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Line-of-Sight Reddening Predictions: Zero Points, Accuracies, the Interstellar Medium, and the Stellar Populations of Elliptical Galaxies
Revised (B-V)0-Mg2 data, which are used to testreddening predictions, are presented for 402 elliptical galaxies. Thesereddening predictions can tell us both what the intrinsic errors are inthis relationship among gE galaxy stellar populations as well as detailsof nearby structure in the interstellar medium (ISM) of our Galaxy, andof the intrinsic errors in reddening predictions. Using least-squaresfits, the explicit 1 σ errors in reddenings predicted by theBurstein-Heiles (BH) method and the Schlegel and coworkers (IR) methodare calculated, as well as the 1 σ observational error in the(B-V)0-Mg2 for gE galaxies. It is found that indirections with E(B-V)<0.100 mag (where most of these galaxies lie),1 σ errors in the IR reddening predictions are 0.006-0.009 mag inE(B-V), those for BH reddening predictions are 0.011 mag, and the 1σ agreement between the two reddening predictions is 0.007 mag.The IR predictions have an accuracy of 0.010-0.011 mag in directionswith E(B-V)>=0.100 mag, significantly better than those of the BHpredictions (0.024-0.025). Both methods yield good evidence thatgas-to-dust variations that vary by a factor of 3, both high and low,exist along many lines of sight in our Galaxy. Both methods also predictmany directions with E(B-V)<0.015 mag, despite the difference in zeropoint that each has assumed. The ~0.02 higher reddening zero point inE(B-V) previously determined by Schlegel and coworkers is confirmed,primarily at the Galactic poles. Independent evidence of reddening atthe north Galactic pole (NGP) is reviewed, with the conclusion thatdirections still exist at the NGP that have E(B-V)<<0.01. Twolines of evidence suggest that IR reddenings are overpredicted indirections with high gas-to-dust ratios. As high gas-to-dust directionsin the ISM also include the Galactic poles, this overprediction is thelikely cause of the E(B-V)~0.02 mag larger IR reddening zero pointrelative to that of BH.

Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies. I. The ENEARc Cluster Sample
This paper presents data on the ENEARc subsample of the larger ENEARsurvey of nearby early-type galaxies. The ENEARc galaxies belong toclusters and were specifically chosen to be used for the construction ofa Dn-σ template. The ENEARc sample includes newmeasurements of spectroscopic and photometric parameters (redshift,velocity dispersion, line index Mg2, and the angular diameterdn), as well as data from the literature. New spectroscopicdata are given for 229 cluster early-type galaxies, and new photometryis presented for 348 objects. Repeat and overlap observations withexternal data sets are used to construct a final merged catalogconsisting of 640 early-type galaxies in 28 clusters. Objectivecriteria, based on catalogs of groups of galaxies derived from completeredshift surveys of the nearby universe, are used to assign galaxies toclusters. In a companion paper, these data are used to construct thetemplate Dn-σ distance relation for early-typegalaxies, which has been used to estimate galaxy distances and derivepeculiar velocities for the ENEAR all-sky sample. Based on observationsat Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement betweenthe Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory,National Optical Astronomical Observatory, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., undercooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; the EuropeanSouthern Observatory (ESO), partially under the ESO-ON agreement; theFred Lawrence Whipple Observatory; the Observatório do Pico dosDias, operated by the Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísicaand the MDM Observatory at Kitt Peak.

A Test for Large-Scale Systematic Errors in Maps of Galactic Reddening
Accurate maps of Galactic reddening are important for a number ofapplications, such as mapping the peculiar velocity field in the nearbyuniverse. Of particular concern are systematic errors which vary slowlyas a function of position on the sky, as these would induce spuriousbulk flow. We have compared the reddenings of Burstein & Heiles (BH)and those of Schlegel, Finkbeiner, & Davis (SFD) to independentestimates of the reddening, for Galactic latitudes |b|>10^deg. Ourprimary source of Galactic reddening estimates comes from comparing thedifference between the observed B-V colors of early-type galaxies, andthe predicted B-V color determined from the B-V-Mg_2 relation. We havefitted a dipole to the residuals in order to look for large-scalesystematic deviations. There is marginal evidence for a dipolar residualin the comparison between the SFD maps and the observed early-typegalaxy reddenings. If this is due to an error in the SFD maps, then itcan be corrected with a small (13%) multiplicative dipole term. Weargue, however, that this difference is more likely to be due to a small(0.01 mag) systematic error in the measured B-V colors of the early-typegalaxies. This interpretation is supported by a smaller, independentdata set (globular cluster and RR Lyrae stars), which yields a resultinconsistent with the early-type galaxy residual dipole. BH reddeningsare found to have no significant systematic residuals, apart from theknown problem in the region 230^deg

