Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

NGC 1381



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

The Look-Back Time Evolution of the UV Upturn Phenomenon
In order to investigate the origin of the far-UV (FUV) flux fromearly-type galaxies, Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) is collecting theUV data for the elliptical-rich clusters at moderate redshifts (z <0.25) where the dominant FUV source is predicted to be hothorizontal-branch (HB) stars and their post-HB progeny. The earlyresults show that the FUV flux of quiescent early-type galaxies doesevolve substantially during the last 1--2 Gyr of look-back time, and theobserved UV fading is consistent with the variation predicted by thepopulation synthesis models where the mean temperature of HB starsdeclines rapidly with increasing look-back time.

Bar Diagnostics in Edge-On Spiral Galaxies. III. N-Body Simulations of Disks
Present in over 45% of local spirals, boxy and peanut-shaped bulges aregenerally interpreted as edge-on bars and may represent a key phase inbar evolution. Aiming to test such claims, the kinematic properties ofself-consistent three-dimensional N-body simulations of bar-unstabledisks are studied. Using Gauss-Hermite polynomials to describe themajor-axis stellar kinematics, a number of characteristic bar signaturesare identified in edge-on disks: (1) a major-axis light profile with aquasi-exponential central peak and a plateau at moderate radii (Freemantype II profile); (2) a ``double-hump'' rotation curve; (3) a sometimesflat central velocity dispersion peak with a plateau at moderate radiiand occasional local central minimum and secondary peak; and (4) anh3-V correlation over the projected bar length. All of thesekinematic features are spatially correlated and can easily be understoodfrom the orbital structure of barred disks. They thus provide a reliableand easy-to-use tool to identify edge-on bars. Interestingly, they areall produced without dissipation and are increasingly realized to becommon in spirals, lending support to bar-driven evolution scenarios forbulge formation. So called ``figure-of-eight'' position-velocitydiagrams are never observed, as expected for realistic orbitalconfigurations. Although not uniquely related to triaxiality,line-of-sight velocity distributions with a high-velocity tail (i.e., anh3-V correlation) appear as particularly promising tracers ofbars. The stellar kinematic features identified grow in strength as thebar evolves and vary only slightly for small inclination variations.Many can be used to trace the bar length. Comparisons with observationsare encouraging and support the view that boxy and peanut-shaped bulgesare simply thick bars viewed edge-on.

The Look-back Time Evolution of Far-Ultraviolet Flux from Elliptical Galaxies: The Fornax Cluster and A2670
In order to investigate the origin of the far-UV (FUV) flux from theearly-type galaxies, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer is collecting the UVdata for the elliptical-rich clusters at moderate redshifts (z<0.2)where the dominant FUV source is predicted to be hot horizontal-branch(HB) stars and their post-HB progeny. Here we present our first resultfor the early-type galaxies in A2670 at z=0.076. Compared to NGC 1399, anearby giant elliptical galaxy in the Fornax Cluster, it appears thatthe rest-frame FUV-V color of the giant elliptical galaxies gets redderby ~0.7 mag at the distance of A2670 (z=0.076; look-back time~1.0 Gyr).Although a detailed comparison with the models is postponed until morecluster data are accumulated, it is interesting to note that this valueis consistent with the variation predicted by the population synthesismodels where the mean temperature of HB stars declines rapidly withincreasing look-back time.

A wide-field photometric study of the globular cluster system of NGC 4636
Previous smaller-scale studies of the globular cluster system of NGC4636, an elliptical galaxy in the southern part of the Virgo cluster,have revealed an unusually rich globular cluster system. Were-investigate the cluster system of NGC 4636 with wide-field Washingtonphotometry. The globular cluster luminosity function can be followedroughly 1 mag beyond the turn-over magnitude found at {V} =23.31±0.13 for the blue cluster sub-population. This correspondsto a distance modulus of ({m}-{M})=31.24±0.17, 0.4 mag largerthan the distance determined from surface brightness fluctuations. Thehigh specific frequency is confirmed, yet the exact value remainsuncertain because of the uncertain distance: it varies between5.6±1.2 and 8.9±1.2. The globular cluster system has aclearly bimodal color distribution. The color peak positions show noradial dependence and are in good agreement with the values found forother galaxies studied in the same filter system. However, a luminositydependence is found: brighter clusters with an“intermediate” color exist. The clusters exhibit a shallowradial distribution within 7´, represented by a power-law with anexponent of -1.4. Within the same radial interval, the galaxy light hasa distinctly steeper profile. Because of the difference in the clusterand light distribution the specific frequency increases considerablywith radius. At 7´ and 9´ the density profiles of the redand blue clusters, respectively, change strongly: the power-law indicesdecrease to around -5 and become similar to the galaxy profile. Thissteep profile indicates that we reach the outer rim of the clustersystem at approximately 11´. This interpretation is supported bythe fact that in particular the density distribution of the blue clusterpopulation can be well fit by the projection of a truncated power-lawmodel with a core. This feature is seen for the first time in a globularcluster system. While the radial distribution of the cluster and fieldpopulations are rather different, this is not true for the ellipticityof the system: the elongation as well as the position angle of thecluster system agree well with the galaxy light. We compare the radialdistribution of globular clusters with the light profiles for a sampleof elliptical galaxies. The difference observed in NGC 4636 is typicalof an elliptical galaxy of this luminosity. The intrinsic specificfrequency of the blue population is considerably larger than that of thered one.Tables A.1 to A.6 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/433/43

