Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

NGC 1349



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

The AMIGA sample of isolated galaxies. II. Morphological refinement
We present a refinement of the optical morphologies for galaxies in theCatalog of Isolated Galaxies that forms the basis of the AMIGA (Analysisof the interstellar Medium of Isolated GAlaxies) project. Uniformreclassification using the digitized POSS II data benefited from thehigh resolution and dynamic range of that sky survey. Comparison withindependent classifications made for an SDSS overlap sample of more than200 galaxies confirms the reliability of the early vs. late-typediscrimination and the accuracy of spiral subtypes within Δ T =1-2. CCD images taken at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada were alsoused to solve ambiguities in early versus late-type classifications. Aconsiderable number of galaxies in the catalog (n = 193) are flagged forthe presence of nearby companions or signs of distortion likely due tointeraction. This most isolated sample of galaxies in the local Universeis dominated by two populations: 1) 82% are spirals (Sa-Sd) with thebulk being luminous systems with small bulges (63% between types Sb-Sc)and 2) a significant population of early-type E-S0 galaxies (14%). Mostof the types later than Sd are low luminosity galaxies concentrated inthe local supercluster where isolation is difficult to evaluate. Thelate-type spiral majority of the sample spans a luminosity rangeMB-corr = -18 to -22 mag. Few of the E/S0 population are moreluminous than -21.0 marking the absence of the often-sought superL* merger (e.g. fossil elliptical) population. The rarity ofhigh luminosity systems results in a fainter derived M* forthis population compared to the spiral optical luminosity function(OLF). The E-S0 population is from 0.2 to 0.6 mag fainter depending onhow the sample is defined. This marks the AMIGA sample as unique amongsamples that compare early and late-type OLFs separately. In othersamples, which always involve galaxies in higher density environments,M^*_E/S0 is almost always 0.3-0.5 mag brighter than M^*_S, presumablyreflecting a stronger correlation between M* andenvironmental density for early-type galaxies.

Very Isolated Early-Type Galaxies
We use the Karachentseva Catalogue of Very Isolated Galaxies toinvestigate a candidate list of more than 100 very isolated early-typegalaxies. Broadband imaging and low-resolution spectroscopy areavailable for a large fraction of these candidates and result in asample of 102 very isolated early-type galaxies, including 65 elliptical(E) and 37 S0 galaxies. Many of these systems are quite luminous, andthe resulting optical luminosity functions of the E and early-type(E+S0) galaxies show no statistical differences when compared toluminosity functions dominated by group and cluster galaxies. However,whereas S0 galaxies outnumber E galaxies 4:1 in the CfA survey, isolatedE outnumber S0 galaxies by nearly 2:1. We conclude that very isolatedelliptical galaxies show no evidence of a different formation and/orevolution process compared to those formed in groups or clusters, butthat most S0 galaxies are formed by a mechanism (e.g., gas stripping)that occurs only in groups and rich clusters. Our luminosity functionresults for elliptical galaxies are consistent with very isolatedelliptical galaxies being formed by merger events, in which nocompanions remain. Chandra observations were proposed specifically totest the merger hypothesis for isolated elliptical galaxies. However,this program has resulted in the observation of only one isolatedearly-type galaxy, the S0 KIG 284, which was not detected at a limitwell below that expected for a remnant group of galaxies. Therefore, thehypothesis remains untested that very isolated elliptical galaxies arethe remains of a compact group of galaxies that have completely merged.

Revised positions for CIG galaxies
We present revised positions for the 1051 galaxies belonging to theKarachentseva Catalog of Isolated Galaxies (CIG). New positions werecalculated by applying SExtractor to the Digitized Sky Survey CIG fieldswith a spatial resolution of 1 arcsper 2. We visually checked theresults and for 118 galaxies had to recompute the assigned positions dueto complex morphologies (e.g. distorted isophotes, undefined nuclei,knotty galaxies) or the presence of bright stars. We found differencesbetween older and newer positions of up to 38 arcsec with a mean valueof 2 arcsper 96 relative to SIMBAD and up to 38 arcsec and 2 arcsper 42respectively relative to UZC. Based on star positions from the APMcatalog we determined that the DSS astrometry of five CIG fields has amean offset in (alpha , delta ) of (-0 arcsper 90, 0 arcsper 93) with adispersion of 0 arcsper 4. These results have been confirmed using the2MASS All-Sky Catalog of Point Sources. The intrinsic errors of ourmethod combined with the astrometric ones are of the order of 0 arcsper5.Full Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/411/391

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

The Morphology, Environment, and Interstellar Medium of Early-Type Galaxies as a Means for Studying the Evolution of Galaxies Outside of Clusters
Not Available

Arcsecond Positions of UGC Galaxies
We present accurate B1950 and J2000 positions for all confirmed galaxiesin the Uppsala General Catalog (UGC). The positions were measuredvisually from Digitized Sky Survey images with rms uncertaintiesσ<=[(1.2")2+(θ/100)2]1/2,where θ is the major-axis diameter. We compared each galaxymeasured with the original UGC description to ensure high reliability.The full position list is available in the electronic version only.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV system
The photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3.

The Southern Supercluster
The Southern Supercluster is described using data compiled from fivecatalogs, reduced to a homogeneous system following RC2. In terms ofmass, luminosity, and mass-to-light ratio, the Southern Superclustercompares well with the Coma and Hercules superclusters, but is lessmassive than the Local Supercluster. It is shown that, even though theSouthern Supercluster is the nearest supercluster to the LocalSupercluster, it is well separated from the Local Supercluster. However,there is evidence of a tenuous stream of galaxies connecting theSouthern Supercluster with the Perseus Supercluster.

The statistical distribution of the neutral-hydrogen content of elliptical galaxies
An examination has been conducted of the form of the distributionfunction for the relative H I content, MH I/LB, of elliptical galaxies,using a data set derived from all recent H I observations of ellipticalsin the literature. The characteristics of this combined data set arepoorly defined, but upon examination it appears to be reassuringly freeof built-in biases and correlations. The data set contains 152 galaxies;23 of these have been detected in the H I line. The detected galaxiesare shown to be more H I rich on average than the galaxies in the wholesample. A method for recovering the intrinsic distribution of MH I/LB,using both detection and upper-limit data, is described, and the dataare shown to be consistent with a shallow power-law differentialdistribution N approximately (MH I/LB) to the -1.5th. This distributionis quite different from that for spirals, where N(MH I/LB) has awell-defined mean value and a small dispersion. This result stronglysuggests that the gas and star contents of ellipticals are decoupled,i.e., the gas has an external origin.

Radio emission in isolated and cluster spiral galaxies
In the 2380-MHz continuum radio observations presented for two samplesof spiral galaxies observed with the NAIC Arecibo 305-m telescope, thesamples have been chosen in such a way that they differ markedly in thedensity of surrounding galaxies. One sample includes exclusivelygalaxies from the Karachentseva (1973) Catalog of Isolated Galaxies, theother only galaxies found within one Abell radius from the center ofnearby Abell clusters. The goal is to obtain a comparison of the radioproperties of the galaxies in these two samples, to ascertain whetherenvironmental processes affect significantly their radio emissivity.Above a threshold of five times the rms confusion, 7 percent of thecluster galaxies and 5 percent of the isolated ones are detected. Withthe caution required by the effects of confusion on the single-dishobservations, no significant differences are found in theradio-continuum properties of these two samples.

Neutral hydrogen in isolated galaxies. IV - Results for the Arecibo sample
A standard sample for the comparison of the H I content of galaxies invarious intergalactic environments is presently defined by means ofobservations of 324 isolated galaxies lying in the declination rangeaccessible to the Arecibo 305-m telescope. Both mapping and single pointspectra are used to compute the integral properties of these galaxies.Neutral hydrogen was detected in 288 of the 324 galaxies surveyed, andit is noted that the optical diameter of a spiral disk is bettercorrelated with the hydrogen mass than the morphological type. When usedto define a measure of H I content, the isolated galaxy sample canpredict 'normalcy' with an accuracy that carries a standard error ofabout 0.20 in the log of the H I mass, if a dependence on disk size, aswell as type, is taken into account.

Neutral hydrogen in isolated galaxies - First results for five early-type systems
The neutral hydrogen properties of the first five early-type galaxiesobserved in a survey of isolated galaxies are presented. The galaxiesare found in regions of very low density and hence are 'isolated' atleast with respect to the majority of galaxies. Among this sample,early-type systems are extremely rare. The five isolated early-typegalaxies presented here contain substantial masses of neutral hydrogen.In addition, their hydrogen-mass-to-luminosity ratios vary substantiallybut are high relative to published values for other early-type galaxies.The morphological classification of these galaxies is uncertain, but, inlight of the remainder of the sample, their distinctiveness isestablished.

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:03h31m27.50s
Aparent dimensions:0.955′ × 0.955′

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
NGC 2000.0NGC 1349

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR