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New catalogue of blue stragglers in open clusters
We present a catalogue of blue-straggler candidates in galactic openclusters. It is based on the inspection of the colour-magnitude diagramsof the clusters, and it updates and supersedesthe first version(Ahumada & Lapasset 1995). A new bibliographical search was made foreach cluster, and the resulting information is organised into twotables. Some methodological aspects have been revised, in particularthose concerning the delimitation of the area in the diagrams where thestragglers are selected.A total of 1887 blue-straggler candidates have been found in 427 openclusters of all ages, doubling the original number. The catalogued starsare classified into two categories mainly according to membershipinformation.The whole catalogue (Tables 8, 9, notes, and references) is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/463/789

UBVI CCD Photometry of the Old Open Cluster Berkeley 17
Photometric UBVI CCD photometry is presented for NGC 188 and Berkeley17. Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) are constructed and reach well pastthe main-sequence turnoff for both clusters. Cluster ages are determinedby means of isochrone fitting to the cluster CMDs. These fits areconstrained to agree with spectroscopic metallicity and reddeningestimates. Cluster ages are determined to be 7.0+/-0.5 Gyr for NGC 188and 10.0+/-1.0 Gyr for Berkeley 17, where the errors refer touncertainties in the relative age determinations. These ages arecompared to the ages of relatively metal-rich inner halo/thick-diskglobular clusters and other old open clusters. Berkeley 17 and NGC 6791are the oldest open clusters, with ages of 10 Gyr. They are 2 Gyryounger than the thick-disk globular clusters. These results confirm thestatus of Berkeley 17 as one of the oldest known open clusters in theMilky Way, and its age provides a lower limit to the age of the Galacticdisk.

The Bologna Open Cluster Chemical Evolution Project: Midterm Results from the Photometric Sample
We describe a long-term project aimed at deriving information on thechemical evolution of the Galactic disk from a large sample of openclusters. The main property of this project is that all clusters areanalyzed in a homogeneous way to guarantee the robustness of the rankingin age, distance, and metallicity. Special emphasis is devoted to theevolution of the earliest phases of the Galactic disk evolution, forwhich clusters have superior reliability with respect to other types ofevolution indicators. The project is twofold: on one hand we derive theage, distance, and reddening (and indicative metallicity) byinterpreting deep and accurate photometric data with stellar evolutionmodels, and on the other hand, we derive the chemical abundances fromhigh-resolution spectroscopy. Here we describe our overall goals andapproaches and report on the midterm project status of the photometricpart, with 16 clusters already studied, covering an age interval from0.1 to 6 Gyr and galactocentric distances from 6.6 to 21 kpc. Theimportance of quantifying the theoretical uncertainties by deriving thecluster parameters with various sets of stellar models is emphasized.Stellar evolution models assuming overshooting from convective regionsappear to better reproduce the photometric properties of the clusterstars. The examined clusters show a clear metallicity dependence on thegalactocentric distance and no dependence on age. The tight relationbetween cluster age and magnitude difference between the main-sequenceturnoff and the red clump is confirmed.

Proper motion determination of open clusters based on the UCAC2 catalogue
We present the kinematics of hundreds of open clusters, based on theUCAC2 Catalogue positions and proper motions. Membership probabilitieswere obtained for the stars in the cluster fields by applying astatistical method uses stellar proper motions. All open clusters withknown distance were investigated, and for 75 clusters this is the firstdetermination of the mean proper motion. The results, including the DSSimages of the cluster's fields with the kinematic members marked, areincorporated in the Open Clusters Catalogue supported on line by ourgroup.

Metal Abundances in Extremely Distant Galactic Old Open Clusters. II. Berkeley 22 and Berkeley 66
We report on high-resolution spectroscopy of four giant stars in theGalactic old open clusters Berkeley 22 and Berkeley 66 obtained withHIRES at the Keck telescope. We find that [Fe/H]=-0.32+/-0.19 and-0.48+/-0.24 for Be 22 and Be 66, respectively. Based on these data, wefirst revise the fundamental parameters of the clusters and then discussthem in the context of the Galactic disk radial abundance gradient. Wefound that both clusters nicely obey the most updated estimate of theslope of the gradient from the work of Friel and coworkers and aregenuine Galactic disk objects.The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory,which is operated as a scientific partnership among the CaliforniaInstitute of Technology, the University of California, and the NationalAeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possibleby the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