Stellar Kinematics of Boxy Bulges: Large-Scale Bars and Inner Disks
Long-slit stellar kinematic observations were obtained along the majoraxis of 30 edge-on spiral galaxies, 24 with a boxy or peanut-shaped(B/PS) bulge and six with other bulge types for comparison. Such B/PSbulges are identified in at least 45% of highly inclined systems, and agrowing body of theoretical and observational work suggests that theyare the edge-on projection of thickened bars. Profiles of the meanstellar velocity V, the velocity dispersion σ, as well as theasymmetric (h3) and symmetric (h4) deviations froma pure Gaussian are presented for all objects. Comparing these profileswith stellar kinematic bar diagnostics developed from N-bodysimulations, we find bar signatures in 24 of our sample galaxies (80%).Galaxies with a B/PS bulge typically show a double-humped rotation curvewith an intermediate dip or plateau. They also frequently show a ratherflat central velocity dispersion profile accompanied by a secondary peakor plateau, and numerous galaxies have a local central σ minimum(>~40%). The h3 profiles display up to three slopereversals. Most importantly, h3 is normally correlated with Vover the presumed bar length, contrary to expectations from axisymmetricdisks. These characteristic bar signatures strengthen the case for aclose relationship between B/PS bulges and bars and leave little roomfor other explanations of the bulges' shape. We also find thath3 is anticorrelated with V in the very center of mostgalaxies (>~60%), indicating that these objects additionally harborcold and dense decoupled (quasi-) axisymmetric central stellar disks,which may be related to the central light peaks. These central diskscoincide with previously identified star-forming ionized-gas disks(nuclear spirals) in gas-rich systems, and we argue that they formed outof gas accumulated by the bar at its center through inflow. As suggestedby N-body models, the asymmetry of the velocity profile (h3)appears to be a reliable tracer of asymmetries in disks, allowing us todiscriminate between axisymmetric and barred disks seen in projection.B/PS bulges (and thus a large fraction of all bulges) appear to be madeup mostly of disk material, which has acquired a large vertical extentthrough bar-driven vertical instabilities. Their formation is thusprobably dominated by secular evolution processes rather than merging.

Thick disks of lenticular galaxies. 3D-photometric thin/thick disk decomposition of eight edge-on s0 galaxies
Thick disks are faint and extended stellar components found aroundseveral disk galaxies including our Milky Way. The Milky Way thick disk,the only one studied in detail, contains mostly old disk stars (≈10Gyr), so that thick disks are likely to trace the early stages of diskevolution. Previous detections of thick disk stellar light in externalgalaxies have been originally made for early-type, edge-on galaxies butdetailed 2D thick/thin disk decompositions have been reported for only ascant handful of mostly late-type disk galaxies. We present in thispaper for the first time explicit 3D thick/thin disk decompositionscharacterising the presence and properties (e.g. scalelength andscaleheight) for a sample of eight lenticular galaxies by fitting 3Ddisk models to the data. For six out of the eight galaxies we were ableto derive a consistent thin/thick disk model. The mean scaleheight ofthe thick disk is 3.6 times larger than that of the thin disk. Thescalelength of the thick disk is about twice, and its central luminositydensity between 3-10% of, the thin disk value. Both thin and thick diskare truncated at similar radii. This implies that thick disks extendover fewer scalelengths than thin disks, and turning a thin disk into athick one requires therefore vertical but little radial heating. Allthese structural parameters are similar to thick disk parameters forlater Hubble-type galaxies previously studied. We discuss our data inrespect to present models for the origin of thick disks, either as pre-or post-thin-disk structures, providing new observational constraints.Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory,Chile.Full appendices are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

The surface brightness and colour-magnitude relations for Fornax cluster galaxies
We present BVI photometry of 190 galaxies in the central 4 ×3deg2 region of the Fornax cluster observed with the MichiganCurtis Schmidt Telescope. Results from the Fornax Cluster SpectroscopicSurvey (FCSS) and the Flair-II Fornax Surveys have been used to confirmthe membership status of galaxies in the Fornax Cluster Catalogue (FCC).In our catalogue of 213 member galaxies, 92 (43 per cent) have confirmedradial velocities.In this paper, we investigate the surface brightness-magnitude relationfor Fornax cluster galaxies. Particular attention is given to the sampleof cluster dwarfs and the newly discovered ultracompact dwarf galaxies(UCDs) from the FCSS. We examine the reliability of the surfacebrightness-magnitude relation as a method for determining clustermembership and find that at surface brightnesses fainter than 22 magarcsec-2, it fails in its ability to distinguish betweencluster members and barely resolved background galaxies. Cluster membersexhibit a strong surface brightness-magnitude relation. Both elliptical(E) galaxies and dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies increase in surfacebrightness as luminosity decreases. The UCDs lie off the locus of therelation.B-V and V-I colours are determined for a sample of 113 cluster galaxiesand the colour-magnitude relation is explored for each morphologicaltype. The UCDs lie off the locus of the colour-magnitude relation. Theirmean V-I colours (~1.09) are similar to those of globular clustersassociated with NGC 1399. The location of the UCDs on both surfacebrightness and colour-magnitude plots supports the `galaxy threshing'model for infalling nucleated dwarf elliptical (dE, N) galaxies.

