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Planetary nebulae as tracers of galaxy stellar populations
We address the general problem of the luminosity-specific planetarynebula (PN) number, better known as the `α' ratio, given byα=NPN/Lgal, and its relationship with theage and metallicity of the parent stellar population. Our analysisrelies on population synthesis models that account for simple stellarpopulations (SSPs), and more elaborate galaxy models covering the fullstar formation range of the different Hubble morphological types. Thistheoretical framework is compared with the updated census of the PNpopulation in Local Group (LG) galaxies and external ellipticals in theLeo group, and the Virgo and Fornax clusters.The main conclusions of our study can be summarized as follows. (i)According to the post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stellar core mass,PN lifetime in a SSP is constrained by three relevant regimes, driven bythe nuclear (Mcore>~ 0.57Msolar), dynamical(0.57Msolar>~Mcore>~ 0.55Msolar)and transition (0.55Msolar>~Mcore>~0.52Msolar) time-scales. The lower limit for Mcorealso sets the minimum mass for stars to reach the AGB thermal-pulsingphase and experience the PN event. (ii) Mass loss is the crucialmechanism to constrain the value of α, through the definition ofthe initial-to-final mass relation (IFMR). The Reimers mass-lossparametrization, calibrated on Pop II stars of Galactic globularclusters, poorly reproduces the observed value of α in late-typegalaxies, while a better fit is obtained using the empirical IFMRderived from white dwarf observations in the Galaxy open clusters. (iii) The inferred PN lifetime for LG spirals and irregulars exceeds10000yr, which suggests that Mcore<~ 0.65Msolarcores dominate, throughout. (iv) The relative PN deficiency inelliptical galaxies, and the observed trend of α with galaxyoptical colours, support the presence of a prevailing fraction oflow-mass cores (Mcore<~ 0.55Msolar) in the PNdistribution and a reduced visibility time-scale for the nebulae as aconsequence of the increased AGB transition time. The stellar componentwith Mcore<~ 0.52Msolar, which overrides the PNphase, could provide an enhanced contribution to hotter HB and post-HBevolution, as directly observed in M 32 and the bulge of M 31. Thisimplies that the most UV-enhanced ellipticals should also display thelowest values of α, as confirmed by the Virgo cluster early-typegalaxy population. (v) Any blue-straggler population, invoked asprogenitor of the Mcore>~ 0.7Msolar PNe inorder to preserve the constancy of the bright luminosity-functioncut-off magnitude in ellipticals, must be confined to a small fraction(a few per cent at most) of the whole galaxy PN population.

Peculiarities and populations in elliptical galaxies. III. Dating the last star formation event
Using 6 colours and 4 Lick line-indices we derive two-component modelsof the populations of ellipticals, involving a "primary" and a"juvenile" population. The first component is defined by the regressionsof indices against the central velocity dispersion found in Papers I andII for the {Nop} sample of non-peculiar objects. The second one isapproximated by an SSP, and the modeling derives its age A, metallicityZ and fractional V-luminosity q_V, the fractional mass qMbeing found therefrom. The model is designed for "blueish" peculiargalaxies, i.e. the {Pec} sample and NGC 2865 family in the terminologyof Paper I. The morphological peculiarities and the population anomalyare then believed to involve the same event, i.e. a merger plusstarburst. It is possible to improve the models in a few cases byintroducing diffuse dust (as suggested by far IR data), and/or by takinginto account the fact that Lick- and colour indices do not relate toidentical galaxy volumes. In most of the cases, the mass ratio of youngstars qM seems too small for the product of a recent majormerger: the events under consideration might be minor mergers bringing"the final touch" to the build-up of the structure of the E-type object.The same modeling has been successfully applied to blueish galaxies ofthe {Nop} sample, without morphological peculiarities however, tosupport the occurence of a distinct perturbing event. A few reddishobjects of the {Pec} sample (NGC 3923 family) and of the {Nop} sampleare also modeled, in terms of an excess of high metallicity stars, ordiffuse dust, or both, but the results are inconclusive.

Planetary Nebulae and Stellar Kinematics in the Flattened Elliptical Galaxy NGC 1344
We present photometric and kinematic information obtained by measuring197 planetary nebulae (PNs) discovered in the flattened Fornaxelliptical galaxy NGC 1344 (also known as NGC 1340) with an on-band,off-band, and grism+on-band filter technique. We build the PN luminosityfunction (PNLF) and use it to derive a distance modulus m-M=31.4+/-0.18,which is slightly smaller than, but in good agreement with, the surfacebrightness fluctuation distance. The PNLF also provides an estimate ofthe specific PN formation rate: (6+/-3)×10-12 PNsyr-1 L-1solar. If we combine thepositional information from the on-band image with PN positions measuredon the grism+on-band image, we can measure the radial velocities of 195PNs, some of them distant more than three effective radii from thecenter of NGC 1344. We complement this data set with stellar kinematicsderived from integrated spectra along the major and minor axes andparallel to the major axis of NGC 1344. The line-of-sight velocitydispersion profile indicates the presence of a dark matter halo aroundthis galaxy.Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the European SouthernObservatory, Chile, in programs ESO 67.B-0231 and 68.B-0173A.

