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Neutral hydrogen gas in interacting galaxies: the NGC 1511 galaxy group
We present HI line and 20-cm radio continuum observations of the NGC1511 galaxy group obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array.The data reveal an extended, rather disturbed HI distribution for thepeculiar starburst galaxy NGC 1511 and a narrow bridge to its smallcompanion galaxy, NGC 1511B, which has been severely distorted by theinteraction/collision between the two galaxies. No stellar counterpartto the gaseous bridge has been detected. In addition, we find that thepeculiar optical ridge to the east of NGC 1511 is probably the stellarremnant of a galaxy completely disrupted by interactions with NGC 1511.The slightly more distant neighbour, NGC 1511A, shows a regular HIvelocity field and no obvious signs of interactions.Radio continuum emission from NGC 1511 reveals three prominent sourceson top of a more diffuse, extended distribution. We derive an overallstar formation rate of 7Msolaryr-1. The mostenhanced star formation is found in the south-eastern part of the disc,coincident with several bright HII regions, and closest to the peculiaroptical ridge. No continuum emission was detected in the companions, butNGC 1511B appears to show an HII region at its faint western edge,closest to NGC 1511. The group displays a prime example ofinteraction-induced star formation activity.

Star Formation in H I-selected Galaxies. II. H II Region Properties
A sample of 69 galaxies with radial velocities less than 2500 kms-1 was selected from the H I Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS)to deduce details about star formation in nearby disk galaxies selectedwith no bias to optical surface brightness selection effects. Broadband(B and R) and narrowband (Hα) images were obtained for all ofthese objects. More than half of the sample galaxies are late-type,dwarf disks (mostly Sc and Sm galaxies). We have measured the propertiesof the H II regions on Hα continuum-subtracted images, using theHIIphot package developed by Thilker et al. All but one of the galaxiescontained at least one detectable H II region. Examination of theproperties of the H II regions in each galaxy revealed that thebrightest regions in higher surface brightness galaxies tend to be moreluminous than those in lower surface brightness galaxies. A higherfraction (referred to as the diffuse fraction) of the Hα emissionfrom lower surface brightness galaxies comes from diffuse ionized gas. HII region luminosity functions (LFs) co-added according to surfacebrightness show that the shapes of the LFs for the lowest surfacebrightness galaxies are different from those for typical spiralgalaxies. This discrepancy could be caused by the lowest surfacebrightness galaxies having somewhat episodic star formation or by themforming a relatively larger fraction of their stars outside of dense,massive molecular clouds. In general, the results imply that theconditions under which star formation occurs in lower surface brightnessgalaxies are different than in more typical, higher surface brightnessspiral galaxies.

Neutral hydrogen gas in 7 high-inclination spiral galaxies. I. The data
High-sensitivity interferometric H i line observations of a small sampleof seven galaxies with limiting column densities of a few times1019 cm-2 are presented. A tilted ring modelfitting routine was used to determine some global characteristics of theH i distribution and kinematics in the galaxy disks. 4 of the 7 galaxieshave low maximum rotation velocities of 125 km s-1,indicating that they are low-mass systems. Visual inspection shows thatat least one galaxy, NGC 4700, exhibits signs of extraplanar H iemission. An in-depth search for H i gas in the galaxy halos and thedetermination of halo gas properties, based on three-dimensionalmodeling, will follow in a separate publication. Companion galaxies weredetected in H i line emission near 3 of the 7 sample galaxies: NGC 1511,NGC 4565 and NGC 4700. One of these, NGC 1511, is found to be stronglyinteracting and is therefore not suitable for a study of the dependenceof its halo properties on the level of star formation activity in theunderlying disk. In the case of NGC 4700 the companion galaxy has novisible influence on its gas kinematics, while NGC 4565 might beaffected by its interaction with two small companions.Figures [see full text] and Appendix A are only available in electronicform at http://www.edpsciences.org

XMM-Newton Observations of Starburst Galaxies
We report on the results of XMM-Newton observations of nearbystarburst galaxies that form part of a multi-wavelength study of allphases of the extraplanar interstellar medium (ISM) in externalgalaxies. This study is conducted in order to assess the importance ofhalos as repositories of a metal-enriched medium and their significancein terms of galactic chemical evolution and possible metal enrichment ofthe intergalactic medium (IGM). Here we shortly summarize our findingsbased on XMM-Newton observations of NGC 1511 and NGC 1808 andpresent preliminary results for NGC 4666 and NGC 3628.

XMM-Newton Observations of Nearby Edge-On Starburst Galaxies
We report on the results of XMM-Newton observations of nearby starburstgalaxies that form part of a multi-wavelength study of all phases ofextraplanar gas in external galaxies, which is conducted in order toassess the importance of halos as repositories of a metal-enrichedmedium and their significance in terms of galactic chemical evolutionand possible metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium (IGM).XMM-Newton observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 1511 revealed e.g.the presence of a previously unknown extended hot gaseous phase of itsinterstellar medium (ISM), which partly extends out of the disk plane.We also present preliminary results based on XMM-Newton observations ofNGC 1808, NGC 4666 and NGC 3628.

Star Formation in H I-Selected Galaxies. I. Sample Characteristics
A sample of 69 galaxies with radial velocities of less than 2500 kms-1 was selected from the H I Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS)and imaged in broadband B and R and narrowband Hα, to deducedetails about star formation in nearby disk galaxies while avoidingsurface brightness selection effects. The sample is dominated bylate-type, dwarf disks (mostly Sc and Sm galaxies) with exponential diskscale lengths of ~1-5 kpc. The HIPASS galaxies, on average, have lowerstar formation rates (SFRs), are bluer, and have lower surfacebrightness than an optically selected sample. H II regions were detectedin all but one of the galaxies. Many galaxies had as few as two to fiveH II regions. The galaxies' Hα equivalent widths, colors, and SFRsper unit of H I mass are best explained by young mean ages (~3-5 Gyr,according to Schmidt-law models) with star formation histories in whichthe SFRs were higher in the past. Comparison of the surface brightnesscoverage of the HIPASS galaxies with that of an optically selectedsample shows that such a sample may miss ~10% of the local galaxy numberdensity and could possibly miss as much as 3%-4% of the SFR density. Theamount lower surface brightness galaxies contribute to the totalluminosity density may be insignificant, but this conclusion is somewhatdependent on how the fluxes of these objects are determined.

The IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample
IRAS flux densities, redshifts, and infrared luminosities are reportedfor all sources identified in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample(RBGS), a complete flux-limited survey of all extragalactic objects withtotal 60 μm flux density greater than 5.24 Jy, covering the entiresky surveyed by IRAS at Galactic latitudes |b|>5°. The RBGS includes629 objects, with median and mean sample redshifts of 0.0082 and 0.0126,respectively, and a maximum redshift of 0.0876. The RBGS supersedes theprevious two-part IRAS Bright Galaxy Samples(BGS1+BGS2), which were compiled before the final(Pass 3) calibration of the IRAS Level 1 Archive in 1990 May. The RBGSalso makes use of more accurate and consistent automated methods tomeasure the flux of objects with extended emission. The RBGS contains 39objects that were not present in the BGS1+BGS2,and 28 objects from the BGS1+BGS2 have beendropped from RBGS because their revised 60 μm flux densities are notgreater than 5.24 Jy. Comparison of revised flux measurements forsources in both surveys shows that most flux differences are in therange ~5%-25%, although some faint sources at 12 and 25 μm differ byas much as a factor of 2. Basic properties of the RBGS sources aresummarized, including estimated total infrared luminosities, as well asupdates to cross identifications with sources from optical galaxycatalogs established using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Inaddition, an atlas of images from the Digitized Sky Survey with overlaysof the IRAS position uncertainty ellipse and annotated scale bars isprovided for ease in visualizing the optical morphology in context withthe angular and metric size of each object. The revised bolometricinfrared luminosity function, φ(Lir), forinfrared-bright galaxies in the local universe remains best fit by adouble power law, φ(L)~Lα, withα=-0.6(+/-0.1) and α=-2.2(+/-0.1) below and above the``characteristic'' infrared luminosityL*ir~1010.5Lsolar,respectively. A companion paper provides IRAS High Resolution (HIRES)processing of over 100 RBGS sources where improved spatial resolutionoften provides better IRAS source positions or allows for deconvolutionof close galaxy pairs.