Measuring Distances and Probing the Unresolved Stellar Populations of Galaxies Using Infrared Surface Brightness Fluctuations
To empirically calibrate the IR surface brightness fluctuation (SBF)distance scale and probe the properties of unresolved stellarpopulations, we measured fluctuations in 65 galaxies using NICMOS on theHubble Space Telescope. The early-type galaxies in this sample includeelliptical and S0 galaxies and spiral bulges in a variety ofenvironments. Absolute fluctuation magnitudes in the F160W (1.6 μm)filter (MF160W) were derived for each galaxy using previouslymeasured I-band SBF and Cepheid variable star distances. F160W SBFs canbe used to measure distances to early-type galaxies with a relativeaccuracy of ~10%, provided that the galaxy color is known to ~0.035 magor better. Near-IR fluctuations can also reveal the properties of themost luminous stellar populations in galaxies. Comparison of F160Wfluctuation magnitudes and optical colors to stellar population modelpredictions suggests that bluer elliptical and S0 galaxies havesignificantly younger populations than redder ones and may also be moremetal-rich. There are no galaxies in this sample with fluctuationmagnitudes consistent with old, metal-poor (t>5 Gyr, [Fe/H]<-0.7)stellar population models. Composite stellar population models implythat bright fluctuations in the bluer galaxies may be the result of anepisode of recent star formation in a fraction of the total mass of agalaxy. Age estimates from the F160W fluctuation magnitudes areconsistent with those measured using the Hβ Balmer-line index. Thetwo types of measurements make use of completely different techniquesand are sensitive to stars in different evolutionary phases. Bothtechniques reveal the presence of intermediate-age stars in theearly-type galaxies of this sample.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA,Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Spectroscopic Data
We present central velocity dispersions and Mg2 line indicesfor an all-sky sample of ~1178 elliptical and S0 galaxies, of which 984had no previous measures. This sample contains the largest set ofhomogeneous spectroscopic data for a uniform sample of ellipticalgalaxies in the nearby universe. These galaxies were observed as part ofthe ENEAR project, designed to study the peculiar motions and internalproperties of the local early-type galaxies. Using 523 repeatedobservations of 317 galaxies obtained during different runs, the dataare brought to a common zero point. These multiple observations, takenduring the many runs and different instrumental setups employed for thisproject, are used to derive statistical corrections to the data and arefound to be relatively small, typically <~5% of the velocitydispersion and 0.01 mag in the Mg2 line strength. Typicalerrors are about 8% in velocity dispersion and 0.01 mag inMg2, in good agreement with values published elsewhere.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Circular-Aperture Photometry
We present R-band CCD photometry for 1332 early-type galaxies, observedas part of the ENEAR survey of peculiar motions using early-typegalaxies in the nearby universe. Circular apertures are used to tracethe surface brightness profiles, which are then fitted by atwo-component bulge-disk model. From the fits, we obtain the structuralparameters required to estimate galaxy distances using theDn-σ and fundamental plane relations. We find thatabout 12% of the galaxies are well represented by a pure r1/4law, while 87% are best fitted by a two-component model. There are 356repeated observations of 257 galaxies obtained during different runsthat are used to derive statistical corrections and bring the data to acommon system. We also use these repeated observations to estimate ourinternal errors. The accuracy of our measurements are tested by thecomparison of 354 galaxies in common with other authors. Typical errorsin our measurements are 0.011 dex for logDn, 0.064 dex forlogre, 0.086 mag arcsec-2 for<μe>, and 0.09 for mRC,comparable to those estimated by other authors. The photometric datareported here represent one of the largest high-quality and uniformall-sky samples currently available for early-type galaxies in thenearby universe, especially suitable for peculiar motion studies.Based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO),National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF);European Southern Observatory (ESO); Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(FLWO); and the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

Surface brightness fluctuation distances for dwarf elliptical galaxies in the Fornax cluster
We have obtained deep B and R-band CCD images of eight dwarf elliptical(dE) galaxies in the Fornax cluster using the FORS1 instrument at theVLT in service mode under excellent atmospheric conditions. A total of92 fields distributed over the central regions of the galaxies have beenanalysed to measure local (B-R)0 colours and R-band surfacebrightness fluctuation (SBF) magnitudes /line{m}R. Within agalaxy the observed correlation of (B-R)0 with/line{m}R0 follows closely the predicted slope ofthe colour-fluctuation luminosity relation for composite single-burst,mainly old, metal-poor stellar populations. This allows to determine thedistances of the dEs from simple offset measurements to a typically 9%accuracy. The distance distribution of these genuine cluster dwarfscenters at a mean distance of (m-M)0=31.54+/-0.07 mag, or20.3 +/- 0.7 Mpc, a value that is in best agreement with previous SBFwork on Fornax early-type giants and thus represents a robust estimateof the distance to the Fornax cluster core. The application of thebootstrap resampling technique on the distance data further reveals acluster depth of sigmaint = 1.4{+0.5 atop -0.8} Mpc. We takethis preliminary result as a confirmation of the compact appearance ofFornax in the projection on the sky although the cluster might beslightly more elongated along the line of sight. Combining the newlyderived cluster distance with the cosmological velocity of Fornax of1324+/-41 km s-1 gives a Hubble constant of H0 =65 +/- 4 km s-1 Mpc-1. This value is consistent atthe 95% confidence level with both the most recent result from the teamthat favours a long distance scale and the final value adopted by theHST ``Key Project'' team in their work for the Hubble constant. Finally,we explore the possibility to determine rough metallicities of ourcluster dEs from their (B-R)0 colours via Worthey's stellarpopulation synthesis models. The median metallicities are found in therange from -1.5 to -1 with a concentration around [Fe/H] =-1. Acomparison with spectral line indices results available for threegalaxies shows good agreement. Moreover, the derived metallicities placethe bright Fornax dEs on the extension of the metallicity-luminosityrelation defined by the low luminous Local Group dEs which providesadditional support for the (B-R)0 colour as a usefulmetallicity estimator. The data further suggest an age range between 10and 12 Gyr for the Fornax dwarfs.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory(ESO 68.A-0176).

Early-type galaxies in low-density environments
We describe the construction and study of an objectively defined sampleof early-type galaxies in low-density environments. The sample galaxiesare selected from a recently completed redshift survey using uniform andreadily quantified isolation criteria, and are drawn from a sky area of~700 deg2, to a depth of 7000 km s-1 and anapparent magnitude limit of bJ<= 16.1. Their early-type(E/S0) morphologies are confirmed by subsequent CCD imaging. Five out ofthe nine sample galaxies show signs of morphological peculiarity such astidal debris or blue circumnuclear rings. We confirm that E/S0 galaxiesare rare in low-density regions, accounting for only ~8 per cent of thetotal galaxy population in such environments. We present spectroscopicobservations of nine galaxies in the sample, which are used, inconjunction with updated stellar population models, to investigate starformation histories. Our line-strength analysis is conducted at therelatively high spectral resolution of 4.1 Å. Environmentaleffects on early-type galaxy evolution are investigated by comparisonwith a sample of Fornax cluster E/S0s (identically analysed). Resultsfrom both samples are compared with predictions from semi-analyticgalaxy formation models. From the strength of [OII]λ3727 emissionwe infer only a low level of ongoing star formation (<0.15Msolar yr-1). Relative to the Fornax sample, alarger fraction of the galaxies exhibit [OIII]λ5007 nebularemission and, where present, these lines are slightly stronger thantypical for cluster E/S0s. The Mg-σ relation of E/S0s inlow-density regions is shown to be indistinguishable from that of theFornax sample. Luminosity-weighted stellar ages and metallicities aredetermined by considering various combinations of line-indices; inparticular the HγF versus Fe5015 diagram cleanlyresolves the age-metallicity degeneracy at the spectral resolution ofour analysis. At a given luminosity, the E/S0 galaxies in low-densityregions are younger than the E/S0s in clusters (by ~2-3 Gyr), and alsomore metal-rich (by ~0.2 dex). We infer that an anti-correlation of ageand metallicity effects is responsible for maintaining the zero-point ofthe Mg-σ relation. The youngest galaxies in our sample show clearmorphological signs of interaction. The lower mean age of our sample,relative to cluster samples, confirms, at least qualitatively, a robustprediction of hierarchical galaxy formation models. By contrast, theenhanced metallicity in the field is contrary to the predictions andhighlights shortcomings in the detailed treatment of star formationprocesses in current models. The [Mg/Fe] abundance ratio appears to spana similar, mostly super-solar, range both in low-density regions and inFornax cluster galaxies. This result is quite unexpected in simplehierarchical models.

The Fornax Cluster Spectroscopic Survey: a sample of confirmed cluster dwarfs
The Fornax Cluster Spectroscopic Survey (FCSS) project utilizes theTwo-degree Field (2dF) multi-object spectrograph on the Anglo-AustralianTelescope (AAT). Its aim is to obtain spectra for a complete sample ofall 14000 objects with 16.5 <=bj<= 19.7 irrespective oftheir morphology in a 12 deg2 area centred on the Fornaxcluster. A sample of 24 Fornax cluster members has been identified fromthe first 2dF field (3.1 deg2 in area) to be completed. Thisis the first complete sample of cluster objects of known distance withwell-defined selection limits. Nineteen of the galaxies (with -15.8 ~ 3 arcsec (~=300 pc). This apparent minimum scale sizeimplies an equivalent minimum luminosity for a dwarf of a given surfacebrightness. This produces a limit on their distribution in themagnitude-surface brightness plane, such that we do not observe dEs withhigh surface brightnesses but faint absolute magnitudes. Above thisobserved minimum scale size of 3 arcsec, the dEs and dS0s fill the wholearea of the magnitude-surface brightness plane sampled by our selectionlimits. The observed correlation between magnitude and surfacebrightness noted by several recent studies of brighter galaxies is notseen with our fainter cluster sample. A comparison of our results withthe Fornax Cluster Catalog (FCC) of Ferguson illustrates that attemptsto determine cluster membership solely on the basis of observedmorphology can produce significant errors. The FCC identified 17 of the24 FCSS sample (i.e. 71 per cent) as being `cluster' members, inparticular missing all five of the UCDs. The FCC also suffers fromsignificant contamination: within the FCSS's field and selection limits,23 per cent of those objects described as cluster members by the FCC areshown by the FCSS to be background objects.