Detection of Radial Surface Brightness Fluctuations and Color Gradients in Elliptical Galaxies with the Advanced Camera for Surveys
We study surface brightness fluctuations (SBFs) in a sample of eightelliptical galaxies using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) WideField Channel (WFC) data drawn from the Hubble Space Telescope archive.SBF magnitudes in the F814W bandpass and galaxy colors from F814W,F435W, and F606W images, when available, are presented. Galaxy surfacebrightness profiles are determined as well. We present the firstSBF-broadband color calibration for the ACS WFC F814W bandpass and(relative) distance moduli estimates for seven of our galaxies. Wedetect and study in detail the SBF variations within individual galaxiesas a probe of possible changes in the underlying stellar populations.Inspecting both the SBF and color gradients in comparison to modelpredictions, we argue that SBFs and SBF gradients can in principle beused for unraveling the different evolutionary paths taken by galaxies,although a more comprehensive study of this issue would be required. Weconfirm that the radial variation of galaxy stellar populationproperties is mainly connected to the presence of radial chemicalabundance gradients, with the outer galaxy regions being more metal-poorthan the inner ones.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope,which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research inAstronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations areassociated with programs 9427, 9293, and 9399.

The Epochs of Early-Type Galaxy Formation as a Function of Environment
The aim of this paper is to set constraints on the epochs of early-typegalaxy formation through the ``archaeology'' of the stellar populationsin local galaxies. Using our models of absorption-line indices thataccount for variable abundance ratios, we derive ages, totalmetallicities, and element ratios of 124 early-type galaxies in high-and low-density environments. The data are analyzed by comparison withmock galaxy samples created through Monte Carlo simulations taking thetypical average observational errors into account, in order to eliminateartifacts caused by correlated errors. We find that all threeparameters, age, metallicity, and α/Fe ratio, are correlated withvelocity dispersion. We show that these results are robust againstrecent revisions of the local abundance pattern at high metallicities.To recover the observed scatter we need to assume an intrinsic scatterof about 20% in age, 0.08 dex in [Z/H], and 0.05 dex in [α/Fe].All low-mass objects withM*<~1010Msolar (σ<~130kms-1) show evidence for the presence of intermediate-agestellar populations with low α/Fe ratios. About 20% of theintermediate-mass objects with1010<~M*/Msolar<~1011[110<~σ/(kms-1)<~230 both elliptical andlenticular galaxies] must have either a young subpopulation or a bluehorizontal branch. On the basis of the above relationships, valid forthe bulk of the sample, we show that the Mg-σ relation is mainlydriven by metallicity, with similar contributions from the α/Feratio (23%) and age (17%). We further find evidence for an influence ofthe environment on the stellar population properties. Massive early-typegalaxies in low-density environments seem on average ~2 Gyr younger andslightly (~0.05-0.1 dex) more metal-rich than their counterparts inhigh-density environments. No offsets in the α/Fe ratios areinstead detected. With the aid of a simple chemical evolution model, wetranslate the derived ages and α/Fe ratios into star formationhistories. We show that most star formation activity in early-typegalaxies is expected to have happened between redshifts ~3 and 5 inhigh-density environments and between redshifts 1 and 2 in low-densityenvironments. We conclude that at least 50% of the total stellar massdensity must have already formed at z~1, in good agreement withobservational estimates of the total stellar mass density as a functionof redshift. Our results suggest that significant mass growth in theearly-type galaxy population below z~1 must be restricted to lessmassive objects, and a significant increase of the stellar mass densitybetween redshifts 1 and 2 should be present, caused mainly by the fieldgalaxy population. The results of this paper further imply the presenceof vigorous star formation episodes in massive objects at z~2-5 andevolved elliptical galaxies around z~1, both observationally identifiedas SCUBA galaxies and extremely red objects, respectively.

Planetary nebulae in the dwarf galaxy NGC 6822: Detection of new candidates
We have discovered 13 new candidate Planetary Nebulae (PNe) in the dwarfirregular galaxy NGC 6822, increasing its totalnumber to 17 objects. Our sample of candidate PNe is complete down to3.5 mag below the brightest PN.

Peculiarities and populations in elliptical galaxies. II. Visual-near IR colours as population indices
As a complement to the data collected and discussed in Paper I of thisseries, 2MASS near-IR images have been used, in connection withavailable V light aperture photometry, to derive the colours V-J, V-K,J-H and J-K within the effective aperture A_e: nearly the same completesample of 110 E-type galaxies is treated. In Paper I these wereclassified, based on morphological criteria, into the ``peculiar'' (orPec) and ``normal'' (or Nop) subsamples. For the Nop subsample, thederived colour indices are tightly related to the galaxy masses, asmeasured by the central velocity dispersion σ0,although with rather small slopes as regards J-H and J-K. For the Pecsubsample, the V-J and V-K colours behave as UBV and line-indices: partof the objects show blue residuals from the appropriatecolour-σ0 regression, which is evidence of a youngerpopulation mixed with the ``normal'' one traced by the Nop regressions;the other shows no deviations from the Nop subsample. The distinctionamong Pec objects between the YP family (NGC 2865 type), and the NP one(NGC 3923 type), is statistically supported, and generally confirmed inspecific cases.Based in part on observations collected at the Observatoire deHaute-Provence.Table 4 is only available in electonic form at the CDS via anonymous ftpto cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/429/819