Blue Stragglers in Galactic Open Clusters and Integrated Spectral Energy Distributions
Synthetic integrated spectral properties of the old Galactic openclusters are studies in this work, in which 27 Galactic open clusters ofages >=1 Gyr are selected as the working sample. Based on thephotometric observations of these open clusters, a synthetic integratedspectrum has been made for the stellar population of each cluster. Theeffects of blue straggler (BS) stars on the conventional simple stellarpopulation (SSP) model are analyzed on an individual cluster basis. Itis shown that the BSs, whose positions in the color-magnitude diagramscannot be predicted by the current single-star evolution theory, requiresignificant modifications to the integrated properties of theoreticalSSP model. The synthesized integrated spectral energy distributions(ISEDs) of our sample clusters are dramatically different from those ofSSPs based on an isochrone only. The BS-corrected ISEDs of stellarpopulations show systematic enhancements toward shorter wavelengths inthe spectra. When measured with broadband colors in unresolvableconditions, the age of a stellar population can be seriouslyunderestimated by the conventional SSP model. Therefore, considering thecommon existence of BS components in real stellar populations, we shouldexpect considerable alterations of the conventional ISEDs when we applythe technique of evolutionary population synthesis to more complicatedstellar systems.

Analytical studies of NGC 1193
The photometric data of Kalu\dot{z}ny (1988) was used in conjunctionwith the proper motion measurements of USNO-B1.0 catalog (Monet et al.2003) to refine and complete the main physical properties of the faintopen cluster NGC 1193.

Hα-derived Star Formation Rates for the z = 0.84 Galaxy Cluster Cl J0023+0423B
We present Hα-derived star formation rates (SFRs) for the galaxycluster Cl J0023+0423B at z=0.845. Our 3 σ flux limits correspondto an SFR of 0.24 h-2100 Msolaryr-1, and our minimum reliable Hα+[NII] equivalentwidth is greater than 10 Å, demonstrating that near-infrarednarrowband imaging can sample the star-forming galaxy population indistant clusters. Comparison with spectroscopy shows that the number offalse detections is low (9%+/-6%) and that our Hα equivalentwidths are correlated with spectroscopically determined [O II]equivalent widths. A magnitude-limited spectroscopic survey conductedover the same area missed 70% of the star-forming galaxies and 65% ofthe integrated star formation. Using Hubble Space Telescope Wide FieldPlanetary Camera 2 Archive images, we fit Sersic profiles to allgalaxies with significant narrowband equivalent widths and find thatequivalent width decreases as the steepness of galaxy profile increases.We find no significant population of early-type galaxies with ongoingstar formation. The integrated SFR per cluster mass of Cl J0023+0423B isa factor of 10 higher than that of the three z~0.2 clusters in theliterature with available Hα observations. A larger sample ofz~0.8 clusters spanning a range of cluster masses is needed to determinewhether this variation is due to a difference in cluster mass orredshift.Based on observations with the MMT Observatory, a joint venture of theSmithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the University of Arizona.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA,Inc.

The age of the oldest Open Clusters
We determine ages of 71 old Open Clusters by a two-step method: we usemain-squence fitting to 10 selected clusters, in order to obtain theirdistances, and derive their ages from comparison with our own isochronesused before for Globular Clusters. We then calibrate the morphologicalage indicator δ(V), which can be obtained for all remainingclusters, in terms of age and metallicity. Particular care is taken toensure consistency in the whole procedure. The resulting Open Clusterages connect well to our previous Globular Cluster results. From theOpen Cluster sample, as well as from the combined sample, questionsregarding the formation process of Galactic components are addressed.The age of the oldest open clusters (NGC 6791 and Be 17) is of the orderof 10 Gyr. We determine a delay by 2.0±1.5 Gyr between the startof the halo and thin disk formation, whereas thin and thick disk startedto form approximately at the same time. We do not find any significantage-metallicity relationship for the open cluster sample. The cumulativeage distribution of the whole open cluster sample shows a moderatelysignificant (˜ 2σ level) departure from the predictions foran exponentially declining dissolution rate with timescale of 2.5 Gyr.The cumulative age distribution does not show any trend withgalactocentric distance, but the clusters with larger height to theGalactic plane have an excess of objects between 2-4 and 6 Gyr withrespect to their counterpart closer to the plane of the Galaxy.

Target Selection for SETI. II. Tycho-2 Dwarfs, Old Open Clusters, and the Nearest 100 Stars
We present the full target list and prioritization algorithm developedfor use by the microwave search for technological signals at the SETIInstitute. We have included the Catalog of Nearby Habitable StellarSystems (HabCat, described in Paper I), all of the nearest 100 stars and14 old open clusters. This is further augmented by a subset of theTycho-2 catalog based on reduced proper motions, and this larger catalogshould routinely provide at least three target stars within the largeprimary field of view of the Allen Telescope Array. The algorithm forprioritizing objects in the full target list includes scoring based onthe subset category of each target (i.e., HabCat, cluster, Tycho-2, ornearest 100), its distance (if known), and its proximity to the Sun onthe color-magnitude diagram.

On the Galactic Disk Metallicity Distribution from Open Clusters. I. New Catalogs and Abundance Gradient
We have compiled two new open cluster catalogs. In the first one, thereare 119 objects with ages, distances, and metallicities available, whilein the second one, 144 objects have both absolute proper motion andradial velocity data, of which 45 clusters also have metallicity dataavailable. Taking advantage of the large number of objects included inour sample, we present an iron radial gradient of about -0.063+/-0.008dex kpc-1 from the first sample, which is quite consistentwith the most recent determination of the oxygen gradient from nebulaeand young stars, about -0.07 dex kpc-1. By dividing clustersinto age groups, we show that the iron gradient was steeper in the past,which is consistent with the recent result from Galactic planetarynebulae data, and also consistent with inside-out galactic diskformation scenarios. Based on the cluster sample, we also discuss themetallicity distribution, cluster kinematics, and space distribution. Adisk age-metallicity relation could be implied by those properties,although we cannot give conclusive result from the age- metallicitydiagram based on the current sample. More observations are needed formetal-poor clusters. From the second catalog, we have calculated thevelocity components in cylindrical coordinates with respect to theGalactic standard of rest for 144 open clusters. The velocitydispersions of the older clusters are larger than those of youngclusters, but they are all much smaller than that of the Galactic thickdisk stars.

Morphological analysis of open clusters' propertiesII. Relationships projected onto the galactic plane
A morphological analysis study of open clusters' properties has beenachieved for a sample of 160 UBVCCD open star clusters of approximately128,000 stars near the galactic plane. The data was obtained and reducedfrom using the same reduction procedures, which makes this catalogue thelargest homogeneous source of open clusters' parameters.

Metallicities of Old Open Clusters
We present radial velocities and metallicities for a sample of 39 openclusters with ages greater than about 700 million years. For 24 clustersnew moderate-resolution spectroscopic data obtained with multiobjectspectrographs on the Kitt Peak National Observatory and the Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory 4 m telescopes are used to determine radialvelocities and mean cluster metallicities. These new results arecombined with data published previously by Friel & Janes to providea sample of 459 giants in 39 old open clusters, which are used toinvestigate radial abundance gradients in the Galactic disk. Based on anupdated abundance calibration of spectroscopic indices measuring Fe andFe-peak element blends, this larger sample yields an abundance gradientof -0.06+/-0.01 dex kpc-1 over a range in Galactocentricradius of 7 to 16 kpc. There is a slight suggestion of a steepening ofthe abundance gradient with increasing cluster age in this sample, butthe significance of the result is limited by the restricted distancerange for the youngest clusters. The clusters show no correlation ofmetallicity with age in the solar neighborhood. Consistent with theevidence for a steepening of the gradient with age, the clusters in theouter disk beyond 10 kpc show a suggestion at the 1.5 σ level of adependence of metallicity on age.

Integrated photometric characteristics of galactic open star clusters
Integrated UBVRI photometric parameters of 140 galactic open clustershave been computed. Integrated I(V-R)0 and I(V-I)0colours as well as integrated parameters for 71 star clusters have beenobtained for the first time. These, in combination with published data,altogether 352 objects, are used to study the integrated photometriccharacteristics of the galactic open clusters. The I(MV)values range from -9.0 to -1.0 mag corresponding to a range in totalmass of the star clusters from ~ 25 to 4*E4 Msun.The integrated colours have a relatively narrow range, e.g., I(B-V){_0}varies from -0.4 to 1.2 mag. The scatter in integrated colours at agiven integrated magnitude can be understood in terms of differences infraction of red giants/supergiants in the clusters. The observedintegrated magnitudes and colours agree with the synthetic ones, exceptthe dependences of I(V-R)0 and I(V-I)0 colours forclusters younger than ~ 100 Myrs and also of the integrated magnitudesof oldest clusters. The large sample provides the most accurate agedependence of integrated magnitudes and colours determined so far. Theluminosity function of the I(MV) has a peak around -3.5 magand its slope indicates that only ~ 1% of the open clusters in thegalactic disc are brighter than I(MV)=-11 mag. No variationhas been found of integrated magnitude with galactocentric distance andmetallicity.

Abundance Gradient from Open Clusters and Implications for the Galactic Disk Evolution
We compile a new sample of 89 open clusters with ages, distances andmetallicities available. We derive a radial iron gradient of about-0.099±0.008 dexkpc (unweighted) for the whole sample, which issomewhat greater than the most recent determination of oxygen gradientfrom nebulae and young stars. By dividing the clusters into age groups,we show that the iron gradient was steeper in the past and has evolvedslowly in time. Current data show a substantial scatter of the clustermetallicities indicating that the Galactic disk has undergone a veryrapid, inhomogeneous enrichment.Also, based on a simple, but quitesuccessful model of chemical evolution of the Milky Way disk, we make adetailed calculation of the iron abundance gradient and its timeevolution. The predicted current iron gradient is about -0.072 dexkpc.The model also predicts a steady flattening of the iron gradient withtime, which agrees with the result from our open cluster sample.

Statistics and supermetallicity: The metallicity of NGC 6791
For the old galactic cluster NGC 6791, Peterson & Green(\cite{pg98a}) and Chaboyer et al. (\cite{cgl99}) have found that [Fe/H]~ +0.4 dex. A second look at that conclusion is taken in this paper.Zero-point problems are reviewed for a high-dispersion analysis done byPeterson & Green, and it is found that accidental errors have notbeen determined rigorously for the results of that analysis. It is alsonoted that in a color-magnitude analysis performed by Chaboyer et al.,the important metallicity range between 0.0 and +0.3 dex is not exploredand hence is not ruled out. Moreover, that analysis does not yieldstatistically rigorous results, and it appears that such results may notbe produced in color-magnitude analysis of clusters in general. Resultsin the two cited papers and elsewhere are re-evaluated statistically,with an allowance being made for uncertainty in the cluster reddening.Apparently the best that can be said at present is that the clustermetallicity lies in the range from +0.16 to +0.44 dex. This conclusionis stressed by reviewing the immaturity of the underlying data base. Thepremature conclusion for a high metallicity turns out to be due largelyto neglect of accidental errors, though a tendency to ascribe too muchweight to high derived metallicities may also play a role.

Morphological analysis of open clusters' propertiesI. Properties' estimations
A sample of 160 UBVCCD observations of open star clusters near thegalactic plane has been studied, and a catalogue of their propertiesobtained. The main photometrical properties have been re-estimated selfconsistently and the results have been compared with those of Lynga[Lynga, G., 1987. Catalog of Open Cluster Data, 5th Edition, StellarData Centers, Observatoire de Strasbourg, France].

Foreground and background dust in star cluster directions
This paper compares reddening values E(B-V) derived from the stellarcontent of 103 old open clusters and 147 globular clusters of the MilkyWay with those derived from DIRBE/IRAS 100 mu m dust emission in thesame directions. Star clusters at |b|> 20deg showcomparable reddening values between the two methods, in agreement withthe fact that most of them are located beyond the disk dust layer. Forvery low galactic latitude lines of sight, differences occur in thesense that DIRBE/IRAS reddening values can be substantially larger,suggesting effects due to the depth distribution of the dust. Thedifferences appear to arise from dust in the background of the clustersconsistent with a dust layer where important extinction occurs up todistances from the Plane of ~ 300 pc. For 3 % of the sample asignificant background dust contribution might be explained by higherdust clouds. We find evidence that the Milky Way dust lane and higherdust clouds are similar to those of several edge-on spiral galaxiesrecently studied in detail by means of CCD imaging.

On the Galactic disc age-metallicity relation
A comparison is made between the age-metallicity relations obtained fromfour different types of studies: F and G stars in the solarneighbourhood, analysis of open clusters, galactic structure studieswith the stellar population synthesis technique and chemical evolutionmodels. Metallicities of open clusters are corrected for the effects ofthe radial gradient, which we find to be -0.09 dex kpc^-1 and mostlikely constant in time. We do not correct for the vertical gradient,because its existence and value are not firmly established. Stars andclusters trace a similar age-metallicity relation, showing an excess ofrather metal-rich objects in the age range 5-9 Gyr. Galactic structurestudies tend to give a more metal-poor relation than chemical evolutionmodels. Neither relation explains the presence of old, relativelymetal-rich stars and clusters. This might be caused by uncertainties inthe ages of the local stars, or pre-enrichment of the disc with materialfrom the bulge, possibly as a result of a merger event in the earlyphases of the formation of our Galaxy.

Some Revised Observational Constraints on the Formation and Evolution of the Galactic Disk
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114.2556T&db_key=AST

A Technique for Simultaneous Determination of the Metallicity and Reddening of Old Open Clusters Using (V,B-V) Color-Magnitude Diagrams
A technique similar to that originally developed by Sarajedini (1994)for the simultaneous determination of [Fe/H] and E(B-V) in globularclusters, is applied to seven old open clusters in our Galaxy (NGC6791,Be32, Mel66, M67, NGC2420, To2 and IC4651). With these clusters we provethat there exist linear relationships between [Fe/H] and Delta V_{1.2}and [Fe/H] and (B-V)_{0,g}. From these relations we derive a generaltechnique for the determination of metallicity and colour excess. Thesuccess obtained with its application supports it as a general-usetechnique. This procedure is also applied to the clusters Be39, King11and NGC1193. The results obtained for the metallicity and colour excessvalues, are in excellent agreement with those published in theliterature. Clusters Be29 and Be22, for which very uncertain values formetallicity and colour excess are published, are used with ourtechnique. We determine values for [Fe/H]=-0.30, \ -0.42 andE(B-V)=0.01, \ 0.70 respectively. It seems that there is a transitionregion between globular and old open clusters around [Fe/H] ~ -0.4.

Optical Spectroscopy of the Red Horizontal Branch Stars of NGC 6791
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995AJ....110..693H

Catalogue of blue stragglers in open clusters.
An extensive survey of blue straggler candidates in galactic openclusters of both hemispheres is presented. The blue stragglers wereselected considering their positions in the cluster colour-magnitudediagrams.They were categorized according to the accuracy of thephotometric measurements and membership probabilities. An amount of 959blue straggler candidates in 390 open clusters of all ages wereidentified and classified. A set of basic data is given for everycluster and blue straggler. The information is arranged in the form of acatalogue. Blue stragglers are found in clusters of all ages. Thepercentage of clusters with blue stragglers generally grows with age andrichness of the clusters. The mean ratio of the number of bluestragglers to the number of cluster main sequence stars is approximatelyconstant up to a cluster age of about 10^8.6^ yr and rises for olderclusters. In general, the blue stragglers show a remarkable degree ofcentral concentration.

The Old Open Clusters Of The Milky Way
The Galactic open clusters, in particular the oldest members, serve asexcellent probes of the structure and evolution of the Galactic disk.Individual clusters provide excellent tests of stellar and dynamicalevolution. Cluster spatial and age distributions provide insight intothe processes of cluster formation and destruction that have allowedsubstantial numbers of old open clusters to survive.Spectroscopic andphotometric data for the old clusters yield kinematic, abundance, andage information that clarifies the relationship between the old opencluster population and other Galactic populations. New samples of oldopen clusters, which span a large range in distance and age, are used todefine disk abundance gradients and the cluster age-metallicityrelationship, and they point to a complex history of chemical enrichmentand mixing in the disk.

The Galactic system of old open clusters: age calibration and age-metallicity relation
In this paper, we present a new homogeneous compilation of ages for thesystem of intermediate age and old open clusters of the Galaxy, and theaccompanying age-metallicity relation (AMR). This study stands on theanalysis by Carraro et al. (1991, 1993a,b), who have obtained goodestimates for the color excess, distance modulus, and age for a sampleof ten clusters, for which modern color-magnitude diagrams (CMD) of goodphotometric quality and spectroscopic data on the metallicity (Friel& Janes 1991, 1993) were available. Firstly, we revise the resultsby Carraro et al. (1991, 1993a,b) to take into account recentdevelopments in the libraries of stellar models (Alongi et al. 1993;Bressan et al. 1993; Fagotto et al. 1993), and secondly we presentuseful age calibrations based on the correlation between metallicity,age, and magnitude difference between the turn-off and red clumpluminosities. The age calibration does not depend on the color excess,distance modulus, but only weakly on the metallicity. With the aid ofthe new age calibration, we assign the age to a more numerous sample ofclusters. The resulting ages span the range from 0.5x10^9^yr for NGC5822 to 8.0x10^9^yr for NGC 6791. With such a compilation, and adoptingan homogeneous source for the metal content, we propose a new AMR forthe family of Galactic open clusters. The AMR is also corrected for theeffect of the gradient in metallicity across the Galactic Disk. Althoughat any given age the spread in metallicity is high, the AMR togetherwith the distribution of clusters with different age and metallicityacross the Galactic Plane, confirms previous suggestions that themetallicity of a cluster is more related to the position than the age.