A catalogue and analysis of local galaxy ages and metallicities
We have assembled a catalogue of relative ages, metallicities andabundance ratios for about 150 local galaxies in field, group andcluster environments. The galaxies span morphological types from cD andellipticals, to late-type spirals. Ages and metallicities were estimatedfrom high-quality published spectral line indices using Worthey &Ottaviani (1997) single stellar population evolutionary models. Theidentification of galaxy age as a fourth parameter in the fundamentalplane (Forbes, Ponman & Brown 1998) is confirmed by our largersample of ages. We investigate trends between age and metallicity, andwith other physical parameters of the galaxies, such as ellipticity,luminosity and kinematic anisotropy. We demonstrate the existence of agalaxy age-metallicity relation similar to that seen for local galacticdisc stars, whereby young galaxies have high metallicity, while oldgalaxies span a large range in metallicities. We also investigate theinfluence of environment and morphology on the galaxy age andmetallicity, especially the predictions made by semi-analytichierarchical clustering models (HCM). We confirm that non-clusterellipticals are indeed younger on average than cluster ellipticals aspredicted by the HCM models. However we also find a trend for the moreluminous galaxies to have a higher [Mg/Fe] ratio than the lowerluminosity galaxies, which is opposite to the expectation from HCMmodels.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies. I. The ENEARc Cluster Sample
This paper presents data on the ENEARc subsample of the larger ENEARsurvey of nearby early-type galaxies. The ENEARc galaxies belong toclusters and were specifically chosen to be used for the construction ofa Dn-σ template. The ENEARc sample includes newmeasurements of spectroscopic and photometric parameters (redshift,velocity dispersion, line index Mg2, and the angular diameterdn), as well as data from the literature. New spectroscopicdata are given for 229 cluster early-type galaxies, and new photometryis presented for 348 objects. Repeat and overlap observations withexternal data sets are used to construct a final merged catalogconsisting of 640 early-type galaxies in 28 clusters. Objectivecriteria, based on catalogs of groups of galaxies derived from completeredshift surveys of the nearby universe, are used to assign galaxies toclusters. In a companion paper, these data are used to construct thetemplate Dn-σ distance relation for early-typegalaxies, which has been used to estimate galaxy distances and derivepeculiar velocities for the ENEAR all-sky sample. Based on observationsat Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement betweenthe Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory,National Optical Astronomical Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; the EuropeanSouthern Observatory (ESO), partially under the ESO-ON agreement; theFred Lawrence Whipple Observatory; the Observatório do Pico dosDias, operated by the Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísicaand the MDM Observatory at Kitt Peak.

A catalogue and analysis of X-ray luminosities of early-type galaxies
We present a catalogue of X-ray luminosities for 401 early-typegalaxies, of which 136 are based on newly analysed ROSAT PSPC pointedobservations. The remaining luminosities are taken from the literatureand converted to a common energy band, spectral model and distancescale. Using this sample we fit the LX:LB relationfor early-type galaxies and find a best-fit slope for the catalogue of~2.2. We demonstrate the influence of group-dominant galaxies on the fitand present evidence that the relation is not well modelled by a singlepower-law fit. We also derive estimates of the contribution to galaxyX-ray luminosities from discrete-sources and conclude that they provideLdscr/LB~=29.5ergs-1LBsolar-1. Wecompare this result with luminosities from our catalogue. Lastly, weexamine the influence of environment on galaxy X-ray luminosity and onthe form of the LX:LB relation. We conclude thatalthough environment undoubtedly affects the X-ray properties ofindividual galaxies, particularly those in the centres of groups andclusters, it does not change the nature of whole populations.

A synthesis of data from fundamental plane and surface brightness fluctuation surveys
We perform a series of comparisons between distance-independentphotometric and spectroscopic properties used in the surface brightnessfluctuation (SBF) and fundamental plane (FP) methods of early-typegalaxy distance estimation. The data are taken from two recent surveys:the SBF Survey of Galaxy Distances and the Streaming Motions of AbellClusters (SMAC) FP survey. We derive a relation between(V-I)0 colour and Mg2 index using nearly 200galaxies and discuss implications for Galactic extinction estimates andearly-type galaxy stellar populations. We find that the reddenings fromSchlegel et al. for galaxies with E(B-V)>~0.2mag appear to beoverestimated by 5-10 per cent, but we do not find significant evidencefor large-scale dipole errors in the extinction map. In comparison withstellar population models having solar elemental abundance ratios, thegalaxies in our sample are generally too blue at a given Mg2;we ascribe this to the well-known enhancement of the α-elements inluminous early-type galaxies. We confirm a tight relation betweenstellar velocity dispersion σ and the SBF `fluctuation count'parameter N, which is a luminosity-weighted measure of the total numberof stars in a galaxy. The correlation between N and σ is eventighter than that between Mg2 and σ. Finally, we deriveFP photometric parameters for 280 galaxies from the SBF survey data set.Comparisons with external sources allow us to estimate the errors onthese parameters and derive the correction necessary to bring them on tothe SMAC system. The data are used in a forthcoming paper, whichcompares the distances derived from the FP and SBF methods.

2D modelling of the light distribution of early-type galaxies in a volume-limited sample - II. Results for real galaxies
In this paper we analyse the results of the two-dimensional (2D) fit ofthe light distribution of 73 early-type galaxies belonging to the Virgoand Fornax clusters, a sample volume- and magnitude-limited down toMB=-17.3, and highly homogeneous. In our previous paper(Paper I) we have presented the adopted 2D models of thesurface-brightness distribution - namely the r1/n and(r1/n+exp) models - we have discussed the main sources oferror affecting the structural parameters, and we have tested theability of the chosen minimization algorithm (MINUIT) in determining thefitting parameters using a sample of artificial galaxies. We show that,with the exception of 11 low-luminosity E galaxies, the best fit of thereal galaxy sample is always achieved with the two-component(r1/n+exp) model. The improvement in the χ2due to the addition of the exponential component is found to bestatistically significant. The best fit is obtained with the exponent nof the generalized r1/n Sersic law different from theclassical de Vaucouleurs value of 4. Nearly 42 per cent of the samplehave n<2, suggesting the presence of exponential `bulges' also inearly-type galaxies. 20 luminous E galaxies are fitted by thetwo-component model, with a small central exponential structure (`disc')and an outer big spheroid with n>4. We believe that this is probablydue to their resolved core. The resulting scalelengths Rh andRe of each component peak approximately at ~1 and ~2kpc,respectively, although with different variances in their distributions.The ratio Re/Rh peaks at ~0.5, a value typical fornormal lenticular galaxies. The first component, represented by ther1/n law, is probably made of two distinct families,`ordinary' and `bright', on the basis of their distribution in theμe-log(Re) plane, a result already suggested byCapaccioli, Caon and D'Onofrio. The bulges of spirals and S0 galaxiesbelong to the `ordinary' family, while the large spheroids of luminous Egalaxies form the `bright' family. The second component, represented bythe exponential law, also shows a wide distribution in theμ0c-log(Rh) plane. Small discs (orcores) have short scalelengths and high central surface brightness,while normal lenticulars and spiral galaxies generally have scalelengthshigher than 0.5kpc and central surface brightness brighter than20magarcsec-2 (in the B band). The scalelengths Reand Rh of the `bulge' and `disc' components are probablycorrelated, indicating that a self-regulating mechanism of galaxyformation may be at work. Alternatively, two regions of theRe-Rh plane are avoided by galaxies due todynamical instability effects. The bulge-to-disc (B/D) ratio seems tovary uniformly along the Hubble sequence, going from late-type spiralsto E galaxies. At the end of the sequence the ratio between the largespheroidal component and the small inner core can reach B/D~100.

The Infrared Surface Brightness Fluctuation Hubble Constant
We measured infrared surface brightness fluctuation (SBF) distances toan isotropically distributed sample of 16 distant galaxies withredshifts reaching 10,000 km s-1 using the near-IR camera andmultiobject spectrometer (NICMOS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).The excellent spatial resolution, very low background, and brightness ofthe IR fluctuations yielded the most distant SBF measurements to date.Twelve nearby galaxies were also observed and used to calibrate theF160W (1.6 μm) SBF distance scale. Of these, three have Cepheidvariable star distances measured with HST and eleven have optical I-bandSBF distance measurements. A distance modulus of 18.5 mag to the LargeMagellanic Cloud was adopted for this calibration. We present the F160WSBF Hubble diagram and find a Hubble constant H0=76+/-1.3 (1σ statistical) +/-6 (systematic) km s-1Mpc-1. This result is insensitive to the velocity model usedto correct for local bulk motions. Restricting the fit to the six mostdistant galaxies yields the smallest value of H0=72+/-2.3 kms-1 Mpc-1 that is consistent with the data. This6% decrease in the Hubble constant is consistent with the hypothesisthat the Local Group inhabits an underdense region of the universe, butis also consistent with the best-fit value of H0=76 kms-1 Mpc-1 at the 1.5 σ level. Based onobservations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at theSpace Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc.,under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

The SBF Survey of Galaxy Distances. IV. SBF Magnitudes, Colors, and Distances
We report data for I-band surface brightness fluctuation (SBF)magnitudes, (V-I) colors, and distance moduli for 300 galaxies. Thesurvey contains E, S0, and early-type spiral galaxies in the proportionsof 49:42:9 and is essentially complete for E galaxies to Hubblevelocities of 2000 km s-1, with a substantial sampling of Egalaxies out to 4000 km s-1. The median error in distancemodulus is 0.22 mag. We also present two new results from the survey.(1) We compare the mean peculiar flow velocity (bulk flow) implied byour distances with predictions of typical cold dark matter transferfunctions as a function of scale, and we find very good agreement withcold, dark matter cosmologies if the transfer function scale parameterΓ and the power spectrum normalization σ8 arerelated by σ8Γ-0.5~2+/-0.5. Deriveddirectly from velocities, this result is independent of the distributionof galaxies or models for biasing. This modest bulk flow contradictsreports of large-scale, large-amplitude flows in the ~200 Mpc diametervolume surrounding our survey volume. (2) We present adistance-independent measure of absolute galaxy luminosity, N and showhow it correlates with galaxy properties such as color and velocitydispersion, demonstrating its utility for measuring galaxy distancesthrough large and unknown extinction. Observations in part from theMichigan-Dartmouth-MIT (MDM) Observatory.

The Stellar Populations of Early-Type Galaxies in the Fornax Cluster
We have measured central line strengths for a complete sample ofearly-type galaxies in the Fornax Cluster comprising 11 elliptical and11 lenticular galaxies, more luminous than M_B=-17. We find that thecentres of Fornax ellipticals follow the locus of galaxies of fixed agein Worthey's models and have metallicities varying roughly from half to2.5 times solar. The centres of (relatively low luminosity) lenticulargalaxies, however, exhibit a substantial spread to youngerluminosity-weighted ages indicating a more extended star formationhistory. Our conclusions are based on two age/metallicity diagnosticdiagrams in the Lick/IDS system comprising established indices such as[MgFe] and H_β as well as new and more sensitive indices, such asFe3 and H_γ. The inferred difference in the age distributionbetween lenticular and elliptical galaxies is a robust conclusion as themodels generate consistent relative ages using different age andmetallicity indicators even though the absolute ages remain uncertain.The absolute age uncertainty is caused mainly by the effects ofnon-solar abundance ratios, which are not accounted for in the stellarpopulation models. We find that Es are generally overabundant inmagnesium and the most luminous galaxies show stronger overabundances.The luminosity-weighted stellar populations of young S0s are consistentwith solar abundance ratios or a weak Mg underabundance. Two of thefaintest lenticular galaxies in our sample have blue continua andextremely strong Balmer-line absorptions suggesting starbursts <2 Gyrago.