An Hα survey aiming at the detection of extraplanar diffuse ionized gas in halos of edge-on spiral galaxies. I. How common are gaseous halos among non-starburst galaxies?
In a series of two papers we present results of a new Hα imagingsurvey, aiming at the detection of extraplanar diffuse ionized gas inhalos of late-type spiral galaxies. We have investigated a sample of 74nearby edge-on spirals, covering the northern and southern hemisphere.In 30 galaxies we detected extraplanar diffuse emission at meandistances of |z| ~ 1-2 kpc. Individual filaments can be traced out to|z|<=6 kpc in a few cases. We find a good correlation between the FIRflux ratio (S60/S100) and the SFR per unit area(LFIR/D225), based on thedetections/non-detections. This is actually valid for starburst, normaland for quiescent galaxies. A minimal SFR per unit area for the lowestS60/S100 values, at which extended emission hasbeen detected, was derived, which amounts to dotEA25thres = (3.2+/-0.5)*E40ergs-1 kpc-2. There are galaxies where extraplanaremission was detected at smaller values ofLFIR/D225, however, only in combinationwith a significantly enhanced dust temperature. The results corroboratethe general view that the gaseous halos are a direct consequence of SFactivity in the underlying galactic disk.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory,Chile (ESO No. 63.N-0070, ESO No. 64.N-0034, ESO No. 65.N.-0002).

The quest for hot gas in the halo of NGC 1511
XMM-Newton observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 1511 reveal thepresence of a previously unknown extended hot gaseous phase of its ISM,which partly extends out of the disk plane. The emission distribution isasymmetric, being brightest in the eastern half of the galaxy, wherealso radio continuum observations suggest the highest level of starformation. Spectral analysis of the integral 0.2-12 keV X-ray emissionfrom NGC 1511 indicates a complex emission composition. A modelcomprising a power law plus thermal plasma component, both absorbed byforeground gas, cannot explain all details of the observed spectrum,requiring a third spectral component to be added. This component can bea second thermal plasma, but other spectral models can be fitted aswell. Its X-ray properties characterize NGC 1511 as a starburst galaxy.The X-ray-to-infrared luminosity ratio is consistent with this result.Together with the X-ray data, XMM-Newton obtained UV images of NGC 1511,tracing massive stars heating the ambient gas, which is then seen inHα emission. UV, Hα and near-infrared imagery suggest thatNGC 1511 is disturbed, most likely by its two small companions, NGC1511a and NGC 1511b.

A Catalog of H I-Selected Galaxies from the South Celestial Cap Region of Sky
The first deep catalog of the H I Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) ispresented, covering the south celestial cap (SCC) region. The SCC areais ~2400 deg2 and covers δ<-62°. The average rmsnoise for the survey is 13 mJy beam-1. Five hundredthirty-six galaxies have been cataloged according to their neutralhydrogen content, including 114 galaxies that have no previous catalogedoptical counterpart. This is the largest sample of galaxies from a blindH I survey to date. Most galaxies in optically unobscured regions of skyhave a visible optical counterpart; however, there is a small populationof low-velocity H I clouds without visible optical counterparts whoseorigins and significance are unclear. The rms accuracy of the HIPASSpositions is found to be 1.9′. The H I mass range of galaxiesdetected is from ~106 to ~1011 Msolar.There are a large number of late-type spiral galaxies in the SCC sample(66%), compared with 30% for optically selected galaxies from the sameregion in the NASA Extragalactic Database. The average ratio of H I massto B luminosity of the sample increases according to optical type, from1.8 Msolar/Lsolar for early types to 3.2Msolar/Lsolar for late-type galaxies. The HI-detected galaxies tend to follow the large-scale structure traced bygalaxies found in optical surveys. From the number of galaxies detectedin this region of sky, we predict the full HIPASS catalog will contain~5000 galaxies, to a peak flux density limit of ~39 mJy (3 σ),although this may be a conservative estimate as two large voids arepresent in the region. The H I mass function for this catalog ispresented in a subsequent paper.