Cold Dust in Early-Type Galaxies. I. Observations
We describe far-infrared observations of early-type galaxies selectedfrom the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) archive. This ratherinhomogeneous sample includes 39 giant elliptical galaxies and 14 S0 (orlater) galaxies. These galaxies were observed with the array photometerPHOT on-board the ISO satellite using a variety of different observingmodes-sparse maps, mini-maps, oversampled maps, and singlepointings-each of which requires different and often rather elaboratephotometric reduction procedures. The ISO background data agree wellwith the COBE-DIRBE results to which we have renormalized ourcalibrations. As a further check, the ISO fluxes from galaxies at 60 and100 μm agree very well with those previously observed with IRAS atthese wavelengths. The spatial resolution of ISO is several timesgreater than that of IRAS, and the ISO observations extend out to 200μm, which views a significantly greater mass of colder dust notassessable to IRAS. Most of the galaxies are essentially point sourcesat ISO resolution, but a few are clearly extended at FIR wavelengthswith image sizes that increase with FIR wavelength. The integratedfar-infrared luminosities do not correlate with optical luminosities,suggesting that the dust may have an external, merger-related origin. Ingeneral, the far-infrared spectral energy distributions can be modeledwith dust at two temperatures, ~43 and ~20 K, which probably representlimits of a continuous range of temperatures. The colder dust componentdominates the total mass of dust, 106-107Msolar, which is typically more than 10 times larger than thedust masses previously estimated for the same galaxies using IRASobservations. For S0 galaxies we find that the optically normalizedfar-infrared luminosity LFIR/LB correlatesstrongly with the mid-infrared luminosityL15μm/LB, but that correlation is weaker forelliptical galaxies.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, theNetherlands, and United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS andNASA.

Peculiarities and populations in elliptical galaxies. I. An old question revisited
Morphological peculiarities, as defined from isophote asymmetries andnumber of detected shells, jets or similar features, have been estimatedin a sample of 117 E classified galaxies, and qualified by an ad hocΣ2 index. The overall frequency of ``peculiar'' objects(Pec subsample) is 32.5%. It decreases with the cosmic density of theenvironment, being minimal for the Virgo cluster, the densestenvironment in the sampled volume. This environmental effect is strongerfor galaxies with relatively large Σ2.The Pec subsample objects are compared with ``normal'' objects (Nopsubsample) as regards their basic properties. Firstly, theysystematically deviate from the Fundamental Plane and the Faber-Jacksonrelation derived for the Nop subsample, being too bright for their mass.Secondly, the dust content of galaxies, as estimated from IRAS fluxes,are similar in both subsamples. Third, the same is true of the frequencyof Kinematically Distinct cores (KDC), suggesting that KDC andmorphological peculiarities do not result from the same events in thehistory of E-galaxies.Using the Nop sample alone, we obtain very tight reference relationsbetween stellar population indicators (U-B, B-V, B-R, V-I,Mg2, Hβ, , Mgb) and the central velocitydispersion σ0. The discussion of the residuals of theserelations allows us to classify the Pec galaxies in two families i.e.the YP or NGC 2865 family, and the NP or NGC 3923 one. Galaxies in thefirst group show consistent evidence for a younger stellar populationmixed with the old one, in agreement with classical results (Schweizeret al. \cite{Schweizer1990}; Schweizer & Seitzer\cite{Schweizer1992}). The second group, however, has ``normal``, orreddish, populations. It is remarkable that a fraction (circa 40%) ofmorphologically perturbed objects do not display any signature of ayoung population, either because the event responsible for thepecularity is too ancient, or because it did not produce significantstar formation (or eventually that the young sub-population has highmetallicity).A preliminary attempt is made to interpret the populations of Pecobjects by combining a young Single Stellar Population with a Nopgalaxy, with only limited success, perhaps largely due to uncertaintiesin the SSP indices used.Based in part on observations collected at the Observatoire deHaute-Provence.Figures \ref{fig1}-\ref{fig3} are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.orgTable 10 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/423/833

Measuring Distances and Probing the Unresolved Stellar Populations of Galaxies Using Infrared Surface Brightness Fluctuations
To empirically calibrate the IR surface brightness fluctuation (SBF)distance scale and probe the properties of unresolved stellarpopulations, we measured fluctuations in 65 galaxies using NICMOS on theHubble Space Telescope. The early-type galaxies in this sample includeelliptical and S0 galaxies and spiral bulges in a variety ofenvironments. Absolute fluctuation magnitudes in the F160W (1.6 μm)filter (MF160W) were derived for each galaxy using previouslymeasured I-band SBF and Cepheid variable star distances. F160W SBFs canbe used to measure distances to early-type galaxies with a relativeaccuracy of ~10%, provided that the galaxy color is known to ~0.035 magor better. Near-IR fluctuations can also reveal the properties of themost luminous stellar populations in galaxies. Comparison of F160Wfluctuation magnitudes and optical colors to stellar population modelpredictions suggests that bluer elliptical and S0 galaxies havesignificantly younger populations than redder ones and may also be moremetal-rich. There are no galaxies in this sample with fluctuationmagnitudes consistent with old, metal-poor (t>5 Gyr, [Fe/H]<-0.7)stellar population models. Composite stellar population models implythat bright fluctuations in the bluer galaxies may be the result of anepisode of recent star formation in a fraction of the total mass of agalaxy. Age estimates from the F160W fluctuation magnitudes areconsistent with those measured using the Hβ Balmer-line index. Thetwo types of measurements make use of completely different techniquesand are sensitive to stars in different evolutionary phases. Bothtechniques reveal the presence of intermediate-age stars in theearly-type galaxies of this sample.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA,Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies: Spectroscopic Data
We present central velocity dispersions and Mg2 line indicesfor an all-sky sample of ~1178 elliptical and S0 galaxies, of which 984had no previous measures. This sample contains the largest set ofhomogeneous spectroscopic data for a uniform sample of ellipticalgalaxies in the nearby universe. These galaxies were observed as part ofthe ENEAR project, designed to study the peculiar motions and internalproperties of the local early-type galaxies. Using 523 repeatedobservations of 317 galaxies obtained during different runs, the dataare brought to a common zero point. These multiple observations, takenduring the many runs and different instrumental setups employed for thisproject, are used to derive statistical corrections to the data and arefound to be relatively small, typically <~5% of the velocitydispersion and 0.01 mag in the Mg2 line strength. Typicalerrors are about 8% in velocity dispersion and 0.01 mag inMg2, in good agreement with values published elsewhere.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

Surface brightness fluctuation distances for dwarf elliptical galaxies in the Fornax cluster
We have obtained deep B and R-band CCD images of eight dwarf elliptical(dE) galaxies in the Fornax cluster using the FORS1 instrument at theVLT in service mode under excellent atmospheric conditions. A total of92 fields distributed over the central regions of the galaxies have beenanalysed to measure local (B-R)0 colours and R-band surfacebrightness fluctuation (SBF) magnitudes /line{m}R. Within agalaxy the observed correlation of (B-R)0 with/line{m}R0 follows closely the predicted slope ofthe colour-fluctuation luminosity relation for composite single-burst,mainly old, metal-poor stellar populations. This allows to determine thedistances of the dEs from simple offset measurements to a typically 9%accuracy. The distance distribution of these genuine cluster dwarfscenters at a mean distance of (m-M)0=31.54+/-0.07 mag, or20.3 +/- 0.7 Mpc, a value that is in best agreement with previous SBFwork on Fornax early-type giants and thus represents a robust estimateof the distance to the Fornax cluster core. The application of thebootstrap resampling technique on the distance data further reveals acluster depth of sigmaint = 1.4{+0.5 atop -0.8} Mpc. We takethis preliminary result as a confirmation of the compact appearance ofFornax in the projection on the sky although the cluster might beslightly more elongated along the line of sight. Combining the newlyderived cluster distance with the cosmological velocity of Fornax of1324+/-41 km s-1 gives a Hubble constant of H0 =65 +/- 4 km s-1 Mpc-1. This value is consistent atthe 95% confidence level with both the most recent result from the teamthat favours a long distance scale and the final value adopted by theHST ``Key Project'' team in their work for the Hubble constant. Finally,we explore the possibility to determine rough metallicities of ourcluster dEs from their (B-R)0 colours via Worthey's stellarpopulation synthesis models. The median metallicities are found in therange from -1.5 to -1 with a concentration around [Fe/H] =-1. Acomparison with spectral line indices results available for threegalaxies shows good agreement. Moreover, the derived metallicities placethe bright Fornax dEs on the extension of the metallicity-luminosityrelation defined by the low luminous Local Group dEs which providesadditional support for the (B-R)0 colour as a usefulmetallicity estimator. The data further suggest an age range between 10and 12 Gyr for the Fornax dwarfs.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory(ESO 68.A-0176).

The Planetary Nebula Spectrograph: The Green Light for Galaxy Kinematics
Planetary nebulae (PNe) are now well established as probes of galaxydynamics and as standard candles in distance determinations. Motivatedby the need to improve the efficiency of planetary nebulae searches andthe speed with which their radial velocities are determined, a dedicatedinstrument-the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph, or PN.S-has been designedand commissioned at the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope. The highoptical efficiency of the spectrograph results in the detection oftypically ~150 PNe in galaxies at the distance of the Virgo Cluster inone night of observations. In the same observation, the radialvelocities are obtained with an accuracy of ~20 km s-1.

Early-type galaxies in low-density environments
We describe the construction and study of an objectively defined sampleof early-type galaxies in low-density environments. The sample galaxiesare selected from a recently completed redshift survey using uniform andreadily quantified isolation criteria, and are drawn from a sky area of~700 deg2, to a depth of 7000 km s-1 and anapparent magnitude limit of bJ<= 16.1. Their early-type(E/S0) morphologies are confirmed by subsequent CCD imaging. Five out ofthe nine sample galaxies show signs of morphological peculiarity such astidal debris or blue circumnuclear rings. We confirm that E/S0 galaxiesare rare in low-density regions, accounting for only ~8 per cent of thetotal galaxy population in such environments. We present spectroscopicobservations of nine galaxies in the sample, which are used, inconjunction with updated stellar population models, to investigate starformation histories. Our line-strength analysis is conducted at therelatively high spectral resolution of 4.1 Å. Environmentaleffects on early-type galaxy evolution are investigated by comparisonwith a sample of Fornax cluster E/S0s (identically analysed). Resultsfrom both samples are compared with predictions from semi-analyticgalaxy formation models. From the strength of [OII]λ3727 emissionwe infer only a low level of ongoing star formation (<0.15Msolar yr-1). Relative to the Fornax sample, alarger fraction of the galaxies exhibit [OIII]λ5007 nebularemission and, where present, these lines are slightly stronger thantypical for cluster E/S0s. The Mg-σ relation of E/S0s inlow-density regions is shown to be indistinguishable from that of theFornax sample. Luminosity-weighted stellar ages and metallicities aredetermined by considering various combinations of line-indices; inparticular the HγF versus Fe5015 diagram cleanlyresolves the age-metallicity degeneracy at the spectral resolution ofour analysis. At a given luminosity, the E/S0 galaxies in low-densityregions are younger than the E/S0s in clusters (by ~2-3 Gyr), and alsomore metal-rich (by ~0.2 dex). We infer that an anti-correlation of ageand metallicity effects is responsible for maintaining the zero-point ofthe Mg-σ relation. The youngest galaxies in our sample show clearmorphological signs of interaction. The lower mean age of our sample,relative to cluster samples, confirms, at least qualitatively, a robustprediction of hierarchical galaxy formation models. By contrast, theenhanced metallicity in the field is contrary to the predictions andhighlights shortcomings in the detailed treatment of star formationprocesses in current models. The [Mg/Fe] abundance ratio appears to spana similar, mostly super-solar, range both in low-density regions and inFornax cluster galaxies. This result is quite unexpected in simplehierarchical models.

Mid-Infrared Observation of Mass Loss in Elliptical Galaxies
Early-type galaxies exhibit thermal and molecular resonance emissionfrom dust that is shed and heated through stellar mass loss as a subsetof the population moves through the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phaseof evolution. Because this emission can give direct insight into stellarevolution in addition to galactic stellar mass loss and interstellarmedium injection rates, we conducted a program to search for thissignature emission with CAM on the Infrared Space Observatory. Weobtained 6-15 μm imaging observations in six narrow bands for nineelliptical galaxies; every galaxy is detected in every band. Forwavelengths shorter than 9 μm, the spectra are well matched by ablackbody originating from the K and M stars that dominate theintegrated light of elliptical galaxies. At wavelengths between 9 and 15μm, however, the galaxies display excess emission relative to thestellar photospheric radiation. Additional data taken with thefine-resolution circular variable filter on one source clearly showsbroad emission from 9 to 15 μm, peaking around 10 μm. This resultis consistent with the known broad silicate feature at 9.7 μmoriginating in the circumstellar envelopes of AGB stars. This emissionis compared with studies of Galactic and Large Magellanic Cloud AGBstars to derive cumulative mass-loss rates. In general, these mass-lossrates agree with the expected ~0.8 Msolar yr-1value predicted by stellar evolutionary models. Both the photosphericand circumstellar envelope emission follow a de VaucouleursR1/4 law, supporting the conclusion that the mid-infraredexcess emission originates in the stellar component of the galaxies andacts as a tracer of AGB mass loss and mass injection into theinterstellar medium.

Surface Brightness Fluctuations of Fornax Cluster Galaxies: Calibration of Infrared Surface Brightness Fluctuations and Evidence for Recent Star Formation
We have measured KS-band (2.0-2.3 μm) surface brightnessfluctuations (SBFs) of 19 early-type galaxies in the Fornax Cluster.Fornax is ideally suited both for calibrating SBFs as distanceindicators and for using SBFs to probe the unresolved stellar content ofearly-type galaxies. Combining our results with published data for othernearby clusters, we calibrate KS-band SBFs using Hubble SpaceTelescope (HST) Cepheid cluster distances and I-band SBF distances toindividual galaxies. With the latter, the resulting calibrationisMKS=(-5.84+/-0.04)+(3.6+/-0.8)[(V-Ic)0-1.15],valid for1.05<(V-Ic)0<1.25 and not including anysystematic errors in the HST Cepheid distance scale. The fit accountsfor the covariance between V-Ic and MKSwhen calibrated in this fashion. The intrinsic cosmic scatter ofMKS appears to be larger than that of I-band SBFs.S0 galaxies may follow a different relation, although the data areinconclusive. The discovery of correlation between KS-bandfluctuation magnitudes and colors with V-Ic is a new clueinto the star formation histories of early-type galaxies. This relationnaturally accounts for galaxies previously claimed to have anomalouslybright K-band SBFs, namely, M32 and NGC 4489. Models indicate that thestellar populations dominating the SBF signal have a significant rangein age; some scatter in metallicity may also be present. The youngestages imply some galaxies have very luminous giant branches, akin tothose in intermediate-age (few Gyr) Magellanic Cloud clusters. Theinferred metallicities are roughly solar, although this depends on thechoice of theoretical models. A few Fornax galaxies have unusuallybright KS-band SBFs, perhaps originating from ahigh-metallicity burst of star formation in the last few Gyr. Theincreased spread and brightening of the KS-band SBFs withbluer V-Ic suggest that the lower mass cluster galaxies(<~0.1L*) may have had more extended and more heterogeneous starformation histories than those of the more massive galaxies.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies. I. The ENEARc Cluster Sample
This paper presents data on the ENEARc subsample of the larger ENEARsurvey of nearby early-type galaxies. The ENEARc galaxies belong toclusters and were specifically chosen to be used for the construction ofa Dn-σ template. The ENEARc sample includes newmeasurements of spectroscopic and photometric parameters (redshift,velocity dispersion, line index Mg2, and the angular diameterdn), as well as data from the literature. New spectroscopicdata are given for 229 cluster early-type galaxies, and new photometryis presented for 348 objects. Repeat and overlap observations withexternal data sets are used to construct a final merged catalogconsisting of 640 early-type galaxies in 28 clusters. Objectivecriteria, based on catalogs of groups of galaxies derived from completeredshift surveys of the nearby universe, are used to assign galaxies toclusters. In a companion paper, these data are used to construct thetemplate Dn-σ distance relation for early-typegalaxies, which has been used to estimate galaxy distances and derivepeculiar velocities for the ENEAR all-sky sample. Based on observationsat Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement betweenthe Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory,National Optical Astronomical Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; the EuropeanSouthern Observatory (ESO), partially under the ESO-ON agreement; theFred Lawrence Whipple Observatory; the Observatório do Pico dosDias, operated by the Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísicaand the MDM Observatory at Kitt Peak.

Line-strength indices and velocity dispersions for 148 early-type galaxies in different environments
We have derived high quality line-strength indices and velocitydispersions for a sample of 148 early-type galaxies in differentenvironments. The wavelength region covered by the observations (lambda=~ 4600 to 6600 Å) includes the Lick/IDS indices Hβ,Mg1, Mg2, Mgb, Fe5015, Fe5270, Fe5335, Fe5406,Fe5709, Fe5782, NaD, TiO1 and TiO2. The data areintended to address possible differences of the stellar populations ofearly-type galaxies in low- and high-density environments. This paperdescribes the sample properties, explains the data reduction andpresents the complete list of all the measurements. Most galaxies of thesample (85%) had no previous measurements of any Lick/IDS indices andfor 30% of the galaxies we present first-time determinations of theirvelocity dispersions. Special care is taken to identify galaxies withemission lines. We found that 62 per cent of the galaxies in the samplehave emission lines, as measured by the equivalent width of the [OIII]5007Å line, EW[OIII] > 0.3 Å. Tables 5 and 6 are onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/ A+A/395/431. They are also available via ftp atftp.mpe.mpg.de in the directory people/dthomas/Beuing02 or via WWW atftp://ftp.mpe.mpg.de/people/dthomas/Beuing02.

A catalogue and analysis of X-ray luminosities of early-type galaxies
We present a catalogue of X-ray luminosities for 401 early-typegalaxies, of which 136 are based on newly analysed ROSAT PSPC pointedobservations. The remaining luminosities are taken from the literatureand converted to a common energy band, spectral model and distancescale. Using this sample we fit the LX:LB relationfor early-type galaxies and find a best-fit slope for the catalogue of~2.2. We demonstrate the influence of group-dominant galaxies on the fitand present evidence that the relation is not well modelled by a singlepower-law fit. We also derive estimates of the contribution to galaxyX-ray luminosities from discrete-sources and conclude that they provideLdscr/LB~=29.5ergs-1LBsolar-1. Wecompare this result with luminosities from our catalogue. Lastly, weexamine the influence of environment on galaxy X-ray luminosity and onthe form of the LX:LB relation. We conclude thatalthough environment undoubtedly affects the X-ray properties ofindividual galaxies, particularly those in the centres of groups andclusters, it does not change the nature of whole populations.

A synthesis of data from fundamental plane and surface brightness fluctuation surveys
We perform a series of comparisons between distance-independentphotometric and spectroscopic properties used in the surface brightnessfluctuation (SBF) and fundamental plane (FP) methods of early-typegalaxy distance estimation. The data are taken from two recent surveys:the SBF Survey of Galaxy Distances and the Streaming Motions of AbellClusters (SMAC) FP survey. We derive a relation between(V-I)0 colour and Mg2 index using nearly 200galaxies and discuss implications for Galactic extinction estimates andearly-type galaxy stellar populations. We find that the reddenings fromSchlegel et al. for galaxies with E(B-V)>~0.2mag appear to beoverestimated by 5-10 per cent, but we do not find significant evidencefor large-scale dipole errors in the extinction map. In comparison withstellar population models having solar elemental abundance ratios, thegalaxies in our sample are generally too blue at a given Mg2;we ascribe this to the well-known enhancement of the α-elements inluminous early-type galaxies. We confirm a tight relation betweenstellar velocity dispersion σ and the SBF `fluctuation count'parameter N, which is a luminosity-weighted measure of the total numberof stars in a galaxy. The correlation between N and σ is eventighter than that between Mg2 and σ. Finally, we deriveFP photometric parameters for 280 galaxies from the SBF survey data set.Comparisons with external sources allow us to estimate the errors onthese parameters and derive the correction necessary to bring them on tothe SMAC system. The data are used in a forthcoming paper, whichcompares the distances derived from the FP and SBF methods.

Stellar populations and surface brightness fluctuations: new observations and models
We investigate the use of surface brightness fluctuations (SBF)measurements in optical and near-IR bandpasses for both stellarpopulation and distance studies. New V-band SBF data are reported forfive galaxies in the Fornax cluster and combined with literature data todefine a V-band SBF distance indicator, calibrated against Cepheiddistances to the Leo group and the Virgo and Fornax clusters. The colourdependence of the V-band SBF indicator is only ~15 per cent steeper thanthat found for the I band, and the mean `fluctuation colour' of thegalaxies is ~2.4. We use new stellar population models, basedon the latest Padua isochrones transformed empirically to theobservational plane, to predict optical and near-IR SBF magnitudes andintegrated colours for a wide range of population ages andmetallicities. We examine the sensitivity of the predicted SBF-colourrelations to changes in the isochrones, stellar transformations, andinitial mass function. The new models reproduce fairly well the weakdependence of V and I SBF in globular clusters on metallicity,especially if the more metal-rich globulars are younger. Below solarmetallicity, the near-IR SBF magnitudes depend mainly on age, while theintegrated colours depend mainly on metallicity. This could prove apowerful new approach to the age-metallicity degeneracy problem; near-IRSBF observations of globular clusters would be an important test of themodels. The models also help in understanding the (V-I) and (I-K)fluctuation colours of elliptical galaxies, with much less need forcomposite stellar populations than in previous models. However, in orderto obtain theoretical calibrations of the SBF distance indicators, wecombine the homogeneous population models into composite models andselect out those ones with fluctuation colours consistent withobservations. We are able to reproduce the observed range of ellipticalgalaxy (V-I) colours, the slopes of the V and I SBF distance indicatorsagainst (V-I) (fainter SBF in redder populations), and the flattening ofthe I-band relation for (V-I)<~1.0. The models also match theobserved slope of I-band SBF against the Mg2 absorption indexand explain the steep colour dependence found by Ajhar et al. for theHST/WFPC2 F814W-band SBF measurements. In contrast to previous models,ours predict that the near-IR SBF magnitudes will also continue to growfainter for redder populations. The theoretical V-band SBF zero-pointpredicted by these models agrees well with the Cepheid-calibrated V-bandempirical zero-point. However, the model zero-point is 0.15-0.27mag toofaint in the I band and 0.24-0.36mag too faint in K. The zero-points forthe I band (empirically the best determined) would come into closeagreement if the Cepheid distance scale were revised to agree with therecent dynamical distance measured to NGC 4258. We note that thetheoretical SBF calibrations are sensitive to the uncertain details ofstellar evolution, and conclude that the empirical calibrations remainmore secure. However, the sensitivity of SBF to these finer detailspotentially makes it a powerful, relatively unexploited, constraint forstellar evolution and population synthesis.

Origin of the Scatter in the X-Ray Luminosity of Early-Type Galaxies Observed with ROSAT
Statistical properties of X-ray luminosity and temperature are studiedfor 52 early-type galaxies based on the ROSAT PSPC data. All of theX-ray luminous galaxies show largely extended emission with a radius ofa few times 10re, while X-ray faint galaxies donot show such a component. This leads to a division of early-typegalaxies into two categories: X-ray extended and X-ray compact galaxies.Except for a few galaxies in dense cluster environments, the luminosityand temperature of X-ray compact galaxies are well explained by akinematical heating of the gas supplied by stellar mass loss. Incontrast, X-ray extended galaxies indicate large scatter in the X-rayluminosity. We discuss the notion that X-ray extended galaxies are thecentral objects of large potential structures and that the presence orabsence of this potential is the main origin of the large scatter in theX-ray luminosity.

Emission Mechanisms in X-Ray-faint Galaxies
Hot gas dominates the emission in X-ray-luminous early-type galaxies,but in relatively X-ray-faint systems, integrated X-ray emission fromdiscrete stellar-like sources is thought to be considerable, althoughthe amount of the contribution is controversial. To help resolve thisissue, we examine the radial X-ray surface brightness distribution of 17X-ray-faint galaxies observed with the ROSAT HRI and PSPC. We assumethat the stellar contribution follows a de Vaucouleurs law while the hotgas component follows a King β model. For some galaxies, bothmodels fit equally well, but for a number of systems, a dual componentmodel yields the best fit, from which upper bounds are placed on thestellar contribution. Best-fit values for the stellar contribution areinconsistent with (lower than) that suggested by Fabbiano, Gioia, &Trinchieri and estimated from the bulge of M31 but are consistent withthe Forman, Jones, & Tucker estimate of the stellar fraction inX-ray-faint elliptical and S0 galaxies. Our results indicate an upperlimit to discrete sources ofLX/LB=1.6×1029 ergss-1 L-1solar.

The SBF Survey of Galaxy Distances. IV. SBF Magnitudes, Colors, and Distances
We report data for I-band surface brightness fluctuation (SBF)magnitudes, (V-I) colors, and distance moduli for 300 galaxies. Thesurvey contains E, S0, and early-type spiral galaxies in the proportionsof 49:42:9 and is essentially complete for E galaxies to Hubblevelocities of 2000 km s-1, with a substantial sampling of Egalaxies out to 4000 km s-1. The median error in distancemodulus is 0.22 mag. We also present two new results from the survey.(1) We compare the mean peculiar flow velocity (bulk flow) implied byour distances with predictions of typical cold dark matter transferfunctions as a function of scale, and we find very good agreement withcold, dark matter cosmologies if the transfer function scale parameterΓ and the power spectrum normalization σ8 arerelated by σ8Γ-0.5~2+/-0.5. Deriveddirectly from velocities, this result is independent of the distributionof galaxies or models for biasing. This modest bulk flow contradictsreports of large-scale, large-amplitude flows in the ~200 Mpc diametervolume surrounding our survey volume. (2) We present adistance-independent measure of absolute galaxy luminosity, N and showhow it correlates with galaxy properties such as color and velocitydispersion, demonstrating its utility for measuring galaxy distancesthrough large and unknown extinction. Observations in part from theMichigan-Dartmouth-MIT (MDM) Observatory.

The neutral hydrogen content of Fornax cluster galaxies
We present a new set of deep H I observations of member galaxies of theFornax cluster. We detected 35 cluster galaxies in HI. The resulting sample, the most comprehensive to date, is used toinvestigate the distribution of neutral hydrogen in the clustergalaxies. We compare the H I content of the detected cluster galaxieswith that of field galaxies by measuring H I mass-to-light ratios andthe H I deficiency parameter of Solanes et al. (\cite{Sol96}). The meanH I mass-to-light ratio of the cluster galaxies is 0.68+/- 0.15,significantly lower than for a sample of H I-selected field galaxies(1.15+/- 0.10), although not as low as in the Virgocluster (0.45+/- 0.03). In addition, the H I content of twocluster galaxies (NGC 1316C and NGC1326B) appears to have been affected by interactions. The meanH I deficiency for the cluster is 0.38+/-0.09 (for galaxy types T=1-6),significantly greater than for the field sample (0.05+/-0.03). Boththese tests show that Fornax cluster galaxies are HI-deficient compared to field galaxies. The kinematics of the clustergalaxies suggests that the H I deficiency may be caused by ram-pressurestripping of galaxies on orbits that pass close to the cluster core. Wealso derive the most complete B-band Tully - Fisher relation of inclinedspiral galaxies in Fornax. A subcluster in theSouth-West of the main cluster contributes considerably to the scatter.The scatter for galaxies in the main cluster alone is 0.50 mag, which isslightly larger than the intrinsic scatter of 0.4 mag. We use the Tully- Fisher relation to derive a distance modulus ofFornax relative to the Virgocluster of -0.38+/- 0.14 mag. The galaxies in the subclusterare (1.0+/-0.5) mag brighter than the galaxies of the main cluster,indicating that they are situated in the foreground. With their meanvelocity 95 km s-1 higher than that of the main cluster weconclude that the subcluster is falling into the main Fornaxcluster.

A Database of Cepheid Distance Moduli and Tip of the Red Giant Branch, Globular Cluster Luminosity Function, Planetary Nebula Luminosity Function, and Surface Brightness Fluctuation Data Useful for Distance Determinations
We present a compilation of Cepheid distance moduli and data for foursecondary distance indicators that employ stars in the old stellarpopulations: the planetary nebula luminosity function (PNLF), theglobular cluster luminosity function (GCLF), the tip of the red giantbranch (TRGB), and the surface brightness fluctuation (SBF) method. Thedatabase includes all data published as of 1999 July 15. The mainstrength of this compilation resides in the fact that all data are on aconsistent and homogeneous system: all Cepheid distances are derivedusing the same calibration of the period-luminosity relation, thetreatment of errors is consistent for all indicators, and measurementsthat are not considered reliable are excluded. As such, the database isideal for comparing any of the distance indicators considered, or forderiving a Cepheid calibration to any secondary distance indicator, suchas the Tully-Fisher relation, the Type Ia supernovae, or the fundamentalplane for elliptical galaxies. This task has already been undertaken byFerrarese et al., Sakai et al., Kelson et al., and Gibson et al.Specifically, the database includes (1) Cepheid distances, extinctions,and metallicities; (2) reddened apparent λ5007 Å magnitudesof the PNLF cutoff; (3) reddened apparent magnitudes and colors of theturnover of the GCLF (in both the V and B bands); (4) reddened apparentmagnitudes of the TRGB (in the I band) and V-I colors at 0.5 mag fainterthan the TRGB; and (5) reddened apparent surface brightness fluctuationmagnitudes measured in Kron-Cousin I, K', andKshort, and using the F814W filter with the Hubble SpaceTelescope (HST) WFPC2. In addition, for every galaxy in the database wegive reddening estimates from IRAS/DIRBE as well as H I maps, J2000coordinates, Hubble and T-type morphological classification, apparenttotal magnitude in B, and systemic velocity.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

The Effect of Environment on the X-Ray Emission from Early-Type Galaxies
In order to further our understanding of the phenomena of X-ray emissionfrom early-type galaxies, we obtained an optically flux-limited sampleof 34 elliptical and S0 galaxies, observed with high and low angularresolution detectors on ROSAT. Our previous analysis of this samplesuggested that the most X-ray-luminous galaxies were in richenvironments. Here we investigate environmental influencesquantitatively and find a positive correlation betweenLX/LB and the local galaxy density. Since thelocal galaxy density is usually related to the density of hotintergalactic gas, we suggest that this correlation occurs because theX-ray luminosity is enhanced, either through accretion of theintergalactic gas or because the ambient medium stifles galactic winds.When the ambient medium is unimportant, partial or global galactic windscan occur, reducing LX/LB. These effects lead tothe large observed dispersion in LX at fixed LB.We discuss details of the data processing not previously presented, andexamine the dependence of LX on the choice of outer sourceradius and background location. We also compare the temperature deducedfor these galaxies from different analyses of ROSAT and ASCA data. TheASCA and ROSAT temperatures are found to be similar, provided that thesame metallicities and Galactic absorption columns are used.

The Globular Cluster Systems in the Coma Ellipticals. I. The Luminosity Function in NGC 4874 and Implications for Hubble's Constant
We have used deep Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 images in V (F606W) and I(F814W) to measure the luminosity distribution of the globular clustersin NGC 4874, the central cD galaxy of the Coma cluster. We find the``turnover'' point of the globular cluster luminosity function (GCLF) tolie at V=27.88+/-0.12, while the overall GCLF shape matches the standardGaussian-like form with dispersion σV=1.49+/-0.12. Weuse the GCLF as a standard candle by matching the turnover points in NGC4874 and another Coma elliptical, IC 4051, with those of the giantellipticals in the Virgo cluster (M87 and five others). The result isΔ(m-M) (Coma-Virgo)=4.06+/-0.11 mag, which converts to a Comadistance d=102 Mpc if the Virgo distance modulus is(m-M)0=30.99+/-0.04. The Hubble constant which emerges fromour GCLF measurement is then H0=(69+/-9) km s-1Mpc-1. We confirm this H0 value with a novelpresentation of the ``Hubble diagram'' for GCLFs in giant E galaxies.Measurements of additional GCLFs in the Coma ellipticals, as well ascalibrating galaxies in Virgo and Fornax, have excellent potential torefine this result in the near future. Based on observations obtainedwith the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the SpaceTelescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association ofUniversities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

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