Background galaxies as reddening probes throughout the Magellanic Clouds
We study the spectral properties in the range 3600 Å-6800 Åof the nuclear region of galaxies behind the Magellanic Clouds. Theradial velocities clarified the nature of the objects as backgroundgalaxies or extended objects belonging to the Clouds. For most galaxiesbehind the main bodies of the LMC and SMC, radial velocities weremeasured for the first time. In the present sample typical LMCbackground galaxies are nearby (4000 < V(km s-1) <6000), while SMC's are considerably more distant (10 000 < V(kms-1) < 20 000). We determine the reddening in each line ofsight by matching a reddening-free galaxy template with comparablestellar population. For the LMC main body we derive a combined Milky Wayand internal reddening value E(B-V)MW+i = 0.12 +/- 0.10,while for the SMC E(B-V)MW+i = 0.05 +/- 0.05. By subtractingMilky Way reddening values for galaxies projected onto the surroundingsof each Cloud, we estimate average internal reddening values DeltaE(B-V)i = 0.06 and 0.04, respectively for the main bodies ofthe LMC and SMC. The Clouds are optically thin, at least in thedirections of the studied background galaxies which are often difficultto be identified as such on ESO/SERC sky survey images. Nevertheless,more reddened zones may occur where it is difficult to identifygalaxies.

The stellar populations of early-type galaxies in the Fornax cluster
We have measured central line strengths for a magnitude-limited sampleof early-type galaxies in the Fornax cluster, comprising 11 elliptical(E) and 11 lenticular (S0) galaxies, more luminous thanMB=-17. When compared with single-burst stellar populationmodels we find that the centres of Fornax ellipticals follow a locus offixed age and have metallicities varying roughly from half solar totwice solar. The centres of (lower luminosity) lenticular galaxies,however, exhibit a substantial spread to younger luminosity-weightedages, indicating a more extended star formation history. Galaxies withold stellar populations show tight scaling relations between metal-lineindices and the central velocity dispersion. Remarkably also, the Felines are well correlated with σ0. Our detailedanalysis of the stellar populations suggests that these scalingrelations are driven mostly by metallicity. Galaxies with a youngstellar component do generally deviate from the main relation. Inparticular, the lower luminosity S0s show a large spread. Ourconclusions are based on several age/metallicity diagnostic diagrams inthe Lick/IDS system comprising established indices such asMg2 and Hβ as well as new and more sensitive indicessuch as HγA and Fe3, a combination of three prominentFe lines. The inferred difference in the age distribution betweenlenticular and elliptical galaxies is a robust conclusion, as the modelsgenerate consistent relative ages using different age and metallicityindicators, even though the absolute ages remain uncertain. The absoluteage uncertainty is mainly caused by the effects of non-solar abundanceratios which are not yet accounted for by the stellar population models.Furthermore, we find that elliptical galaxies and the bulge of onebright S0 are overabundant in magnesium, where the most luminousgalaxies show the strongest overabundances. The stellar populations ofyoung and faint S0s are consistent with solar abundance ratios or a weakMg underabundance. Two of the faintest lenticular galaxies in our samplehave blue continua and extremely strong Balmer-line absorption,suggesting star formation <2Gyr ago.

Tracing the vertical composition of disc galaxies through colour gradients
Optical observations of a statistically complete sample of edge-ondisc-dominated galaxies are used to study the intrinsic vertical colourgradients in the galactic discs, in order to constrain the effects ofpopulation gradients, residual dust extinction and gradients in themetal abundance of the galaxies. For the majority of our samplegalaxies, the colours and colour gradients in the range1.0hz<=|z|<=3.0hz most likely reflect theintrinsic galactic properties (where hz is the verticalscaleheight). It appears that the intrinsic vertical colour gradientsare either non-existent, or small and relatively constant as a functionof position along the major axes of the galaxies. On average, theearlier-type galaxies exhibit smaller vertical (B-I) gradients than thelater types; our results are consistent with the absence of any verticalcolour gradient in the discs of the early-type sample galaxies. In mostgalaxies small-scale variations in the magnitude and even the directionof the vertical gradient are observed: at larger galactocentricdistances they generally display redder colours with increasing zheight, whereas the opposite is often observed in and near the galacticcentres. For a significant fraction of our sample galaxies anothermechanism in addition to the effects of stellar population gradients isrequired to explain the magnitude of the observed gradients. Thenon-zero colour gradients in a significant fraction of our samplegalaxies are likely to be (at least) partially due to residual dustextinction at these z heights, as is also evidenced from the sometimessignificant differences between the vertical colour gradients measuredon either side of the galactic planes. We suggest that initial verticalmetallicity gradients, if any, have probably not been accentuated byaccretion or merging events over the lifetimes of our sample galaxies.On the other hand, they may have weakened any existing verticalmetallicity gradients, although they also may have left the existingcorrelations unchanged.