The galaxy cluster Abell 426 (Perseus). A catalogue of 660 galaxy positions, isophotal magnitudes and morphological types
We present a homogeneous catalogue of galaxies in the field of thenearby galaxy cluster A 426 (Perseus) based on a survey of digitisedSchmidt plates taken with the Tautenburg 2 m telescope in the B band.Accurate positions, morphological types, B25 isophotalmagnitudes, angular radii and position angles are given for 660 galaxieswithin a field of about 10 square-degrees, centred on alpha = 3() h 21()min, delta = 41degr 33' (J2000). When available, the radial velocity andthe most common name taken from NED or PGC are included. The cataloguecomprises galaxies brighter than B25~19.5. The estimatedlimit of completeness is B25~18. Two thirds of the galaxiesare published for the first time. The galaxy positions are measured witha mean accuracy of 0farcs5 , the photometric accuracy is of the order of0.1 to 0.2 mag depending on image crowding and galaxy shape.Morphological properties were evaluated from the visual inspections ofboth deep images obtained from the digital co-addition of a large numberof plates and higher-resolution images from single plates taken undergood seeing conditions. The superimposed images unveil faint structuresdown to mu_B ~ 27 mag arcsec(-2) . The catalogue is applied to a studyof statistical properties of the galaxies in A 426: projecteddistribution of morphological types, segregation of morphological types,position of the cluster centre, distribution of galaxy position angles,type-dependent luminosity functions, and total B-luminosity of the thecluster. In agreement with previous studies, we find a relativespiral-deficiency in the central region (r <~ 30'). The percentage ofidentified S+Irr increases, however, increases from 30% in the centre tomore than 50% in the outer parts. The projected distributions of early-and late-type galaxies are not co-centred. The total luminosity of allsupposed member galaxies in the surveyed area is estimated to(6.5+/-0.9)\ 10(12) x h50(-2) blue solar luminosities. We donot analyse in detail possible substructures in the projecteddistribution of galaxies. However, we found a pronounced clump ofgalaxies at alpha (J2000.0) = 3() h20fm4 , delta (J2000.0) = 43degr4 ',which is shown to be a background cluster at z~ 0.050. The catalogue isonly available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html } \fnmsep \thanks{ Based onobservations made with the 2\,m telescope of the ThüringerLandessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany, and with the 2.2\,m telescope ofthe German-Spanish Astronomical Centre, Calar Alto, Spain.

A catalogue of Mg_2 indices of galaxies and globular clusters
We present a catalogue of published absorption-line Mg_2 indices ofgalaxies and globular clusters. The catalogue is maintained up-to-datein the HYPERCAT database. The measurements are listed together with thereferences to the articles where the data were published. A codeddescription of the observations is provided. The catalogue gathers 3541measurements for 1491 objects (galaxies or globular clusters) from 55datasets. Compiled raw data for 1060 galaxies are zero-point correctedand transformed to a homogeneous system. Tables 1, 3, and 4 areavailable in electronic form only at the CDS, Strasbourg, via anonymousftp Table 2 is available both in text and electronic form.

Total magnitude, radius, colour indices, colour gradients and photometric type of galaxies
We present a catalogue of aperture photometry of galaxies, in UBVRI,assembled from three different origins: (i) an update of the catalogueof Buta et al. (1995) (ii) published photometric profiles and (iii)aperture photometry performed on CCD images. We explored different setsof growth curves to fit these data: (i) The Sersic law, (ii) The net ofgrowth curves used for the preparation of the RC3 and (iii) A linearinterpolation between the de Vaucouleurs (r(1/4) ) and exponential laws.Finally we adopted the latter solution. Fitting these growth curves, wederive (1) the total magnitude, (2) the effective radius, (3) the colourindices and (4) gradients and (5) the photometric type of 5169 galaxies.The photometric type is defined to statistically match the revisedmorphologic type and parametrizes the shape of the growth curve. It iscoded from -9, for very concentrated galaxies, to +10, for diffusegalaxies. Based in part on observations collected at the Haute-ProvenceObservatory.

Galaxy clusters in the Perseus-Pisces region. I - Spectroscopic and photometric data for early-type galaxies
We present new spectroscopic and photometric data for 137 early-typegalaxies in nine clusters and for a set of nearby standard galaxies. Ourspectroscopic data comprise radial velocities, central velocitydispersions, and magnesium line strength indices. We demonstrate thatour new velocity dispersion data can be brought into consistency withthe standard system, to an uncertainty of percent 0.01 dex. From R-bandCCD photometry, we derive the effective diameter, the mean surfacebrightness within the effective diameter, and an R-band diameterequivalent to the Dn parameter of Dressler et al. Internal comparisonsindicate an average error of 0.005 in each measurement of log Dn. Thephotometric data can be brought on to a system consistent with externaldata at the level of 0.5 per cent in distance.

The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies: stellar populations and mass-to-light ratio.
We analyse the residuals to the fundamental plane (FP) of ellipticalgalaxies as a function of stellar-population indicators; these are basedon the line-strength parameter Mg_2_ and on UBVRI broad-band colors, andare partly derived from new observations. The effect of the stellarpopulations accounts for approximately half the observed variation ofthe mass-to-light ratio responsible for the FP tilt. The residual tiltcan be explained by the contribution of two additional effects: thedependence of the rotational support, and possibly that of the spatialstructure, on the luminosity. We conclude to a constancy of thedynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. This probably extends to globularclusters as well, but the dominant factor would be here the luminositydependence of the structure rather than that of the stellar population.This result also implies a constancy of the fraction of dark matter overall the scalelength covered by stellar systems. Our compilation ofinternal stellar kinematics of galaxies is appended.

A Catalog of Stellar Velocity Dispersions. II. 1994 Update
A catalog of central velocity dispersion measurements is presented,current through 1993 September. The catalog includes 2474 measurementsof 1563 galaxies. A standard set of 86 galaxies is defined, consistingof galaxies with at least three reliable, concordant measurements. It issuggested that future studies observe some of these standard galaxies sothat different studies can be normalized to a consistent system. Allmeasurements are reduced to a normalized system using these standards.

Integrated photoelectric magnitudes and color indices of bright galaxies in the Johnson UBV system
The photoelectric total magnitudes and color indices published in theThird Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (RC3) are based on ananalysis of approximately equals 26,000 B, 25,000 B-V, and 17,000 U-Bmultiaperture measurements available up to mid 1987 from nearly 350sources. This paper provides the full details of the analysis andestimates of internal and external errors in the parameters. Thederivation of the parameters is based on techniques described by theVaucouleurs & Corwin (1977) whereby photoelectric multiaperture dataare fitted by mean Hubble-type-dependent curves which describe theintegral of the B-band flux and the typical B-V and U-B integrated colorgradients. A sophisticated analysis of the residuals of thesemeasurements from the curves was made to allow for the random andsystematic errors that effect such data. The result is a homogeneous setof total magnitudes BTA total colors(B-V)T and (U-B)T, and effective colors(B-V)e and (U-B)e for more than 3000 brightgalaxies in RC3.

General study of group membership. II - Determination of nearby groups
We present a whole sky catalog of nearby groups of galaxies taken fromthe Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database. From the 78,000 objects in thedatabase, we extracted a sample of 6392 galaxies, complete up to thelimiting apparent magnitude B0 = 14.0. Moreover, in order to considersolely the galaxies of the local universe, all the selected galaxieshave a known recession velocity smaller than 5500 km/s. Two methods wereused in group construction: a Huchra-Geller (1982) derived percolationmethod and a Tully (1980) derived hierarchical method. Each method gaveus one catalog. These were then compared and synthesized to obtain asingle catalog containing the most reliable groups. There are 485 groupsof a least three members in the final catalog.

Isophotal shapes of early-type galaxies. II - The Perseus Cluster
We present the results of an isophotal shape analysis of a sample of 91early-type galaxies belonging to the Perseus Cluster, using CCD R and Vimages obtained in very good seeing conditions. This survey uncoversfine details in the structure of a large percentage of these objects,including disks, bars and even spiral arms, so that a large variety ofmorphological types is proposed. A very conservative upper limit for thepercentage of galaxies of the whole sample showing no deviations fromellipticity is given to be 20 percent. A lower limit for the detectionof bars among galaxies newly classified as S0's or spirals is about 30percent.

The surface brightness test for the expansion of the universe. III - Reduction of data for the several brightest galaxies in clusters to standard conditions and a first indication that the expansion is real
Petrosian radii, effective radii, apparent magnitudes, and averagesurface brightnesses are presented for the first few ranked galaxies in56 nearby clusters and groups. The correlations between (SB) and both Mand R are derived from the data, and a selection effect that imitates aTolman signal in these data but which is an artifact of the sample isdiscussed. Correction procedures are applied to the high-redshift galaxysample of Djorgovski and Spinrad (1981), and a well-defined Tolmansignal is found in the data. Although this appears to be strong proofthat the universe expands and therefore that the conventionalinterpretation of the redshift is correct, the reliability of theconclusion is cautioned. Methods to optimize the Tolman test in futureobservational programs are discussed.

The structure of brightest cluster members. II - Mergers
Surface photometry of 342 bright elliptical galaxies in 103 clusters isanalyzed for evidence of mergers. Structural differences betweenbrightest cluster members (BCMs) and normal ellipticals can besummarized as having enlarged characteristic radii and shallow profileslopes (beta greater than -1.7). Profile morphology criteria for theelliptical types gE, D, and cD are outlined. Comparison of observationswith numerical simulations of mergers strongly suggests a past historyof dynamical growth for BCMs. Weak correlations of global clusterproperties to BCMs supports the hypothesis proposed by Merritt (1984)that mergers are important in early subgroups before virialization andformation of a cluster identity.

Spectroscopy and photometry of elliptical galaxies. III - UBV aperture photometry, CCD photometry, and magnitude-related parameters
Photoelectric aperture photometry of nearly 2000 individual observationsof 449 elliptical galaxies combined with published measurements usingthe self-consistent UVB color catalog developed by Burstein et al.(1987) are presented. The data are placed on a standard magnitude andcolor system, and 'total' magnitudes and effective diameters are derivedby comparison with the standard elliptical magnitude growth curve. Agraphical representation of the standard growth curve and the residualsfrom it for each galaxy are given, and a new diameter measurement Dn ispresented which can be measured reliably for elliptical galaxies andserves as an accurate distance indicator when combined with centralvelocity dispersion. Individual magnitudes, surface brightnesses,effective diameters, and values of Dn are summarized for each galaxy incatalog form.

Spectroscopy and photometry of elliptical galaxies. II - The spectroscopic parameters
Radial velocities, velocity dispersions, and Mg line-strength indicesare measured for 469 elliptical galaxies using four telescope/detectorconfigurations. The data have been put on a common scale; the scatter ofrepeat measurements indicates an uncertainty of + or - 10 percent and +or - 0.01 mag for single determinations of sigma and Mg2, respectively.A correction for the change in linear aperture size as a function ofdistance has been derived, and mean corrected values of sigma and Mg2are adopted. The galaxies have been assigned to groups by combining thepresent velocities with those in the redshift catalog of Huchra et al.(1983) and using the algorithm of Huchra and Geller (1982).

The dynamics of rich clusters of galaxies. II - The Perseus cluster
The dynamics of the Perseus cluster are analyzed using self-consistentequilibrium analytical models. Using existing data in the literatureplus new radial velocities reported here, composite surface density andvelocity dispersion profiles are derived. These profiles have beencompared with dynamical models described by Kent and Gunn (1982). Thebest fit suggest the presence of a significant degree of anisotropy inthe velocity distribution: galaxy orbits are constrained to pass withina radius of seven cluster radii, or 1.3 deg of the cluster center. ForHubble constant = 50, a core radius of 340 kpc 11 arcmin and a mass tovisual light ratio M/L = 300 are found. Using these results, X-rayobservations of the intracluster medium in Perseus are reanalyzed. Apreviously noted discrepancy between the observed temperature of the hotgas and the cluster velocity dispersion is reduced but not eliminated. Acooling accretion flow previously deduced to exist in this cluster isshown to extend to only about one-third of the cluster radius.

Redshift-magnitude bands and the evolution of galaxies. I - New observations
Well-defined samples of galaxy redshifts and magnitudes for the Perseusand A1367 clusters are obtained from a combination of new and existingobservations. For the Perseus cluster, identifications, 1950 positions,distance from cluster center in degrees, mp and V(6)magnitudes, redshifts corrected for earth orbital and galactic rotation,and comments are provided. Information for the 50 central A1367 galaxiesincludes identification, mp, redshift and redshift source,morphology, and comments.

Dynamics of the Perseus Cluster of Galaxies
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1971ApJ...168..321C&db_key=AST

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Right ascension:03h21m36.50s
Aparent dimensions:0.871′ × 0.871′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 1293

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