Vby Hydrogen Beta CCD photometry of Melotte 66: A disk analog of Omega Centauri
A CCD study of the peculiar open cluster, Melotte 66, on the vbyhydrogen beta system is presented. The V, (b-y) color-magnitude diagramof this metal-deficient, old disk cluster confirms the anomalousfeatures found in photographic BV studies and extends the main sequenceto V = 20. The main sequence exhibits a(b-y) color range significantlylarger than expected from photometric errors alone; the (b-y) colors arecorrelated with hydrogen beta implying that the dispersion is real andis not the result of variable reddening across the cluster. Them1 indices for the turnoff stars imply a spread in (Fe/H) toosmall to explain the color range. Though the subgiant region is poorlydefined, the region above the turnoff in the Hertzsprung gap is richlypopulated by a group of yellow stragglers whose membership is confirmedby radial star counts and radial velocities. The giant branch is richlypopulated but shows a smaller spread in color at a given V than onewould expect from the turnoff region. More important, the giants exhibita large scatter in m1, in contradiction with the turnoffobservations. Various explanations for these observations are discussed,including CN variations among the giants triggered by either binaryevolution or rapid rotation among the main-sequence stars.

Development of the Galactic disk: A search for the oldest open clusters
In an extensive charge coupled devices (CCD) photometric survey ofpotential old open clusters, we have identified a number of systems thatare indeed old; some of them are among the oldest of the open clusters.Using our versions of two well-known morphological age indices, onebased on the luminosity difference between the main sequence turnoff andthe horizontal branch and the other on the color difference between theturnoff and the giant branch, we have ranked the open clusters inapproximate order of age. Our data together with previously publishedphotometry of other old open clusters, yields a catalogue of 72 clustersof the age of Hyades or older with 19 of the clusters as old or olderthan M67 (about 5 Gyr). Among the oldest open clusters are Be 17, Cr261, NGC 6791, Be 54, and AM 2. Be 17 and another old cluster, Lynga 7,are possibly as old as the youngest globulars. The data also suggestthat the formation rate of open clusters may have been higher early inthe history of the disk than at intermediate times since numerousclusters have survived from that time.

Properties of the Galactic Old Open Clusters System
Not Available

Metallicities and radial velocities of old open clusters
Medium resolution spectra of giant stars in 24 open clusters with agesgreater than about 1 Gyr have been obtained and analyzed to provideradial velocities accurate to 10-15 km/s and (Fe/H) metallicitiesaccurate to 0.15 dex. The radial velocities of the older cluster systemsare consistent with those expected from the reflex of solar motion andsimple Galactic rotation. The cluster kinematics suggest strongly thatthey are drawn from the old thin disk stellar population. An abundancegradient in the Galactic disk of -0.09 +/- 0.02 dex/kpc is found. Thisgradient is in good agreement with that found for samples of youngeropen clusters, suggesting that there has been little change in theGalactic radial abundance gradient over time. The cluster sample showsno correlation between age and metallicity, regardless of Galactocentricradius. The clusters show an unexpected correlation between the Mg linestrength and age of the cluster at a fixed metallicity. Possible reasonsfor this are discussed.

Open clusters as standard candles - The age-metallicity relation and metallicity gradients
An overview is presented of a series of investigations of the use of theopen clusters as probes of the history of the galactic disk. Noindications are found of a gradient in metallicity perpendicular to thegalactic plane; along the plane, there is a very definite radialgradient. There is also no evidence for a systematic trend inmetallicity with cluster age, and it appears that the metallicity of adisk star depends entirely on its place of formation. On the basis ofthe spectra considered, it is possible to derive a metallicity that isprimarily based on Fe lines and another based on the Mg b + Mg IIfeature.

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Right ascension:03h05m32.00s
Apparent magnitude:13

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