A Database of Cepheid Distance Moduli and Tip of the Red Giant Branch, Globular Cluster Luminosity Function, Planetary Nebula Luminosity Function, and Surface Brightness Fluctuation Data Useful for Distance Determinations
We present a compilation of Cepheid distance moduli and data for foursecondary distance indicators that employ stars in the old stellarpopulations: the planetary nebula luminosity function (PNLF), theglobular cluster luminosity function (GCLF), the tip of the red giantbranch (TRGB), and the surface brightness fluctuation (SBF) method. Thedatabase includes all data published as of 1999 July 15. The mainstrength of this compilation resides in the fact that all data are on aconsistent and homogeneous system: all Cepheid distances are derivedusing the same calibration of the period-luminosity relation, thetreatment of errors is consistent for all indicators, and measurementsthat are not considered reliable are excluded. As such, the database isideal for comparing any of the distance indicators considered, or forderiving a Cepheid calibration to any secondary distance indicator, suchas the Tully-Fisher relation, the Type Ia supernovae, or the fundamentalplane for elliptical galaxies. This task has already been undertaken byFerrarese et al., Sakai et al., Kelson et al., and Gibson et al.Specifically, the database includes (1) Cepheid distances, extinctions,and metallicities; (2) reddened apparent λ5007 Å magnitudesof the PNLF cutoff; (3) reddened apparent magnitudes and colors of theturnover of the GCLF (in both the V and B bands); (4) reddened apparentmagnitudes of the TRGB (in the I band) and V-I colors at 0.5 mag fainterthan the TRGB; and (5) reddened apparent surface brightness fluctuationmagnitudes measured in Kron-Cousin I, K', andKshort, and using the F814W filter with the Hubble SpaceTelescope (HST) WFPC2. In addition, for every galaxy in the database wegive reddening estimates from IRAS/DIRBE as well as H I maps, J2000coordinates, Hubble and T-type morphological classification, apparenttotal magnitude in B, and systemic velocity.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. I. Statistics
We present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of ~ 1350edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue ofBright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al. \cite{rc3}). A visualclassification of the bulges using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) inthree types of b/p bulges or as an elliptical type is presented andsupported by CCD images. NIR observations reveal that dust extinctiondoes almost not influence the shape of bulges. There is no substantialdifference between the shape of bulges in the optical and in the NIR.Our analysis reveals that 45% of all bulges are box- and peanut-shaped(b/p). The frequency of b/p bulges for all morphological types from S0to Sd is > 40%. In particular, this is for the first time that such alarge frequency of b/p bulges is reported for galaxies as late as Sd.The fraction of the observed b/p bulges is large enough to explain theb/p bulges by bars. Partly based on observations collected at ESO/LaSilla (Chile), DSAZ/Calar Alto (Spain), and Lowell Observatory/Flagstaff(AZ/U.S.A.). Tables 6 and 7 are only available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. II. NIR observations
We have observed 60 edge-on galaxies in the NIR in order to study thestellar distribution in galaxies with box/peanut-shaped bulges. The muchsmaller amount of dust extinction at these wavelengths allows us toidentify in almost all target galaxies with box/peanut-shaped bulges anadditional thin, central component in cuts parallel to the major axis.This structure can be identified with a bar. The length of thisstructure scaled by the length of the bulge correlates with themorphologically classified shape of the bulge. This newly establishedcorrelation is therefore mainly interpreted as the projection of the barat different aspect angles. Galaxies with peanut bulges have a bar seennearly edge-on and the ratio of bar length to thickness, 14 +/- 4, canbe directly measured for the first time. In addition, the correlation ofthe boxiness of bulges with the bar strength indicates that the barcharacteristic could partly explain differences in the bulge shape.Furthermore, a new size relation between the box/peanut structure andthe central bulge is found. Our observations are discussed in comparisonto a N-body simulation for barred galaxies (Pfenniger & Friedli\cite{pfe}). We conclude that the inner region of barred disk galaxiesare build up by three distinct components: the spheroidal bulge, a thinbar, and a b/p structure most likely representing the thick part of thebar. Based on observations collected at ESO/La Silla (61.A-0143),DSAZ/Calar Alto, and TIRGO/Gornergrat.}

Spiral galaxy distance indicators based on near-infrared photometry
We compare two methods of distance determination to spiral galaxiesusing optical/near-infrared (NIR) observations, the (I-K) versusMK colour-absolute magnitude (CM) relation and the I- andK-band Tully-Fisher relation (TFR). Dust-free colours and NIR absolutemagnitudes greatly enhance the usefulness of the NIR CM relation as adistance indicator for moderately to highly inclined spiral galaxies inthe field (inclinations between ~80 deg and 90 deg) by avoidingcontamination by dust the scatter in the CM relation is significantlyreduced, compared with similar galaxy samples published previously. TheCM relation can be used to determine distances to field spiral galaxieswith MK>-25.5, to at least MK~-20. Our results,supplemented with previously published observations for which we can -to some degree - control the effects of extinction, are consistent witha universal nature of the CM relation for field spiral galaxies.High-resolution observations made with the Hubble Space Telescope canprovide a powerful tool to calibrate the relation and extend the usefuldistance range by more than a factor of 2 compared with ground-basedobservations. The intrinsic scatter in the NIR CM relation in theabsolute K-band magnitudes is ~0.5mag, yielding a lower limit to theaccuracy of distance determinations of the order of 25per cent. Althoughwe find an unusually low scatter in the TFR (probably a statisticalaccident), a typical scatter in the TFR would yield distances to oursample galaxies with uncertainties of only ~15per cent. However, one ofthe main advantages of the use of the NIR CM relation is that we needonly photometric data to obtain distance estimates; use of the TFRrequires additional kinematic data, although it can be used tosignificantly greater distances.

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:03h36m31.40s
Aparent dimensions:2.951′ × 0.955′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 1381

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR