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Globular cluster systems in low-luminosity early-type galaxies near the Fornax cluster centre
We present a photometric study of the globular cluster systems (GCSs) ofthe Fornax cluster galaxies NGC1374, NGC1379 and NGC1387. The dataconsist of images from the wide-field MOSAIC imager of the Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory (CTIO) 4-m telescope, obtained withWashington C and Kron-Cousins R filters. The images cover a field of 36× 36arcmin2, corresponding to 200 ×200kpc2 at the Fornax distance. Two of the galaxies, NGC1374and NGC1379, are low-luminosity ellipticals while NGC1387 is alow-luminosity lenticular. Their cluster systems are still embedded inthe cluster system of NGC1399. Therefore, the use of a large field iscrucial and some differences to previous work can be explained by this.The colour distributions of all GCSs are bimodal. NGC1387 presents aparticularly distinct separation between red and blue clusters and anoverproportionally large population of red clusters. The radialdistribution is different for blue and red clusters, red clusters beingmore concentrated towards the respective galaxies. The different colourand radial distributions point to the existence of two globular clustersubpopulations in these galaxies. Specific frequencies are in the rangeSN= 1.4-2.4, smaller than the typical values for ellipticalgalaxies. These galaxies might have suffered tidal stripping of blueglobular clusters by NGC1399.

QSO Absorption Lines from QSOS
We present the results of a search for metal absorption lines in thespectra of background QSOs whose sight lines pass close to foregroundQSOs. We detect Mg II λλ2796, 2803 absorption in SloanDigital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra of four z>1.5 QSOs whose lines ofsight pass within 26-98 h-170 kpc of lowerredshift (z~=0.5-1.5) QSOs. The 100% detection rate (four out of fourpairs) of Mg II in the background QSOs is clearly at odds with theincidence of associated zabs~=zemsystems-absorbers that exist toward only a few percent of QSOs. Althoughthe quality of our foreground QSO spectra is not as high as the SDSSdata, absorption seen toward one of the background QSOs clearly does notshow up at the same strength in the spectrum of the correspondingforeground QSO. This implies that the absorbing gas is distributedinhomogeneously around the QSO, presumably as a direct consequence ofthe anisotropic emission from the central active galactic nucleus. Wediscuss possible origins for the Mg II lines, including absorption bygas from the foreground QSO host galaxy, companion galaxies fueling theQSO through gravitational interactions, and tidal debris left by galaxymergers or interactions that initiated the QSO activity. No singleexplanation is entirely satisfactory, and we may well be seeing amixture of phenomena.Based in part on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the AstrophysicalResearch Consortium.

Using Line Profiles to Test the Fraternity of Type Ia Supernovae at High and Low Redshifts
Using archival data of low-redshift (z<0.01 Center for Astrophysicsand SUSPECT databases) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and recentobservations of high-redshift (0.161.7] SNe Ia, which are also subluminous. Inaddition, we give the first direct evidence in two high-z SN Ia spectraof a double-absorption feature in Ca II λ3945, an event alsoobserved, although infrequently, in low-redshift SN Ia spectra (6 out of22 SNe Ia in our local sample). Moreover, echoing the recent studies ofDessart & Hillier in the context of Type II supernovae (SNe II), wesee similar P Cygni line profiles in our large sample of SN Ia spectra.First, the magnitude of the velocity location at maximum profileabsorption may underestimate that at the continuum photosphere, asobserved, for example, in the optically thinner line S II λ5640.Second, we report for the first time the unambiguous and systematicintrinsic blueshift of peak emission of optical P Cygni line profiles inSN Ia spectra, by as much as 8000 km s-1. All the high-z SNeIa analyzed in this paper were discovered and followed up by the ESSENCEcollaboration and are now publicly available.Based in part on observations obtained at the Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory, which is operated by the Association ofUniversities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under cooperativeagreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF); the EuropeanSouthern Observatory, Chile (ESO program 170.A-0519) the GeminiObservatory, which is operated by AURA under a cooperative agreementwith the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership (the NSF [UnitedStates], the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council [UnitedKingdom], the National Research Council [Canada], CONICYT [Chile], theAustralian Research Council [Australia], CNPq [Brazil], and CONICET[Argentina]) (programs GN-2002B-Q-14, GN-2003B-Q-11, and GS-2003B-Q-11)the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory; the MMTObservatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and theUniversity of Arizona; and the F. L. Whipple Observatory, which isoperated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Some of the datapresented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which isoperated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute ofTechnology, the University of California, and the National Aeronauticsand Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by thegenerous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

The host galaxy/AGN connection in nearby early-type galaxies. A new view of the origin of the radio-quiet/radio-loud dichotomy?
This is the third in a series of three papers exploring the connectionbetween the multiwavelength properties of AGN in nearby early-typegalaxies and the characteristics of their hosts. Starting from aninitial sample of 332 galaxies, we selected 116 AGN candidates requiringthe detection of a radio source with a flux limit of ~1 mJy, as measuredfrom 5 GHz VLA observations. In Paper I we classified the objects withavailable archival HST images into "core" and "power-law" galaxies,discriminating on the basis of the nuclear slope of their brightnessprofiles. We used HST and Chandra data to isolate the nuclear emissionof these galaxies in the optical and X-ray bands, thus enabling us (oncecombined with the radio data) to study the multiwavelength behaviour oftheir nuclei. The properties of the nuclei hosted by the 29 coregalaxies were presented in Paper II Core galaxies invariably host aradio-loud nucleus, with a median radio-loudness of Log R = 3.6 and anX-ray based radio-loudness parameter of Log RX = -1.3. Herewe discuss the properties of the nuclei of the 22 "power-law" galaxies.They show a substantial excess of optical and X-ray emission withrespect to core galaxies at the same level of radio luminosity.Conversely, their radio-loudness parameters, Log R ˜ 1.6 and LogRX ˜ -3.3, are similar to those measured in Seyfertgalaxies. Thus the radio-loudness of AGN hosted by early-type galaxiesappears to be univocally related to the host's brightness profile:radio-loud AGN are only hosted by core galaxies, while radio-quiet AGNare found only in power-law galaxies. The brightness profile isdetermined by the galaxy's evolution, through its merger history; ourresults suggest that the same process sets the AGN flavour. In thisscenario, the black holes hosted by the merging galaxies rapidly sinktoward the centre of the newly formed object, setting its nuclearconfiguration, described by e.g. the total mass, spin, mass ratio, orseparation of the SMBHs. These parameters are most likely at the originof the different levels of the AGN radio-loudness. This connection mightopen a new path toward understanding the origin of theradio-loud/radio-quiet AGN dichotomy and provide us with a further toolfor exploring the co-evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes.

