85. These criteria allowed the detection of 382 galaxies, which are amixture of starburst and Seyfert galaxies. Most of the PDS Seyfertgalaxies are included in the catalog of warm IRAS sources by de Grijp etal. The remaining galaxies constitute a homogeneous sample of luminous[log F (L_B/L_ȯ) = 9.9 +/- 0.4] starburst galaxies, 67% of whichwere not recognized as such before. The starburst nature of the PDSgalaxies is established by comparing their L_IR/L_B ratios and IRAScolors with a sample of emission-line galaxies from the literaturealready classified as starburst galaxies. The starburst galaxies show anexcess of FIR luminosity, and their IRAS colors are significantlydifferent from those of Seyfert galaxies-99% of the starburst galaxiesin our sample have a spectral index alpha(60, 25) < -1.9. As opposedto Seyfert galaxies, very few PDS starbursts are detected in X-rays. Inthe infrared, the starburst galaxies form a continuous sequence withnormal galaxies. But they generally can be distinguished from normalgalaxies by their spectral index alpha(60, 25) > -2.5. This colorcutoff also marks a change in the dominant morphologies of the galaxies:the normal IRAS galaxies are preferentially late-type spirals (Sb andlater), while the starbursts are more numerous among early-type spirals(earlier than Sbc). This preference of starbursts for early-type spiralsis not new, but a trait of the massive starburst nucleus galaxies(Coziol et al.). As in other starburst nucleus galaxy samples, the PDSstarbursts show no preference for barred galaxies. No difference isfound between the starbursts detected in the FIR and those detected onthe basis of UV excess. The PDS starburst galaxies represent the FIRluminous branch of the UV-bright starburst nucleus galaxies, with meanFIR luminosity log (L_IR/L_ȯ) = 10.3 +/- 0.5 and redshifts smallerthan 0.1. They form a complete sample limited in flux in the FIR at 2 x10^-10 ergs cm^-2 s^-1.
|Kinematics of the local universe. VII. New 21-cm line measurements of 2112 galaxies|
This paper presents 2112 new 21-cm neutral hydrogen line measurementscarried out with the meridian transit Nan\c cay radiotelescope. Amongthese data we give also 213 new radial velocities which complement thoselisted in three previous papers of this series. These new measurements,together with the HI data collected in LEDA, put to 6 700 the number ofgalaxies with 21-cm line width, radial velocity, and apparent diameterin the so-called KLUN sample. Figure 5 and Appendices A and B forcorresponding comments are available in electronic form at thehttp://www.edpsciences.com
|More Satellites of Spiral Galaxies|
We present a revised and expanded catalog of satellite galaxies of a setof isolated spiral galaxies similar in luminosity to the Milky Way. Thissample of 115 satellites, 69 of which were discovered in our multifiberredshift survey, is used to probe the results obtained from the originalsample further (Zaritsky et al.). The satellites are, by definition, atprojected separations <~500 kpc, have absolute recessional velocitydifferences with respect to the parent spiral of less than 500 km s-1,and are at least 2.2 mag fainter than their associated primary galaxy. Akey characteristic of this survey is the strict isolation of thesesystems, which simplifies any dynamical analysis. We find no evidencefor a decrease in the velocity dispersion of the satellite system as afunction of radius out to galactocentric radii of 400 kpc, whichsuggests that the halo extends well beyond 200 kpc. Furthermore, the newsample affirms our previous conclusions (Zaritsky et al.) that (1) thevelocity difference between a satellite and its primary is not stronglycorrelated with the rotation speed of the primary, (2) the system ofsatellites has a slight net rotation (34 +/- 14 km s-1) in the samesense as the primary's disk, and (3) that the halo mass of an ~L* spiralgalaxy is in excess of 2 x 1012 Mȯ.