The Visibility of Galactic Bars and Spiral Structure at High Redshifts
We investigate the visibility of galactic bars and spiral structure inthe distant universe by artificially redshifting 101 B-band CCD imagesof local spiral galaxies from the Ohio State University Bright SpiralGalaxy Survey. These local galaxy images represent a much fairerstatistical baseline than the galaxy atlas images presented by Frei etal. in 1995, the most commonly used calibration sample for morphologicalwork at high redshifts. Our artificially redshifted images correspond toHubble Space Telescope I814-band observations of the localgalaxy sample seen at z=0.7, with integration times matching those ofboth the very deep northern Hubble Deep Field (HDF) data and the muchshallower HDF flanking field observations. The expected visibility ofgalactic bars is probed in two ways: (1) using traditional visualclassification and (2) by charting the changing shape of the galaxydistribution in ``Hubble space,'' a quantitative two-parameterdescription of galactic structure that maps closely onto Hubble'soriginal tuning fork. Both analyses suggest that over two-thirds ofstrongly barred luminous local spirals (i.e., objects classified as SBin the Third Reference Catalogue) would still be classified as stronglybarred at z=0.7 in the HDF data. Under the same conditions, most weaklybarred spirals (classified SAB in the Third Reference Catalogue) wouldbe classified as regular spirals. The corresponding visibility of spiralstructure is assessed visually, by comparing luminosity classificationsfor the artificially redshifted sample with the corresponding luminosityclassifications from the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog. We find that forexposure times similar to that of the HDF, spiral structure should bedetectable in most luminous (MB~M*) low-inclination spiralgalaxies at z=0.7 in which it is present. However, obvious spiralstructure is only detectable in ~30% of comparable galaxies in the HDFflanking field data using the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. Our studyof artificially redshifted local galaxy images suggests that, whenviewed at similar resolution, noise level, and redshift-correctedwavelength, barred spirals are less common at z~0.7 than they are atz=0.0, although more data are needed to definitively rule out thepossibility that cosmic variance is responsible for much of this effect.

Supernovae in isolated galaxies, in pairs and in groups of galaxies
In order to investigate the influence of environment on supernova (SN)production, we have performed a statistical investigation of the SNediscovered in isolated galaxies, in pairs and in groups of galaxies. 22SNe in 18 isolated galaxies, 48 SNe in 40 galaxy members of 37 pairs and211 SNe in 170 galaxy members of 116 groups have been selected andstudied. We found that the radial distributions of core-collapse SNe ingalaxies located in different environments are similar, and consistentwith those reported by Bartunov, Makarova & Tsvetkov. SNe discoveredin pairs do not favour a particular direction with respect to thecompanion galaxy. Also, the azimuthal distributions inside the hostmembers of galaxy groups are consistent with being isotropics. The factthat SNe are more frequent in the brighter components of the pairs andgroups is expected from the dependence of the SN rates on the galaxyluminosity. There is an indication that the SN rate is higher in galaxypairs compared with that in groups. This can be related to the enhancedstar formation rate in strongly interacting systems. It is concludedthat, with the possible exception of strongly interacting systems, theparent galaxy environment has no direct influence on SN production.

Warm dust as a tracer of galaxies with gaseous halos
We present radio continuum observations conducted with the VLA and ATCAof a sample of 15 edge-on spiral galaxies. 11 of these galaxies, withinclination angles of i >~ 75o and neither active galacticnuclei nor nearby interaction partners, are suitable for studies of haloproperties in relation to the level of star formation in their disks. In6 of these 11 galaxies radio halos were detected at the angularresolution of the current data. In the remaining cases the presence ofhalo emission could not be proven unambiguously, partly due torelatively low angular resolution. A clear trend was found that galaxieswith radio halos are those with the highest far-infrared 60 mu m to 100mu m flux ratios. This shows the suitability of highf60/f100 ratios of >=0.4 as a reliable tracerof galaxies with high star formation rates and related disk-halointeractions, leading to the presence of extraplanar emission, e.g. fromcosmic ray electrons. The measured exponential scale heights of those 6radio halos that were clearly detected range from about 1.4 to 3.1 kpc.All 4 physically small galaxies in our sample do show extraplanarsynchrotron radio emission, indicating that their more shallowgravitational potential compared to normal-sized spirals mightfacilitate the escape of cosmic-ray electrons from the sites of starformation in their disks. Although the galaxies with the highest energyinput rates into the ISM of their disks are those that have the mostprominent radio halos, there is no direct relation between the haloscale heights and the energy input rates. Instead, the scale heights ofthe radio halos are dominated by the energy losses of the cosmic rayelectrons on their way out of the galaxy disks.

The mass distribution in the innermost regions of spiral galaxies
We use high-spatial resolution ( ~ 100 pc) rotation curves of 83 spiralgalaxies to investigate the mass distribution of their innermost kpc. Weshow that in this region the luminous matter completely accounts for thegravitational potential and no dark component is required. The derivedI-band disk mass-to-light ratios Y_I agree well with those obtained frompopulation synthesis models and correlate with color in a similar way.We find strict upper limits of ~ 10^7 M_Sun for the masses of compactbodies at the center of spirals ruling out that these systems host theremnants of the quasar activity.

Southern Isolated Galaxy Triplets
Seventy-six isolated triple systems of galaxies with declinatiosnδ<-3° were selected using ESO/SERC and POSS-I sky surveydata. The equatorial coordinates, configuration types, angular sizes,component angular separations, component morphological types, totalmagnitudes, and other parameters are reported for each triplet.Radial-velocity estimates are available for all components in 33 of the76 triplets. The median values of the main dynamicalparameters—radial-velocity dispersion, mean harmonic radius,absolute magnitudes of member galaxies, and mass-to-luminosityratios—are similar to those obtained earlier for 83 isolatedtriple systems with δ>-3°.

The 1.0 Megaparsec Galaxy Pair Sample in Low-Density Regions
Using complete redshift catalogs, we have compiled a list of galaxypairs based solely on a pair's projected separation, rp, andvelocity difference, ΔV. We have made high-velocity precision H Iobservations of each galaxy in the sample and have reported these in theliterature. Due to the nature of the redshift catalogs, we are able toquantitatively evaluate the effects of isolation and number density ofsurrounding galaxies on each pair in the sample. For the close galaxypairs (rp<100 kpc), the degree of isolation (a measure ofthe number of near neighbors) has little effect on the median ΔV.This median is about 55 km s-1 for the 25 close pairs (ifmedium-density close pairs are omitted ΔV is even smaller, but thedifference is not statistically significant). The effect of isolation isstrong for the entire sample of galaxy pairs with separations as largeas 1.0 Mpc. For these larger separation pairs, relaxation of strictisolation requirements introduces small groups into the sample, whichdramatically increases the median ΔV. We find little evidence ofan increase in the median ΔV with decreasing rp, norwith increasing total luminosity. For our isolated pairs in low-densityregions, the overall median ΔV is only 30 km s-1. Forsimilar separations and isolation criteria, galaxy satellites withlarger luminosity ratios (i.e., less dynamical friction) in higherdensity regions have ΔV approximately twice as large. Weconjecture that our orbits are highly eccentric, so that the indirecteffect of dynamical friction leads to predominantly small ΔV.However, the halos of our galaxies may also be of low density (althoughhighly extended).

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Massive Star Formation and Evolution in Starburst Galaxies: Mid-infrared Spectroscopy with the ISO Short Wavelength Spectrometer
We present new Infrared Space Observatory Short Wavelength Spectrometerdata for a sample of 27 starburst galaxies, and with these data weexamine the issues of formation and evolution of the most massive starsin starburst galaxies. Using starburst models which incorporate timeevolution, new stellar atmosphere models for massive stars, and astarburst model geometry derived from observations of the prototypicalstarburst M82, we model the integrated mid-infrared line ratio [NeIII](15.6 μm)/[Ne II](12.8 μm). This line ratio is sensitive tothe hardness of the stellar energy distribution and therefore to themost massive stars present. We conclude from our models, withconsideration of recent determinations of the stellar census in local,high-mass star-forming regions, that the [Ne III]/[Ne II] ratios wemeasure are consistent with the formation of massive (~50-100Msolar) stars in most starbursts. In this framework, the lownebular excitation inferred from the measured line ratios can beattributed to aging effects. By including estimates of the ratio ofinfrared-to-Lyman continuum luminosity for the galaxies in our sample,we further find that most starbursts are relatively short-lived(106-107 yr), only a few O star lifetimes. Wediscuss a possible cause of such short events: the effectiveness ofstellar winds and supernovae in destroying the starburst environment.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, theNetherlands, and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISASand NASA. The SWS is a joint project of SRON and MPE.

Compact Radio Emission from Warm Infrared Galaxies
In this paper, we present a comparison between the optical spectroscopicdata and the incidence of compact radio emission for a sample of 60 warminfrared galaxies. We find that 80% of optically classified activegalactic nucleus (AGN)-type galaxies contain compact radio sources,while 37% of optically classified starburst galaxies contain compactradio sources. The compact radio luminosity shows a bimodaldistribution, indicating two populations in our sample. The majority ofthe higher radio luminosity class (L>104Lsolar) are AGNs, while the majority of the lower radioluminosity class (L<104 Lsolar) are starbursts.The compact radio emission in the starburst galaxies may be due toeither obscured AGNs or complexes of extremely luminous supernovae suchas that seen in Arp 220. The incidence of optically classified AGNsincreases with increasing far-infrared (FIR) luminosity. Using FIRcolor-color diagrams, we find that globally the energetics of 92% of thegalaxies in our sample are dominated by starburst activity, including60% of galaxies that we find to contain AGNs on the basis of theiroptical classification. The remainder are energetically dominated bytheir AGNs in the infrared. For starburst galaxies, electron densityincreases with dust temperature, consistent with the merger model forinfrared galaxies.

The Frequency of Barred Spiral Galaxies in the Near-Infrared
We have determined the fraction of barred galaxies in the H-band for astatistically well-defined sample of 186 spirals drawn from the OhioState University Bright Spiral Galaxy Survey. We find 56% of our sampleto be strongly barred in the H band while another 16% is weakly barred.Only 27% of our sample is unbarred in the near-infrared. The RC3 and theCarnegie Atlas of Galaxies both classify only about 30% of our sample asstrongly barred. Thus strong bars are nearly twice as prevalent in thenear-infrared as in the optical. The frequency of genuine opticallyhidden bars is significant but lower than many claims in the literature:40% of the galaxies in our sample that are classified as unbarred in theRC3 show evidence for a bar in the H band while the Carnegie Atlas liststhis fraction as 66%. Our data reveal no significant trend in barfraction as a function of morphology in either the optical or H band.Optical surveys of high-redshift galaxies may be strongly biased againstfinding bars, as bars are increasingly difficult to detect at bluer restwavelengths. Based partially on observations obtained at the CerroTololo Inter-American Observatory, operated by the Association ofUniversities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperativeagreement with the National Science Foundation.

Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. I. Statistics
We present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of ~ 1350edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue ofBright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al. \cite{rc3}). A visualclassification of the bulges using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) inthree types of b/p bulges or as an elliptical type is presented andsupported by CCD images. NIR observations reveal that dust extinctiondoes almost not influence the shape of bulges. There is no substantialdifference between the shape of bulges in the optical and in the NIR.Our analysis reveals that 45% of all bulges are box- and peanut-shaped(b/p). The frequency of b/p bulges for all morphological types from S0to Sd is > 40%. In particular, this is for the first time that such alarge frequency of b/p bulges is reported for galaxies as late as Sd.The fraction of the observed b/p bulges is large enough to explain theb/p bulges by bars. Partly based on observations collected at ESO/LaSilla (Chile), DSAZ/Calar Alto (Spain), and Lowell Observatory/Flagstaff(AZ/U.S.A.). Tables 6 and 7 are only available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Toward a Unified Model for the ``Diffuse Ionized Medium'' in Normal and Starburst Galaxies
The ``diffuse ionized medium'' (DIM) makes up a significant fraction ofthe mass and ionization requirements of the interstellar medium of theMilky Way and is now known to be an energetically significant componentin most normal star-forming galaxies. Observations of the ionized gas instarburst galaxies have revealed the presence of gas with strikingsimilarities to the DIM in normal galaxies: relatively low surfacebrightness and strong emission from low-ionization forbidden lines like[S II] lambdalambda6716, 6731. In this paper we analyze Hα imagesand long-slit spectra of samples of normal and starburst galaxies tobetter understand the nature of this diffuse, low surface brightnessgas. We find that in both samples there is a strong inverse correlationbetween the Hα surface brightness (Sigma_Hα) and the [SII]/Hα line ratio at a given location in the galaxy. However, thecorrelation for the starbursts is offset brightward by an order ofmagnitude in Hα surface brightness at a given line ratio. Incontrast, we find that all the galaxies (starburst and normal alike)define a universal relation between line ratio and the relative Hαsurface brightness (Sigma_Hα/Sigma_e, where Sigma_e is the meanHα surface brightness within the galaxy half-light radius). Weshow that such a universal correlation is a natural outcome of a modelin which the DIM is photoionized gas that has a characteristic thermalpressure (P) that is proportional to the mean rate of star formation perunit area in the galaxy (Sigma_SFR). Good quantitative agreement withthe data follows if we require the constant of proportionality to beconsistent with the values of P and Sigma_SFR in the local disk of theMilky Way. Such a scaling between P and Sigma_SFR may arise eitherbecause feedback from massive stars heats the ISM or because Sigma_SFRis determined (or limited) by the mean gas pressure.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

A catalogue of spatially resolved kinematics of galaxies: Bibliography
We present a catalogue of galaxies for which spatially resolved data ontheir internal kinematics have been published; there is no a priorirestriction regarding their morphological type. The catalogue lists thereferences to the articles where the data are published, as well as acoded description of these data: observed emission or absorption lines,velocity or velocity dispersion, radial profile or 2D field, positionangle. Tables 1, 2, and 3 are proposed in electronic form only, and areavailable from the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (to130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Optical Rotation Curves and Linewidths for Tully-Fisher Applications
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114.2402C&db_key=AST

Close galaxy pairs in low and medium density regions: The southern sky.
We extend to the southern hemisphere a continuing program of optical andHI observations of galaxy pairs (Chengalur \etal 1993, 1994, 1995 andNordgren \etal 1997). These pairs are drawn from published redshiftcatalogs and represent a complete sample. We present new data of 15pairs observed with the Palomar 5-meter telescope, Mount Stromlo SidingSpring 40-inch telescope, Australia Telescope Compact Array and VLA Dsynthesis array. These galaxy pairs are all defined as close pairs(projected separations < 100 kpc). HI companions are found near fiveof 15 pairs.

Parameters of 2447 Southern Spiral Galaxies for Use in the Tully-Fisher Relation
I-band luminosities, rotational velocities, and redshifts of 1092 spiralgalaxies have been measured by CCD photometry and Hα spectroscopyusing the 1 m and 2.3 m telescopes at Siding Spring Observatory,respectively. The results are tabulated. Luminosity profiles andHα rotation curves are given for the galaxies. When these resultsare combined with similar data for 1355 spiral galaxies publishedpreviously (Mathewson, Ford, & Buchhorn, hereafter Paper I), itprovides a large, uniform, and unique data set with which to measure,via the Tully-Fisher relation, the peculiar velocities of galaxies inthe local universe to a distance of 11,000 km s^-1^ (Mathewson &Ford). Taking advantage of the opportunity for publishing this data inmachine-readable form, in the CD-ROM, we have also included similar datafor the 1355 galaxies in Paper I.

The Nature of Starburst Galaxies
Utilizing a large sample of infrared-selected starburst galaxies havingoptical images and long-slit spectra, we explore the interrelationshipsbetween the properties of starbursts and relate these properties tothose of the "host" galaxy. We find that the half-light radius of theHα-emitting region (r_e,Hα_) enters into severalcorrelations that suggest it is physically related to the actualstarburst radius. Most suggestively, the effective IR surface brightness(L_IR_/πr^2^_e,Hα_) correlates strongly with the far-IR colortemperature. This can be reproduced roughly with an idealized model of asurrounding dust screen whose far-IR emissivity is determined by thelocal energy density of UV starburst light. Typical values forr_e,Hα_ are a few hundred pc to a few kpc (with the Hαemission being significantly more compact than the red starlight). Thisconfirms the "circumnuclear" scales of typical starbursts. We show alsothat starbursts seem to obey a limiting IR surface brightness of about10^11^L_sun_ kpc^2^, corresponding to a maximum star formation rate ofabout 20 M_sun_ yr^-1^ kpc^2^ for a normal initial mass function. Weargue that this upper limit suggests that starbursts are self-regulatingin some way. We show that most of these galaxies have relatively normal,symmetric rotation curves. This implies that the galactic disk need notsuffer severe dynamical damage in order to "fuel" a typical starburst.We show also that the starbursts occur preferentially in the innerregion of solid-body rotation. This may reflect both bar-driven inflowof gas to the region between the inner Lindblad resonances and thedominance of gravitational instability over tidal shear in this region.Most of the starbursts reside in galaxies with rotation speeds of120-200 km s^-1^ (compared to 220 km s^-1^ for a fiducial L^*^ galaxylike the Milky Way). The lack of a correlation between galaxy rotationspeed and starburst luminosity means that even relatively modestgalaxies (masses~10% of the Milky Way) can host powerful starbursts. Weargue on the basis of causality that the internal velocity dispersion ina starburst sets an upper limit to the star formation rate. The mostextreme starbursts approach this limit, but most are well below.Finally, we show that the relative narrowness of the nuclear emissionlines in starbursts (relative to the galaxy rotation speed) arisesbecause the gas in the nuclear "bin" usually does not sample fully thesolid-body part of the rotation curve. The narrow lines do notnecessarily imply that the starburst is not in dynamical equilibrium.

Ionized Gas in the Halos of Edge-on Starburst Galaxies: Evidence for Supernova-driven Superwinds
Supernova-driven galactic winds ("superwinds") have been invoked toexplain many aspects of galaxy formation and evolution. Such windsshould arise when the supernova rate is high enough to create a cavityof very hot shock-heated gas within a galaxy. This gas can then expandoutward as a high-speed wind that can accelerate and heat ambientinterstellar or circum-galactic gas causing it to emit optical lineradiation and/or thermal X-rays. Theory suggests that such winds shouldbe common in starburst galaxies and that the nature of the winds shoulddepend on the star formation rate and distribution. In order tosystematize our observational understanding of superwinds (determinetheir incidence rate and the dependence of their properties on the starformation that drives them) and to make quantitative comparisons withthe theory of superwinds, we have analyzed data from an opticalspectroscopic and narrow-band imaging survey of an infrared flux-limited(S_60 microns_ >= 5.4 Jy) sample of about 50 IR-warm (S_60microns_/S_100 microns_ > 0.4), starburst galaxies whose stellardisks are viewed nearly edge-on (b/a ~> 2). This sample containsgalaxies with infrared luminosities from ~10^10^-10^12^ L_sun_ andallows us to determine the properties of superwinds over a wide range ofstar formation rates. We have found that extraplanar emission-line gasis a very common feature of these edge-on, IR-bright galaxies and theproperties of the extended emission-line gas are qualitatively andquantitatively consistent with the superwind theory. We can summarizethese properties as morphological, ionization, dynamical, and physical.1. Morphological properties.-Extraplanar filamentary and shell-likeemission-line morphologies on scales of hundreds of parsecs to 10 kpcare common, there is a general "excess" of line emission along the minoraxis, the minor axis emission-line "excess" correlates with "IRactivity," and the minor axis emission-line "excess" also correlateswith the relative compactness of the Hα emission. 2. Ionizationproperties.-Line ratios become more "shocklike" (high ratios of [N II]λ6583/Hα, [S II] λλ6716, 6731/Hα, and[O I] λ6300/Hα) at more extreme IR properties, the most"shocklike" line ratios occur far out along the minor axis, "shocklike"line ratios corresponds to broad emission lines, and the most extremeline ratios correspond to the most extreme IR properties, especially forthe emission-line gas farthest out along the minor axis. 3. Dynamicalproperties.-Lines are broader along the minor axis than along the majoraxis, line widths correlate with the "IR activity," line widthscorrelate with line ratios, line widths do not correlate with rotationspeed, minor axis shear (a measure of the systematic velocity changealong the minor axis) correlates with "IR activity," minor axis shearcorrelates with axial ratio and implies that a face-on galaxy would havean outflow/inflow speed of 170_-80_^+150^ km s^-1^, and the starburstsshow statistically blueward line profile asymmetries. 4. Physicalproperties.-Pressures in the nuclei of these galaxies are 3 orders ofmagnitude higher than the ambient pressure in the interstellar medium ofour galaxy, and the pressure falls systematically with radius. Whilenone of these results are in themselves proof of the superwind model, webelieve that when the results are taken as a whole, the superwindhypothesis is very successful in explaining what we have observed. Inaddition, these results have implications for galaxy evolution and thenature of the intergalactic medium. Those galaxies with the bestevidence for driving superwinds are those with large IR luminosities(L_IR_ ~> 10^44^ ergs s^-1^), large IR excesses (L_IR_/L_OPT_ ~>2), and warm far-IR colors (S_60 microns_/S_100 microns_ ~> 0.5).Integrating over the local far-IR luminosity function for galaxiesmeeting the above criteria, multiplying by the age of the universe, andthen dividing by the local space density of galaxies implies thatsuperwinds have carried out ~5 x 10^8^ M_sun_ in metals and 10^59^ ergsin kinetic plus thermal energy per average (Schecter L^*^) galaxy overthe history of the universe. We note that these two quantities areapproximately equal to the mass of metals contained inside an averagegalaxy and the gravitational binding energy of an average galaxy,respectively. Even with the conservative assumptions of this calculation(we have neglected that star formation rates were presumably higher inthe early universe), it is obvious that superwinds may have a majorimpact on the evolution of individual galaxies and the intergalacticmedium by injecting mass, metals, and kinetic energy into the galactichalo and potentially the intergalactic medium.

A CO survey of galaxies with the SEST and the 20-m Onsala telescope.
A large survey of galaxies in the J=1-0 CO line, performed during1985-1988 using the 15-m SEST and the 20-m millimetre wave telescope ofOnsala Space Observatory, is presented. The HPBW of the telescopes are44" and 33" at 115GHz, respectively. The central positions of 168galaxies were observed and 101 of these were detected in the CO line.More than 20% of these are new detections. Maps of some of the galaxiesare also presented.

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Right ascension:03h59m35.80s
Aparent dimensions:3.802′ × 1.38′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 1511

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