Nearby early-type galaxies with ionized gas. II. Line-strength indices for 18 additional galaxies
We previously presented a data-set of line-strength indices for 50early-type galaxies in the nearby Universe. The galaxy sample is biasedtoward galaxies showing emission lines, located in environmentscorresponding to a broad range of local galaxy densities, althoughpredominantly in low density environments. The present addendum enlargesthe above data-set of line-strength indices by analyzing 18 additionalearly-type galaxies (three galaxies, NGC 3607, NGC 5077 and NGC 5898were presented in the previous set). We measured 25 line-strengthindices, defined by the Lick IDS "standard" system (Trager et al. 1998,ApJS, 116, 1; Worthey & Ottaviani 1997, ApJS, 111, 377), for 7luminosity weighted apertures and 4 gradients of each galaxy. Thisaddendum presents the line-strength data-set and compares it with theavailable data in the literature.

An atlas of calcium triplet spectra of active galaxies
We present a spectroscopic atlas of active galactic nuclei covering theregion around the λλ8498, 8542, 8662 calcium triplet(CaT). The sample comprises 78 objects, divided into 43 Seyfert 2s, 26Seyfert 1s, three starburst and six normal galaxies. The spectra pertainto the inner ~300 pc in radius, and thus sample the central kinematicsand stellar populations of active galaxies. The data are used to measurestellar velocity dispersions (σ*) with bothcross-correlation and direct fitting methods. These measurements arefound to be in good agreement with each other and with those in previousstudies for objects in common. The CaT equivalent width is alsomeasured. We find average values and sample dispersions ofWCaT of 4.6 +/- 2.0, 7.0 +/- 1.0 and 7.7 +/- 1.0 Å forSeyfert 1s, Seyfert 2s and normal galaxies, respectively. We furtherpresent an atlas of [SIII]λ9069 emission-line profiles for asubset of 40 galaxies. These data are analysed in a companion paperwhich addresses the connection between stellar and narrow-line regionkinematics, the behaviour of the CaT equivalent width as a function ofσ*, activity type and stellar population properties.

Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources in Nearby Galaxies from ROSAT High Resolution Imager Observations I. Data Analysis
X-ray observations have revealed in other galaxies a class ofextranuclear X-ray point sources with X-ray luminosities of1039-1041 ergs s-1, exceeding theEddington luminosity for stellar mass X-ray binaries. Theseultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) may be powered by intermediate-massblack holes of a few thousand Msolar or stellar mass blackholes with special radiation processes. In this paper, we present asurvey of ULXs in 313 nearby galaxies withD25>1' within 40 Mpc with 467 ROSAT HighResolution Imager (HRI) archival observations. The HRI observations arereduced with uniform procedures, refined by simulations that help definethe point source detection algorithm employed in this survey. A sampleof 562 extragalactic X-ray point sources withLX=1038-1043 ergs s-1 isextracted from 173 survey galaxies, including 106 ULX candidates withinthe D25 isophotes of 63 galaxies and 110 ULX candidatesbetween 1D25 and 2D25 of 64 galaxies, from which aclean sample of 109 ULXs is constructed to minimize the contaminationfrom foreground or background objects. The strong connection betweenULXs and star formation is confirmed based on the striking preference ofULXs to occur in late-type galaxies, especially in star-forming regionssuch as spiral arms. ULXs are variable on timescales over days to yearsand exhibit a variety of long term variability patterns. Theidentifications of ULXs in the clean sample show some ULXs identified assupernovae (remnants), H II regions/nebulae, or young massive stars instar-forming regions, and a few other ULXs identified as old globularclusters. In a subsequent paper, the statistic properties of the surveywill be studied to calculate the occurrence frequencies and luminosityfunctions for ULXs in different types of galaxies to shed light on thenature of these enigmatic sources.

Why Are Radio Galaxies Prolific Producers of Type Ia Supernovae?
An analysis of SN Ia events in early-type galaxies from the database ofCappellaro and coworkers provides conclusive evidence that the rate ofSNe Ia in radio-loud galaxies is about 4 times higher than the ratemeasured in radio-quiet galaxies, i.e., SN Ia rate(radio-loudgalaxies)=0.43+0.19-0.14h275 SNu as compared to SN Ia rate(radio-quietgalaxies)=0.11+0.06-0.03h275 SNu. The actual value of the enhancement islikely to be in the range ~2-7 (P~10-4). This finding puts onrobust empirical grounds the results obtained by Della Valle &Panagia on the basis of a smaller sample of SNe. We analyze the possiblecauses of this result and conclude that the enhancement of the SN Iaexplosion rate in radio-loud galaxies has the same origin as their beingstrong radio sources, but there is no causal link between the twophenomena. We argue that repeated episodes of interaction and/or mergersof early-type galaxies with dwarf companions, on timescales of about 1Gyr, are responsible for both inducing strong radio activity observed in~14% of early-type galaxies and supplying an adequate number of SN Iaprogenitors to the stellar population of elliptical galaxies.

Reddening, Absorption, and Decline Rate Corrections for a Complete Sample of Type Ia Supernovae Leading to a Fully Corrected Hubble Diagram to v < 30,000 km s-1
Photometric (BVI) and redshift data corrected for streaming motions arecompiled for 111 ``Branch-normal,'' four 1991T-like, seven 1991bg-like,and two unusual supernovae of Type Ia (SNe Ia). Color excessesE(B-V)host of normal SNe Ia, due to the absorption of thehost galaxy, are derived by three independent methods, giving excellentagreement leading to the intrinsic colors at maximum of(B-V)00=-0.024+/-0.010 and (V-I)00=-0.265+/-0.016if normalized to a common decline rate of Δm15=1.1. Thestrong correlation between redshift absolute magnitudes (based on anarbitrary Hubble constant of H0=60 km s-1Mpc-1), corrected only for the extrinsic Galactic absorption,and the derived E(B-V)host color excesses leads to thewell-determined yet abnormal absorption-to-reddening ratios ofRBVI=3.65+/-0.16, 2.65+/-0.15, and 1.35+/-0.21.Comparison with the canonical Galactic values of 4.1, 3.1, and 1.8forces the conclusion that the law of interstellar absorption in thepath length to the SN in the host galaxy is different from the localGalactic law, a result consistent with earlier conclusions by others.Improved correlations of the fully corrected absolute magnitudes (on thesame arbitrary Hubble constant zero point) with host galaxymorphological type, decline rate, and intrinsic color are derived. Werecover the result that SNe Ia in E/S0 galaxies are ~0.3 mag fainterthan in spiral galaxies for possible reasons discussed in the text. Thenew decline rate corrections to absolute magnitudes are smaller thanthose by some authors for reasons explained in the text. The fourspectroscopically peculiar 1991T-type SNe are significantly overluminousas compared to Branch-normal SNe Ia. The overluminosity of the seven1999aa-like SNe is less pronounced. The seven 1991bg types in the sampleconstitute a separate class of SNe Ia, averaging in B 2 mag fainter thanthe normal Ia. New Hubble diagrams in B, V, and I are derived out to~30,000 km s-1 using the fully corrected magnitudes andvelocities, corrected for streaming motions. Nine solutions for theintercept magnitudes in these diagrams show extreme stability at the0.02 mag level using various subsamples of the data for both low andhigh extinctions in the sample, proving the validity of the correctionsfor host galaxy absorption. We shall use the same precepts for fullycorrecting SN magnitudes for the luminosity recalibration of SNe Ia inthe forthcoming final review of our Hubble Space Telescope Cepheid-SNexperiment for the Hubble constant.

The host galaxy/AGN connection in nearby early-type galaxies. Sample selection and hosts brightness profiles
This is the first of a series of three papers exploring the connectionbetween the multiwavelength properties of AGNs in nearby early-typegalaxies and the characteristics of their hosts. We selected twosamples, both with high resolution 5 GHz VLA observations available andproviding measurements down to 1 mJy level, reaching radio-luminositiesas low as 1019 W Hz-1. We focus on the 116radio-detected galaxies as to boost the fraction of AGN with respect toa purely optically selected sample. Here we present the analysis of theoptical brightness profiles based on archival HST images, available for65 objects. We separate early-type galaxies on the basis of the slope oftheir nuclear brightness profiles, into core and power-law galaxiesfollowing the Nuker's scheme, rather than on the traditionalmorphological classification (i.e. into E and S0 galaxies). Our sampleof AGN candidates is indistinguishable, when their brightness profilesare concerned, from galaxies of similar optical luminosity but hostingweaker (or no) radio-sources. We confirm previous findings thatrelatively bright radio-sources (Lr > 1021.5 WHz-1) are uniquely associated to core galaxies. However,below this threshold in radio-luminosity core and power-law galaxiescoexist and they do not show any apparent difference in theirradio-properties. Not surprisingly, since our sample is deliberatelybiased to favour the inclusion of active galaxies, we found a higherfraction of optically nucleated galaxies. Addressing the multiwavelengthproperties of these nuclei will be the aim of the two forthcomingpapers.

VLT spectroscopy of globular cluster systems. II. Spectroscopic ages, metallicities, and [ α/Fe] ratios of globular clusters in early-type galaxies
An analysis of ages, metallicities, and [ α/Fe] ratios of globularcluster systems in early-type galaxies is presented, based on Lick indexmeasurements summarized in Puzia et al. (2004, A&A, 415, 123, PaperI of this series). In the light of calibration and measurementuncertainties, age-metallicity degeneracy, and the relative dynamicrange of Lick indices, as well as systematics introduced by abundanceratio variations (in particular variations of [ α/Fe] ratios), wefind that the most reliable age indicator for our dataset is acombination of the Lick Balmer-line indices Hγ_A, Hβ, andHδ_A. [MgFe]´ is used as a spectroscopic metallicityindicator which is least affected by [ α/Fe] variations. Weintroduce an interpolation routine to simultaneously derive ages,metallicities, and [ α/Fe] ratios from diagnostic gridsconstructed from Lick indices. From a comparison of high-quality datawith SSP model predictions, we find that 2/3 of the globular clustersin early-type galaxies are older than 10 Gyr, up to 1/3 have ages in therange 5{-}10 Gyr, and only a few cluster are younger than 5 Gyr. Oursample of globular clusters covers metallicities from [Z/H] ≈ -1.3 upto 0.5 dex. We find that metal-rich globular clusters show on average asmaller mean age and a larger age scatter than their metal-poorcounterparts. [ α/Fe] diagnostic plots show that globular clustersystems in early-type galaxies have super-solar α/Fe abundanceratios with a mean [ α/Fe] = 0.47 ± 0.06 dex and adispersion of 0.3 dex. We find evidence for a correlation between [α/Fe] and metallicity, in the sense that more metal-rich clustersexhibit lower α-element enhancements. A discussion of systematicsrelated to the Lick index system shows that the method suffers to someextent from uncertainties due to unknown horizontal branch morphologiesat high metallicities. However, these systematics still allow us to makegood qualitative statements. A detailed investigation of indices as afunction of data quality reveals that the scatter in Balmer index valuesdecreases for higher-quality data. In particular, extremely low Balmerindex values that are lower than any SSP model prediction tend todisappear. Furthermore, we find that observed photometric colors are ingood agreement with computed SSP colors using ages and metallicities asderived from the spectroscopic line indices.

Nearby early-type galaxies with ionized gas. I. Line-strength indices of the underlying stellar population
With the aim of building a data-set of spectral properties of wellstudied early-type galaxies showing emission lines, we presentintermediate resolution spectra of 50 galaxies in the nearby Universe.The sample, which covers several of the E and S0 morphologicalsub-classes, is biased toward objects that might be expected to haveongoing and recent star formation, at least in small amounts, because ofthe presence of the emission lines. The emission is expected to comefrom the combination of active galactic nuclei and star formationregions within the galaxies. Sample galaxies are located in environmentscorresponding to a broad range of local galaxy densities, althoughpredominantly in low density environments. Our long-slit spectra coverthe 3700-7250 Å wavelength range with a spectral resolution of≈7.6 Å at 5550 Å. The specific aim of this paper, and ourfirst step in the investigation, is to map the underlying galaxy stellarpopulation by measuring, along the slit positioned along the galaxymajor axis, line-strength indices at several, homogeneousgalacto-centric distances. For each object we extracted 7luminosity-weighted apertures (with radii 1.5´´,2.5´´, 10´´, r_e/10, r_e/8, r_e/4 and r_e/2)corrected for the galaxy ellipticity and 4 gradients (0 ≤ r ≤r_e/16, r_e/16 ≤ r ≤ r_e/8, r_e/8 ≤ r ≤ r_e/4 and r_e/4≤ r ≤ r_e/2). For each aperture and gradient we measured 25line-strength indices: 21 of the set defined by the Lick-IDS“standard” system (Trager et al. [CITE], ApJS, 116, 1) and 4introduced by Worthey & Ottaviani ([CITE], ApJS, 111, 377).Line-strength indices have been transformed to the Lick-IDS system.Indices derived then include Hβ, Mg1, Mg2, Mgb, MgFe, Fe5270,Fe5335 commonly used in classic index-index diagrams. The paperintroduces the sample, presents the observations, describes the datareduction procedures, the extraction of apertures and gradients, thedetermination and correction of the line-strength indices, the procedureadopted to transform them into the Lick-IDS System and the proceduresadopted for the emission correction. We finally discuss the comparisonsbetween our dataset and line-strength indices available in theliterature. A significant fraction, about 60%, of galaxies in thepresent sample has one previous measurement in the Lick-IDS system butbasically restricted within the r_e/8 region. Line-strength measuresobtained both from apertures and gradients outside this area and withinthe r_e/8 region, with the present radial mapping, are completely new.Full appendix and Figs. 8 to 13 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org Full Tables 6, 7, 9 and 10 are only availableat the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/433/497 Based onobservations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla,Chile (Programs Nr. 60.A-0647 and 61.A-0406).

A wide-field photometric study of the globular cluster system of NGC 4636
Previous smaller-scale studies of the globular cluster system of NGC4636, an elliptical galaxy in the southern part of the Virgo cluster,have revealed an unusually rich globular cluster system. Were-investigate the cluster system of NGC 4636 with wide-field Washingtonphotometry. The globular cluster luminosity function can be followedroughly 1 mag beyond the turn-over magnitude found at {V} =23.31±0.13 for the blue cluster sub-population. This correspondsto a distance modulus of ({m}-{M})=31.24±0.17, 0.4 mag largerthan the distance determined from surface brightness fluctuations. Thehigh specific frequency is confirmed, yet the exact value remainsuncertain because of the uncertain distance: it varies between5.6±1.2 and 8.9±1.2. The globular cluster system has aclearly bimodal color distribution. The color peak positions show noradial dependence and are in good agreement with the values found forother galaxies studied in the same filter system. However, a luminositydependence is found: brighter clusters with an“intermediate” color exist. The clusters exhibit a shallowradial distribution within 7´, represented by a power-law with anexponent of -1.4. Within the same radial interval, the galaxy light hasa distinctly steeper profile. Because of the difference in the clusterand light distribution the specific frequency increases considerablywith radius. At 7´ and 9´ the density profiles of the redand blue clusters, respectively, change strongly: the power-law indicesdecrease to around -5 and become similar to the galaxy profile. Thissteep profile indicates that we reach the outer rim of the clustersystem at approximately 11´. This interpretation is supported bythe fact that in particular the density distribution of the blue clusterpopulation can be well fit by the projection of a truncated power-lawmodel with a core. This feature is seen for the first time in a globularcluster system. While the radial distribution of the cluster and fieldpopulations are rather different, this is not true for the ellipticityof the system: the elongation as well as the position angle of thecluster system agree well with the galaxy light. We compare the radialdistribution of globular clusters with the light profiles for a sampleof elliptical galaxies. The difference observed in NGC 4636 is typicalof an elliptical galaxy of this luminosity. The intrinsic specificfrequency of the blue population is considerably larger than that of thered one.Tables A.1 to A.6 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/433/43

Spectral homogeneity of type Ia supernovae
I present a newly defined set of spectral indicators for type Ia SNe. Iuse these indicators to characterize the evolution of these objects withphase and to study the issue of spectral homogeneity from a quantitativepoint of view. I present an example of a new spectral parameter and itscorrelation to the secondary lightcurve-shape parameter of the standardcandle, Δm15(B).

Infrared Surface Brightness Fluctuations of Magellanic Star Clusters
We present surface brightness fluctuations (SBFs) in the near-IR for 191Magellanic star clusters available in the Second Incremental and All SkyData releases of the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and compare themwith SBFs of Fornax Cluster galaxies and with predictions from stellarpopulation models as well. We also construct color-magnitude diagrams(CMDs) for these clusters using the 2MASS Point Source Catalog (PSC).Our goals are twofold. The first is to provide an empirical calibrationof near-IR SBFs, given that existing stellar population synthesis modelsare particularly discrepant in the near-IR. Second, whereas mostprevious SBF studies have focused on old, metal-rich populations, thisis the first application to a system with such a wide range of ages(~106 to more than 1010 yr, i.e., 4 orders ofmagnitude), at the same time that the clusters have a very narrow rangeof metallicities (Z~0.0006-0.01, i.e., 1 order of magnitude only). Sincestellar population synthesis models predict a more complex sensitivityof SBFs to metallicity and age in the near-IR than in the optical, thisanalysis offers a unique way of disentangling the effects of age andmetallicity. We find a satisfactory agreement between models and data.We also confirm that near-IR fluctuations and fluctuation colors aremostly driven by age in the Magellanic cluster populations and that inthis respect they constitute a sequence in which the Fornax Clustergalaxies fit adequately. Fluctuations are powered by red supergiantswith high-mass precursors in young populations and by intermediate-massstars populating the asymptotic giant branch in intermediate-agepopulations. For old populations, the trend with age of both fluctuationmagnitudes and colors can be explained straightforwardly by evolution inthe structure and morphology of the red giant branch. Moreover,fluctuation colors display a tendency to redden with age that can befitted by a straight line. For the star clusters only,(H-Ks)=(0.21+/-0.03)log(age)-(1.29+/-0.22) once galaxies areincluded, (H-Ks)=(0.20+/-0.02)log(age)-(1.25+/-0.16).Finally, we use for the first time a Poissonian approach to establishthe error bars of fluctuation measurements, instead of the customaryMonte Carlo simulations.This research has made use of the NASA/ IPAC Infrared Science Archive,which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Instituteof Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration.

Calibrating SN Type Ia in Early-Type Galaxies using the Planetary Nebulae Luminosity Function
Calibrating SN Type Ia in Early-Type Galaxies using the PlanetaryNebulae Luminosity FunctionAlthough seemingly passe, determining the Hubble constant directly andaccurately is still vital to cosmological models. While results fromWMAP imply a Hubble constant roughly equal to that found from directdistance indicators ( ˜70), this result depends on the adoptedequation of state (w=-1). If other equations of state are assumed, theWMAP results are consistent with a broad range of Hubble constants(Spergel et al 2003).SN Type Ia have been found to make excellent distance indicators togreat cosmological distances, provided that the relationship betweenmaximum magnitude and decline rate is taken into account (Phillips et al1999). However, it has been historically difficult to calibrate the zeropoint for this distance indicator, and has only been performed for ahandful of well-observed SN Ia in star-forming galaxies.Using the high precision [O III] λ 5007 Planetary NebulaeLuminosity Function distance indicator, and the Magellan Clay telescope,we can add more direct distances to nearby Type Ia SN, and improve thezero point calibration. By comparing the luminosities of SN Ia in theold populations of ellipticals and S0s with SN Ia in spirals, we canalso test for evolutionary effects that may enter into dark energymeasurements.We report new (preliminary) PNLF distance moduli for the threeearly-type galaxies NGC 1316 (SN 1980N), 1380 (SN 1992A), and 524 (SN2000cx) of 31.34 ± 0.15, 31.10 ± 0.20, and a lower limitof μ > 31.8, respectively. All have well-observed Type Ia SN. Fromthese, and distances to three other well-observed SN Ia having PNLFdistances, we derive a revised Hubble constant of 77. The Hubbleconstant derived from Cepheid distances to these (or same-group)galaxies is 75.

The globular cluster system of NGC 4374
We study the globular cluster system (GCS) of the giant ellipticalNGC 4374 (M 84) in the Virgocluster using B and R photometry. The colour distribution is bimodalwith peaks at B-R=1.11 and B-R=1.36, fitting well to those found inother early-type galaxies. The radial profile of the cluster numberdensity is flatter than the galaxy light. Using the luminosity functionwe derive a distance modulus of μ=31.61±0.2, which within theuncertainty agrees with the distance from surface brightnessfluctuations. Blue and red clusters show similar radial concentrationsand azimuthal distributions. The total number of clusters isN=1775±150, which together with our distance modulus leads to aspecific frequency of SN=1.6±0.3. This value issurprisingly low for a giant elliptical, but resembles the case ofmerger remnants like NGC 1316, where the low specificfrequency is probably caused by the luminosity contribution of anintermediate-age population. A further common property is the high rateof type Ia supernovae which also may indicate the existence of a youngerpopulation. However, unlike in the case of NGC 1316,one cannot find any further evidence that NGC 4374indeed hosts younger populations. The low specific frequency would alsofit to a S0 galaxy seen face-on.

VLT spectroscopy of globular cluster systems. I. The photometric and spectroscopic data set
We present Lick line-index measurements of extragalactic globularclusters in seven early-type galaxies (NGC 1380, 2434, 3115, 3379, 3585,5846, and 7192) with different morphological types (E-S0) located infield and group/cluster environments. High-quality spectra were takenwith the FORS2 instrument at ESO's Very Large Telescope. ˜50% of ourdata allows an age resolution Δ t/t≈0.3 and a metallicityresolution ˜0.25-0.4 dex, depending on the absolute metallicity.Globular cluster candidates are selected from deep B, V, R, I, KFORS2/ISAAC photometry with 80-100% success rate inside one effectiveradius. Using combined optical/near-infrared colour-colour diagrams wepresent a method to efficiently reduce fore-/background contaminationdown to 10%. We find clear signs for bi-modality in the globularcluster colour distributions of NGC 1380, 3115, and 3585. The colourdistributions of globular clusters in NGC 2434, 3379, 5846, and 7192 areconsistent with a broad single-peak distribution. For the analysedglobular cluster systems the slopes of projected radial surface densityprofiles, of the form Σ(R)˜ R -Γ, varybetween ˜0.8 and 2.6. Blue and red globular cluster sub-populationsshow similar slopes in the clearly bi-modal systems. For galaxies withsingle-peak globular cluster colour distributions, there is a hint thatthe blue cluster system seems to have a more extended radialdistribution than the red one. Using globular clusters as a tracerpopulation we determine total dynamical masses of host galaxies out tolarge radii (˜1.6-4.8 R_eff). For the sample we find masses in therange ˜8.8×1010 M_ȯ up to˜1.2×1012 M_ȯ. The line index data presentedhere will be used in accompanying papers of this series to derive ages,metallicities and abundance ratios. A compilation of currently availablehigh-quality Lick index measurements for globular clusters inelliptical, lenticular, and late-type galaxies is provided and willserve to augment the current data set.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory,Cerro Paranal, Chile under programme ID P65.N-0281, P66.B-0068, andP67.B-0034.Appendix A is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.orgAppendices B and C are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/415/123

The surface brightness and colour-magnitude relations for Fornax cluster galaxies
We present BVI photometry of 190 galaxies in the central 4 ×3deg2 region of the Fornax cluster observed with the MichiganCurtis Schmidt Telescope. Results from the Fornax Cluster SpectroscopicSurvey (FCSS) and the Flair-II Fornax Surveys have been used to confirmthe membership status of galaxies in the Fornax Cluster Catalogue (FCC).In our catalogue of 213 member galaxies, 92 (43 per cent) have confirmedradial velocities.In this paper, we investigate the surface brightness-magnitude relationfor Fornax cluster galaxies. Particular attention is given to the sampleof cluster dwarfs and the newly discovered ultracompact dwarf galaxies(UCDs) from the FCSS. We examine the reliability of the surfacebrightness-magnitude relation as a method for determining clustermembership and find that at surface brightnesses fainter than 22 magarcsec-2, it fails in its ability to distinguish betweencluster members and barely resolved background galaxies. Cluster membersexhibit a strong surface brightness-magnitude relation. Both elliptical(E) galaxies and dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies increase in surfacebrightness as luminosity decreases. The UCDs lie off the locus of therelation.B-V and V-I colours are determined for a sample of 113 cluster galaxiesand the colour-magnitude relation is explored for each morphologicaltype. The UCDs lie off the locus of the colour-magnitude relation. Theirmean V-I colours (~1.09) are similar to those of globular clustersassociated with NGC 1399. The location of the UCDs on both surfacebrightness and colour-magnitude plots supports the `galaxy threshing'model for infalling nucleated dwarf elliptical (dE, N) galaxies.

X-ray scaling properties of early-type galaxies
We present an analysis of 39 X-ray luminous early-type galaxies observedwith the ROSAT PSPC. Using multicomponent spectral and spatial fits tothese data, we have measured halo abundance, temperature, luminosity andsurface brightness profile. We compare these measurements to similarresults from galaxy groups and clusters, fitting a number of relationscommonly used in the study of these larger objects. In particular, wefind that the σ-TX relation for our sample is similarto that reported for clusters, consistent with βspec= 1,and that the LX-TX relation has a steep slope(gradient 4.8 +/- 0.7) comparable with that found for galaxy groups.Assuming isothermality, we construct three-dimensional models of ourgalaxies, allowing us to measure gas entropy. We find no correlationbetween gas entropy and system mass, but do find a trend forlow-temperature systems to have reduced gas fractions. We conclude thatthe galaxies in our sample are likely to have developed their haloesthrough galaxy winds, influenced by their surrounding environment.

Cosmological Results from High-z Supernovae
The High-z Supernova Search Team has discovered and observed eight newsupernovae in the redshift interval z=0.3-1.2. These independentobservations, analyzed by similar but distinct methods, confirm theresults of Riess and Perlmutter and coworkers that supernova luminositydistances imply an accelerating universe. More importantly, they extendthe redshift range of consistently observed Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia)to z~1, where the signature of cosmological effects has the oppositesign of some plausible systematic effects. Consequently, thesemeasurements not only provide another quantitative confirmation of theimportance of dark energy, but also constitute a powerful qualitativetest for the cosmological origin of cosmic acceleration. We find a ratefor SN Ia of(1.4+/-0.5)×10-4h3Mpc-3yr-1at a mean redshift of 0.5. We present distances and host extinctions for230 SN Ia. These place the following constraints on cosmologicalquantities: if the equation of state parameter of the dark energy isw=-1, then H0t0=0.96+/-0.04, andΩΛ-1.4ΩM=0.35+/-0.14. Includingthe constraint of a flat universe, we findΩM=0.28+/-0.05, independent of any large-scalestructure measurements. Adopting a prior based on the Two Degree Field(2dF) Redshift Survey constraint on ΩM and assuming aflat universe, we find that the equation of state parameter of the darkenergy lies in the range -1.48-1, we obtain w<-0.73 at 95% confidence.These constraints are similar in precision and in value to recentresults reported using the WMAP satellite, also in combination with the2dF Redshift Survey.Based in part on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated bythe Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc.,under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. This research is primarily associatedwith proposal GO-8177, but also uses and reports results from proposalsGO-7505, 7588, 8641, and 9118.Based in part on observations taken with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operated by the National Research Council of Canada, le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, and the University of Hawaii. CTIO: Based in part on observations taken at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory.Keck: Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. KeckObservatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among theCalifornia Institute of Technology, the University of California, and theNational Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was madepossible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.UH: Based in part on observations with the University of Hawaii 2.2 mtelescope at Mauna Kea Observatory, Institute for Astronomy, University ofHawaii. UKIRT: Based in part on observations with the United KingdomInfrared Telescope (UKIRT) operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre on behalfof the UK. Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council. VLT: Based inpart on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory,Paranal, Chile, under programs ESO 64.O-0391 and ESO 64.O-0404. WIYN: Based in part on observations taken at the WIYN Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories.

On the Size Difference between Red and Blue Globular Clusters
Several recent studies have reported a mean size difference of about 20%between the metal-rich and metal-poor subpopulations of globularclusters (GCs) in a variety of galaxies. In this paper, we investigatethe possibility that the size difference might be a projection effect,resulting from a correlation between cluster size and galactocentricdistance, combined with different radial distributions of the GCsubpopulations. We find that projection effects may indeed account for asize difference similar to the observed one, provided that there is asteep relation between GC size and galactocentric distance in thecentral parts of the GC system and that the density of GCs flattens offnear the center in a manner similar to a King profile. For morecentrally peaked distributions such as a de Vaucouleurs R1/4law, or for shallower size-radius relations, projection effects areunable to produce the observed differences in the size distributions.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASAcontract NAS5-26555.

Measuring Distances and Probing the Unresolved Stellar Populations of Galaxies Using Infrared Surface Brightness Fluctuations
To empirically calibrate the IR surface brightness fluctuation (SBF)distance scale and probe the properties of unresolved stellarpopulations, we measured fluctuations in 65 galaxies using NICMOS on theHubble Space Telescope. The early-type galaxies in this sample includeelliptical and S0 galaxies and spiral bulges in a variety ofenvironments. Absolute fluctuation magnitudes in the F160W (1.6 μm)filter (MF160W) were derived for each galaxy using previouslymeasured I-band SBF and Cepheid variable star distances. F160W SBFs canbe used to measure distances to early-type galaxies with a relativeaccuracy of ~10%, provided that the galaxy color is known to ~0.035 magor better. Near-IR fluctuations can also reveal the properties of themost luminous stellar populations in galaxies. Comparison of F160Wfluctuation magnitudes and optical colors to stellar population modelpredictions suggests that bluer elliptical and S0 galaxies havesignificantly younger populations than redder ones and may also be moremetal-rich. There are no galaxies in this sample with fluctuationmagnitudes consistent with old, metal-poor (t>5 Gyr, [Fe/H]<-0.7)stellar population models. Composite stellar population models implythat bright fluctuations in the bluer galaxies may be the result of anepisode of recent star formation in a fraction of the total mass of agalaxy. Age estimates from the F160W fluctuation magnitudes areconsistent with those measured using the Hβ Balmer-line index. Thetwo types of measurements make use of completely different techniquesand are sensitive to stars in different evolutionary phases. Bothtechniques reveal the presence of intermediate-age stars in theearly-type galaxies of this sample.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA,Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Circular-Aperture Photometry
We present R-band CCD photometry for 1332 early-type galaxies, observedas part of the ENEAR survey of peculiar motions using early-typegalaxies in the nearby universe. Circular apertures are used to tracethe surface brightness profiles, which are then fitted by atwo-component bulge-disk model. From the fits, we obtain the structuralparameters required to estimate galaxy distances using theDn-σ and fundamental plane relations. We find thatabout 12% of the galaxies are well represented by a pure r1/4law, while 87% are best fitted by a two-component model. There are 356repeated observations of 257 galaxies obtained during different runsthat are used to derive statistical corrections and bring the data to acommon system. We also use these repeated observations to estimate ourinternal errors. The accuracy of our measurements are tested by thecomparison of 354 galaxies in common with other authors. Typical errorsin our measurements are 0.011 dex for logDn, 0.064 dex forlogre, 0.086 mag arcsec-2 for<μe>, and 0.09 for mRC,comparable to those estimated by other authors. The photometric datareported here represent one of the largest high-quality and uniformall-sky samples currently available for early-type galaxies in thenearby universe, especially suitable for peculiar motion studies.Based on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO),National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF);European Southern Observatory (ESO); Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory(FLWO); and the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak.

Surface brightness fluctuation distances for dwarf elliptical galaxies in the Fornax cluster
We have obtained deep B and R-band CCD images of eight dwarf elliptical(dE) galaxies in the Fornax cluster using the FORS1 instrument at theVLT in service mode under excellent atmospheric conditions. A total of92 fields distributed over the central regions of the galaxies have beenanalysed to measure local (B-R)0 colours and R-band surfacebrightness fluctuation (SBF) magnitudes /line{m}R. Within agalaxy the observed correlation of (B-R)0 with/line{m}R0 follows closely the predicted slope ofthe colour-fluctuation luminosity relation for composite single-burst,mainly old, metal-poor stellar populations. This allows to determine thedistances of the dEs from simple offset measurements to a typically 9%accuracy. The distance distribution of these genuine cluster dwarfscenters at a mean distance of (m-M)0=31.54+/-0.07 mag, or20.3 +/- 0.7 Mpc, a value that is in best agreement with previous SBFwork on Fornax early-type giants and thus represents a robust estimateof the distance to the Fornax cluster core. The application of thebootstrap resampling technique on the distance data further reveals acluster depth of sigmaint = 1.4{+0.5 atop -0.8} Mpc. We takethis preliminary result as a confirmation of the compact appearance ofFornax in the projection on the sky although the cluster might beslightly more elongated along the line of sight. Combining the newlyderived cluster distance with the cosmological velocity of Fornax of1324+/-41 km s-1 gives a Hubble constant of H0 =65 +/- 4 km s-1 Mpc-1. This value is consistent atthe 95% confidence level with both the most recent result from the teamthat favours a long distance scale and the final value adopted by theHST ``Key Project'' team in their work for the Hubble constant. Finally,we explore the possibility to determine rough metallicities of ourcluster dEs from their (B-R)0 colours via Worthey's stellarpopulation synthesis models. The median metallicities are found in therange from -1.5 to -1 with a concentration around [Fe/H] =-1. Acomparison with spectral line indices results available for threegalaxies shows good agreement. Moreover, the derived metallicities placethe bright Fornax dEs on the extension of the metallicity-luminosityrelation defined by the low luminous Local Group dEs which providesadditional support for the (B-R)0 colour as a usefulmetallicity estimator. The data further suggest an age range between 10and 12 Gyr for the Fornax dwarfs.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory(ESO 68.A-0176).

Early-type galaxies in low-density environments
We describe the construction and study of an objectively defined sampleof early-type galaxies in low-density environments. The sample galaxiesare selected from a recently completed redshift survey using uniform andreadily quantified isolation criteria, and are drawn from a sky area of~700 deg2, to a depth of 7000 km s-1 and anapparent magnitude limit of bJ<= 16.1. Their early-type(E/S0) morphologies are confirmed by subsequent CCD imaging. Five out ofthe nine sample galaxies show signs of morphological peculiarity such astidal debris or blue circumnuclear rings. We confirm that E/S0 galaxiesare rare in low-density regions, accounting for only ~8 per cent of thetotal galaxy population in such environments. We present spectroscopicobservations of nine galaxies in the sample, which are used, inconjunction with updated stellar population models, to investigate starformation histories. Our line-strength analysis is conducted at therelatively high spectral resolution of 4.1 Å. Environmentaleffects on early-type galaxy evolution are investigated by comparisonwith a sample of Fornax cluster E/S0s (identically analysed). Resultsfrom both samples are compared with predictions from semi-analyticgalaxy formation models. From the strength of [OII]λ3727 emissionwe infer only a low level of ongoing star formation (<0.15Msolar yr-1). Relative to the Fornax sample, alarger fraction of the galaxies exhibit [OIII]λ5007 nebularemission and, where present, these lines are slightly stronger thantypical for cluster E/S0s. The Mg-σ relation of E/S0s inlow-density regions is shown to be indistinguishable from that of theFornax sample. Luminosity-weighted stellar ages and metallicities aredetermined by considering various combinations of line-indices; inparticular the HγF versus Fe5015 diagram cleanlyresolves the age-metallicity degeneracy at the spectral resolution ofour analysis. At a given luminosity, the E/S0 galaxies in low-densityregions are younger than the E/S0s in clusters (by ~2-3 Gyr), and alsomore metal-rich (by ~0.2 dex). We infer that an anti-correlation of ageand metallicity effects is responsible for maintaining the zero-point ofthe Mg-σ relation. The youngest galaxies in our sample show clearmorphological signs of interaction. The lower mean age of our sample,relative to cluster samples, confirms, at least qualitatively, a robustprediction of hierarchical galaxy formation models. By contrast, theenhanced metallicity in the field is contrary to the predictions andhighlights shortcomings in the detailed treatment of star formationprocesses in current models. The [Mg/Fe] abundance ratio appears to spana similar, mostly super-solar, range both in low-density regions and inFornax cluster galaxies. This result is quite unexpected in simplehierarchical models.

A catalogue and analysis of local galaxy ages and metallicities
We have assembled a catalogue of relative ages, metallicities andabundance ratios for about 150 local galaxies in field, group andcluster environments. The galaxies span morphological types from cD andellipticals, to late-type spirals. Ages and metallicities were estimatedfrom high-quality published spectral line indices using Worthey &Ottaviani (1997) single stellar population evolutionary models. Theidentification of galaxy age as a fourth parameter in the fundamentalplane (Forbes, Ponman & Brown 1998) is confirmed by our largersample of ages. We investigate trends between age and metallicity, andwith other physical parameters of the galaxies, such as ellipticity,luminosity and kinematic anisotropy. We demonstrate the existence of agalaxy age-metallicity relation similar to that seen for local galacticdisc stars, whereby young galaxies have high metallicity, while oldgalaxies span a large range in metallicities. We also investigate theinfluence of environment and morphology on the galaxy age andmetallicity, especially the predictions made by semi-analytichierarchical clustering models (HCM). We confirm that non-clusterellipticals are indeed younger on average than cluster ellipticals aspredicted by the HCM models. However we also find a trend for the moreluminous galaxies to have a higher [Mg/Fe] ratio than the lowerluminosity galaxies, which is opposite to the expectation from HCMmodels.

A Hubble Space Telescope Survey of the Mid-Ultraviolet Morphology of Nearby Galaxies
We present a systematic imaging survey of 37 nearby galaxies observedwith the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2(WFPC2) in the mid-UV F300W filter, centered at 2930 Å, as well asin the I-band (F814W) filter at 8230 Å. Eleven of these galaxieswere also imaged in the F255W filter, centered at 2550 Å. Oursample is carefully selected to include galaxies of sufficiently smallradius and high predicted mid-UV surface brightness to be detectablewith WFPC2 in one orbit and covers a wide range of Hubble types andinclinations. The mid-UV (2000-3200 Å) spans the gap betweenground-based UBVR(IJHK) images, which are available or were acquired forthe current study, and far-UV images available from the Astro/UITmissions for 15 galaxies in our sample. The first qualitative resultsfrom our study are as follows:1. Early-type galaxies show a significantdecrease in surface brightness going from the red to the mid-UV,reflecting the absence of a dominant young stellar population and insome cases the presence of significant (central) dust lanes. Galaxiesthat are early types in the optical show a variety of morphologies inthe mid-UV that can lead to a different morphological classification,although not necessarily as later type. Some early-type galaxies becomedominated by a blue nuclear feature or a point source in the mid-UV,e.g., as a result of the presence of a Seyfert nucleus or a LINER. Thisis in part due to our mid-UV surface brightness selection, but it alsosuggests that part of the strong apparent evolution of weak AGNs inearly-type galaxies may be due to surface brightness dimming of theirUV-faint stellar population, which renders the early-type host galaxiesinvisible at intermediate to higher redshifts.2. About half of themid-type spiral and star-forming galaxies appear as a latermorphological type in the mid-UV, as Astro/UIT also found primarily inthe far-UV. Sometimes these differences are dramatic (e.g., NGC 6782shows a spectacular ring of hot stars in the mid-UV). However, not allmid-type spiral galaxies look significantly different in the mid-UV.Their mid-UV images show a considerable range in the scale and surfacebrightness of individual star-forming regions. Almost without exception,the mid-type spirals in our sample have their small bulges bisected by adust lane, which often appears to be connected to the inner spiral armstructure.3. The majority of the heterogeneous subset of late-type,irregular, peculiar, and merging galaxies display F300W morphologiesthat are similar to those seen in F814W, but with important differencesdue to recognizable dust features absorbing the bluer light and to hotstars, star clusters, and star formation ``ridges'' that are bright inthe mid-UV. Less than one-third of the galaxies classified as late typein the optical appear sufficiently different in the mid-UV to result ina different classification.Our HST mid-UV survey of nearby galaxiesshows that, when observed in the rest-frame mid-UV, early- to mid-typegalaxies are more likely to be misclassified as later types thanlate-type galaxies are to be misclassified as earlier types. This isbecause the later type galaxies are dominated by the same young and hotstars in all filters from the mid-UV to the red and so have a smaller``morphological K-correction'' than true earlier type galaxies. Themorphological K-correction can thus explain part, but certainly not all,of the excess faint blue late-type galaxies seen in deep HST fields.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which isoperated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy(AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Also based in part onobservations made with the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope: theAlice P. Lennon Telescope and the Thomas J. Bannan AstrophysicsFacility.

Deep ROSAT HRI Observations of the NGC 1399/NGC 1404 Region: Morphology and Structure of the X-Ray Halo
We present the analysis of a deep (167 ks) ROSAT HRI observation of thecD galaxy NGC 1399 in the Fornax Cluster, comparing it with previouswork on this galaxy and with recent Chandra data. We find, in agreementwith previous observations, an extended and asymmetric gaseous halo witha luminosity (in the 0.1-2.4 keV energy band) ofLX=(5.50+/-0.04)×1041 ergs s-1within 46 kpc (assuming a distance of D=19 Mpc). Using both HRI and, atlarger radii, archival PSPC data, we find that the radial behavior ofthe X-ray surface brightness profile is not consistent with a simpleβ-model and suggests instead three distinct components. We use amulticomponent bidimensional model to study in detail these threecomponents, which we identify respectively with the cooling flow region,the galactic halo, and the cluster halo. From these data we derive abinding mass distribution in agreement with that suggested by opticaldynamical indicators, with an inner core dominated by luminous matterand an extended dark halo differently distributed on galactic andcluster scales. The HRI data and a preliminary analysis of Chandrapublic data allow us to detect significant density fluctuations in thehalo. We discuss possible nonequilibrium scenarios to explain the hothalo structure, including tidal interactions with neighboring galaxies,ram stripping from the intracluster medium, and merging events. In theinnermost region of NGC 1399, the comparison between the X-ray and radioemission suggests that the radio-emitting plasma is displacing andproducing shocks in the hot X-ray-emitting gas. We do not detect thenuclear source in X-rays, and we pose an upper limit of~4×1039 ergs s-1 (0.1-2.4 keV) to its X-rayluminosity. We found that the NGC 1404 halo is well represented by asingle symmetric β-model and follows the stellar light profilewithin the inner 8 kpc. The mass distribution is similar to the``central'' component of the NGC 1399 halo. At larger radii, rampressure stripping from the intracluster gas produces strong asymmetriesin the galactic halo. Finally, we discuss the properties of thepoint-source population, finding evidence of correlation between thesource excess and NGC 1399.

Surface Brightness Fluctuations of Fornax Cluster Galaxies: Calibration of Infrared Surface Brightness Fluctuations and Evidence for Recent Star Formation
We have measured KS-band (2.0-2.3 μm) surface brightnessfluctuations (SBFs) of 19 early-type galaxies in the Fornax Cluster.Fornax is ideally suited both for calibrating SBFs as distanceindicators and for using SBFs to probe the unresolved stellar content ofearly-type galaxies. Combining our results with published data for othernearby clusters, we calibrate KS-band SBFs using Hubble SpaceTelescope (HST) Cepheid cluster distances and I-band SBF distances toindividual galaxies. With the latter, the resulting calibrationisMKS=(-5.84+/-0.04)+(3.6+/-0.8)[(V-Ic)0-1.15],valid for1.05<(V-Ic)0<1.25 and not including anysystematic errors in the HST Cepheid distance scale. The fit accountsfor the covariance between V-Ic and MKSwhen calibrated in this fashion. The intrinsic cosmic scatter ofMKS appears to be larger than that of I-band SBFs.S0 galaxies may follow a different relation, although the data areinconclusive. The discovery of correlation between KS-bandfluctuation magnitudes and colors with V-Ic is a new clueinto the star formation histories of early-type galaxies. This relationnaturally accounts for galaxies previously claimed to have anomalouslybright K-band SBFs, namely, M32 and NGC 4489. Models indicate that thestellar populations dominating the SBF signal have a significant rangein age; some scatter in metallicity may also be present. The youngestages imply some galaxies have very luminous giant branches, akin tothose in intermediate-age (few Gyr) Magellanic Cloud clusters. Theinferred metallicities are roughly solar, although this depends on thechoice of theoretical models. A few Fornax galaxies have unusuallybright KS-band SBFs, perhaps originating from ahigh-metallicity burst of star formation in the last few Gyr. Theincreased spread and brightening of the KS-band SBFs withbluer V-Ic suggest that the lower mass cluster galaxies(<~0.1L*) may have had more extended and more heterogeneous starformation histories than those of the more massive galaxies.

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