|Large-Scale Structure at Low Galactic Latitude|
We have extended the CfA Redshift Survey to low galactic latitudes toinvestigate the relation between the Great Wall in the North GalacticCap and the Perseus-Pisces chain in the South Galactic Cap. We presentredshifts for 2020 galaxies in the Catalogue of Galaxies and of Clustersof Galaxies (Zwicky et al. 1961-68, CGCG) in the following regions: 4^h^<= α <= 8^h^, 17^h^ <= α <= 20^h^, 0^deg^ <=δ <= 45^deg^. In these regions, the redshift catalogue includes1664 galaxies with B(0) <= 15.5 (of which 820 are newly measured) andis 97% complete. We also include redshifts for an additional 356galaxies in these regions with B(O) > 15.5; of these, 148 werepreviously unmeasured. The CGCG samples the galaxy distribution down tob_II_ = 10^deg^. In this paper, we discuss the acquisition and reductionof the spectra, and we examine the qualitative features of the redshiftdistribution. The Great Wall and the Perseus-Pisces chain are not simplyconnected across the Zone of Avoidance. These structures, which at firstappear to be coherent on scales of ~100 h^-1^ Mpc or more, actually formthe boundaries of neighboring voids of considerably smaller scale,approximately 50h^-1^ Mpc. The structures delineated by ouroptically-selected sample are qualitatively similar to those detected bythe far-infrared-selected IRAS 1.2 Jansky Survey (Fisher et al. 1995).Although the IRAS survey probes more deeply into the Zone of Avoidance,our optically-selected survey provides better sampling of structures atb_II_ >= 10^deg^.
|An image database. II. Catalogue between δ=-30deg and δ=70deg.|
A preliminary list of 68.040 galaxies was built from extraction of35.841 digitized images of the Palomar Sky Survey (Paper I). For eachgalaxy, the basic parameters are obtained: coordinates, diameter, axisratio, total magnitude, position angle. On this preliminary list, weapply severe selection rules to get a catalog of 28.000 galaxies, wellidentified and well documented. For each parameter, a comparison is madewith standard measurements. The accuracy of the raw photometricparameters is quite good despite of the simplicity of the method.Without any local correction, the standard error on the total magnitudeis about 0.5 magnitude up to a total magnitude of B_T_=17. Significantsecondary effects are detected concerning the magnitudes: distance toplate center effect and air-mass effect.
|Large-Scale Structures in the Zone of Avoidance: The Galactic Anticenter Region|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...449..527L&db_key=AST
|The Tully-Fisher relation of the IRAS minisurvey galaxies|
We investigated the possible influence on the Tully-Fisher relation ofactive massive star formation in IRAS galaxies, in order to estimate thecontribution of star formation to their near-infrared luminosity. Weobserved 60 galaxies from the infrared complete so- called IRASMinisurvey sample in the 21 cm H1 line at Arecibo, determined thenear-infrared (H-band) Tully-Fisher relation for the 36 objects in thesample we judged to be usable for this purpose, and compared thisrelation with that of optically selected normal galaxies. The resultsshow no significant enhancement of the near- infrared luminosities ofthe IRAS Minisurvey galaxies compared to those of the optically selectednormal glaxies. From these results we inferred that in the minisurveygalaxies the average contribution of the active massive star formationto the total near-infrared luminosity is less and that exponential decaytimes for the starbursts occurring in the Minisurvey galaxies are of theorder of 10 Myr. The Tully-Fisher relation shows one exceptional galaxy(IRAS 03565+2139) with an about 25 times higher luminosity than averagefor its rotational velocity.
|An H I survey of high-velocity clouds in nearby disk galaxies|
We observed 14 nearly face-on disk galaxies with the Arecibo 305 mtelescope and found the double-horned H I profiles to have high-velocitywings in 10 of these galaxies. Such wings can be caused by high-velocityclouds, similar to those observed in our own Galaxy. Disk galaxy modelswere constructed that include both high-velocity clouds (modeled as acomponent of galactic gas with a velocity dispersion of either 30 or 50km/s) and warped H I disks. We find that the high-velocity wings can bereproduced by models with high-velocity clouds but not by models withwarps that are similar to those observed in other galaxies. If thesewings are due to high-velocity clouds, then the mass of neutral hydrogenin high-velocity clouds for the 10 galaxies ranges from 6 X107 solar mass to 4 x 109 solar mass, whichcorresponds to 4% - 14% of the total H I in these galaxies. The galaxieswith no detected high-velocity wings are also those with the lowestfar-infrared fluxes as measured by Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS),which is consistent with the galactic fountain model in which the youngstellar population (responsible for most of the far-infrared emissionproduces supernovae which then provide the kinetic energy of thehigh-velocity clouds.
|Some properties of the IR-radio relationship of luminous infrared galaxies|
We present the results of radio continuum observations of 25 luminousIRAS galaxies at 3.95 GHz and discuss the correlation between the radiocontinuum and far-infrared (FIR) emission. We argue that therelationship between the radio and FIR emission is different indifferent galaxy scale structures. The FIR-radio correlation is muchcloser in the core region of the galaxy than in its disk region. Whilethe FIR luminosity is independent of the FIR-to-radio ratio, the coreradio luminosity of the galaxy decreases as this ratio increases.
|The extended 12 micron galaxy sample|
We have selected an all-sky (absolute value of b greater than or equalto 25 deg) 12 micron flux-limited sample of 893 galaxies from the IRASFaint Source Catalog, Version 2 (FSC-2). We have obtained accurate totalfluxes in the IRAS wavebands by using the ADDSCAN procedure for allobjects with FSC-2 12 micron fluxes greater than 0.15 Jy and increasingflux densities from 12 to 60 microns, and defined the sample by imposinga survey limit of 0.22 Jy on the total 12 micron flux. Its completenessis verified, by means of the classical log N - log S andV/Vmax tests, down to 0.30 Jy, below which we have measuredthe incompleteness down to the survey limit, using the log N - log Splot, for our statistical analysis. We have obtained redshifts (mostlyfrom catalogs) for virtually all (98.4%) the galaxies in the sample.Using existing catalogs of active galaxies, we defined a subsample of118 objects consisting of 53 Seyfert 1s and quasars, 63 Seyfert 2s, andtwo blazars (approximately 13% of the full sample), which is the largestunbiased sample of Seyfert galaxies ever assembled. Since the 12 micronflux has been shown to be about one-fifth of the bolometric flux forSeyfert galaxies and quasars, the subsample of Seyferts (includingquasars and blazars) is complete not only to 0.30 Jy at 12 microns butalso with respect to a bolometric flux limit of approximately 2.0 x10-10 ergs/s/sq cm. The average value of V/Vmaxfor the full sample, corrected for incompleteness at low fluxes, is 0.51+/- 0.04, expected for a complete sample of uniformly distributedgalaxies, while the value for the Seyfert galaxy subsample is 0.46 +/-0.10. We have derived 12 microns and far-infrared luminosity functionsfor the AGNs, as well as for the entire sample. We extracted from oursample a complete subsample of 235 galaxies flux-limited (8.3 Jy) at 60microns. The 60 micron luminosity function computed for this subsampleis in satisfactory agreement with the ones derived from the brightgalaxy sample (BGS) and the deep high-galactic latitude sample, bothselected at 60 microns.
|The 12 micron galaxy sample. I - Luminosity functions and a new complete active galaxy sample|
An all-sky 12 micron flux-limited sample of active galaxies was selectedfrom the IRAS Point Source Catalog. Most of the sample galaxies are inexisting catalogs, and 99 percent have measured redshifts. The 12-micronand the far-infrared luminosity functions of active and normal galaxiesare derived using IRAS co-added data. A total of 22 percent of thesample galaxies harbor active nuclei. The sample consists almost equallyof Seyfert 1, Seyfert 2, and LINER nuclei. The derived luminosityfuctions for Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies are indistinguishable fromthose of the optically selected CfA sample. Thus, 12 micron selection isthe most efficient available technique for finding complete activegalaxy samples.
|The radio properties of galaxies with high far-infrared luminosities|
Observations have been made with the Very Large Array, mainly at 5 GHz,of a sample of galaxies with high far-infrared luminosities selectedfrom the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) minisurvey. The surfacebrightnesses of the minisurvey sources are greater than those of thedisks of normal galaxies but are similar to those of the central radiosources in these galaxies; the minisurvey sources, however, have muchlarger luminosities and physical sizes than these central sources. Onthe basis of the available data at all wavelengths, it is concluded thatthe far-infrared and radio emission from the minisurvey galaxies iscaused by star formation, not by active nuclei. It is found that thesize of the radio source is inversely correlated with the 60-100 microncolor temperature but is independent of the far-infrared luminosity.
|Arecibo observations of IRAS galaxies at 21 and 18 centimeters|
Arecibo observations at 21 cm and 18 cm of a sample of galaxies selectedfor their intense far-infrared (FIR) emission are reported. Theobjective was to search for H I absorption and OH maser emission. No newcases were found. The significance of this null result is discussed bothin terms of spatial distribution of the interstellar gas and dust and interms of the continuum luminosity of the nucleus. Nevertheless, the H Iprofiles are extraordinary in that most are convex (single peak). Thismay suggest disruption of the disk rotation system in some cases. Littlecorrelation is found between the hydrogen mass of these galaxies andtheir FIR luminosity. Comparison of these quantities suggests that thedust in these galaxies is under conditions very different from the solarneighborhood. Much more of the FIR emission apparently comes from H IIregions than in normal galaxies. There is an excellent correlationbetween IR flux and radio continuum flux. The ratio of these two is thesame as for normal spirals, which is surprising considering the manyvariables which could change this ratio.
|A further study of the relation of the radio-far-infrared in galaxies. I - Observations and data processing|
The radio luminosities of 99 galaxies at 6.3 cm (and of 31 of them at2.8 cm) are determined on the basis of observations obtained with the100-m Effelsberg radio telescope during March-August 1984 and comparedto the IRAS color-corrected FIR luminosities, extending the survey of deJong et al. (1985). The data-reduction procedures are described, and theresults are presented in extensive tables and maps and brieflycharacterized. The correlation of radio to FIR luminosity is confirmedover about four decades in both parameters, and the dispersion of logP(6.3 cm)/L(FIR) is found to be about 0.2, which is significantlysmaller than the dispersion found by de Jong et al. The improvement isattributed to color correction, integration over the 100-60-micronrange, and the exclusion of ambiguous identifications.
|An Arecibo survey for extragalactic hydroxyl absorption. I - Presentation of results|
Hydroxyl absorption has been detected in a total of 24 galaxies;megamaser emission in six additional galaxies brings the total number ofdetections of extragalactic OH to 30. About 50 percent of theextragalactic absorption lines are asymmetrically skewed toward the red,indicating that the molecular disks could have an unusual velocity orexcitation structure. The hyperfine ratio for the 1667 and 1665 MHztransitions in most galaxies lies within the limits specified by LTEconditions.
|JHKL observations of IRAS sources. II|
JHKL photometry is given for 13 IRAS galaxies which are shown to havenear-infrared colors similar to those of H II region galaxies. SixteenIRAS stars with JHKL colors like those of blackbodies are discussed.Fourteen of these are proposed as likely OH/IR star candidates on thebasis of their JHKL and IRAS colors, their variability, and theirnear-infrared spectra. Many of these stars are high galactic latitudeand the implications of finding such objects considerably above thegalactic plane are discussed.
|The properties of far-infrared luminous galaxies. I Spectroscopic and near-infrared observations|
Optical spectra, JHK photometry, and B and R band CCD observations of asample of galaxies very luminous in the infrared have been obtained fromthe IRAS minisurvey and analyzed. The optical spectra are consistentwith photoionization by hot stars in a dusty medium. The JHK colors areconsistent with a reddened normal stellar population or a stellarpopulation with a power law continuum component. The far-IR luminositiesare consistent with other luminous starburst galaxies. A largepopulation of optically dull galaxies with only very weak emission ornonexistent emission lines is found. It is concluded that the vastmajority of the studied galaxies are probably the result of a starbustin a dusty medium.
|Properties of IRAS galaxies with B(0)T not greater than approximately 14.5|
The optical and infrared properties of 86 galaxies from IRAS circulars1-15, identified with optically bright galaxies in RC-2 and UGC havebeen studied. It is seen that B(0)T, the face-on integratedblue magnitude, is correlated with the far-infrared (FIR) flux. For asubsample of 61 galaxies for which distances are available, it is foundthat the color temperature of FIR emitting dust is correlated with theFIR luminosity, but not with the blue band luminosity. This along withthe observed ratio of L(FIR)/L(B) implies that the observed blueluminosity is unlikely to be associated with young star formationactivity. Associating FIR luminosity with young star formation activityin molecular clouds and the blue luminosity to the mass of the galaxy, avalue of 5-10 solar luminosity/solar mass is estimated for the meanratio of total FIR luminosity to the mass of the gas in these galaxies.
|CO emission from IRAS galaxies|
The results of a search for CO emission in 20 galaxies in the IRAScirculars are presented. The observations were carried out using the14-m millimeter telescope of the Five College Radio AstronomyObservatory (FCRAO) at a half-power beam width of 45 arcsec. CO wasdetected in 10 of the galaxies, including Arp 220 and NGC 6240. A roughcorrelation was found between CO and 10-micron luminosities, although awide scatter was observed in the relation. The very luminous far-IRgalaxies Arp 220 and NGC 6240 contain 3 x 10 to the 10th solar mass ofH2, or a factor of 3 more molecular gas than was found in the luminousspiral galaxies NGC and M51. It is shown that if the far-IR emissionoriginated in a region much smaller than 45 arcsec, the surface densityof the molecular hydrogen in Arp 220 may exceed that observed in any Scgalaxy.
|Far infrared emission from galaxies|
Until recently far infrared (FIR) observations of galaxies were limitedto about a dozen bright and/or active galaxies. New photometric data hasbecome available from Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) on 33galaxies (most of them faint). The FIR spectra of these galaxies aresimilar. The far infrared flux in the wavelength interval 9-118 micronsof the brighter galaxies is seen to be correlated with the integratedoptical magnitude. The 12 and 25 microns fluxes of these galaxiesexhibit the same dependence on the integrated optical magnitude as the10 and 21 microns fluxes for Seyferts and other emission-line galaxies.This suggests that the galaxies detected by IRAS are some type of activegalaxies in accord with the high percentage of these galaxies predictedby Lock and Rowan-Robinson (1983).
|A survey of galaxy redshifts. IV - The data|
The complete list of the best available radial velocities for the 2401galaxies in the merged Zwicky-Nilson catalog brighter than 14.5mz and with b (II) above +40 deg or below -30 deg ispresented. Almost 60 percent of the redshifts are from the CfA surveyand are accurate to typically 35 km/s.
|A radio continuum survey of nearby galaxies. I - Observations at 0.4, 0.8, 4.8, and 10.7 GHz|
Observations have been conducted of a total of 136 galaxies at one ormore of four frequencies: 430, 834, 4750, and 10,700 MHz. For a subsetof these, spectral indices could be determined. A mean value alpha =-0.68 + or - 0.04 is found over the whole frequency range covered. Themean high frequency spectral index (4.9-10.7 GHz) for Sc galaxies isalpha = -0.55 + or - 0.07, which indicates the presence of significantamounts of thermal emission in a considerable fraction of the sample. At10.7 GHz the mean thermal contribution to the radio emission of thesample Sc galaxies is 35 + or - 15 percent; for the sample Sb galaxiesthis is 20 + or - 15 percent.
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