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Late-type galaxies observed with SAURON: two-dimensional stellar and emission-line kinematics of 18 spirals
We present the stellar and gas kinematics of a sample of 18 nearbylate-type spiral galaxies (Hubble types ranging from Sb to Sd), observedwith the integral-field spectrograph SAURON at the 4.2-m WilliamHerschel Telescope. SAURON covers the spectral range 4800-5380Å,allowing us to measure the Hβ, Fe, Mgb absorption features and theemission in the Hβ line and the [OIII]λλ4959,5007Å and [NI]λλ5198, 5200Å doublets over a 33× 41-arcsec2 field of view. The maps cover the nuclearregion of these late-type galaxies and in all cases include the entirebulge. In many cases the stellar kinematics suggests the presence of acold inner region, as visible from a central drop in the stellarvelocity dispersion. The ionized gas is almost ubiquitous and behaves ina complicated fashion: the gas velocity fields often display morefeatures than the stellar ones, including wiggles in the zero-velocitylines, irregular distributions, ring-like structures. The line ratio[OIII]/Hβ often takes on low values over most of the field,probably indicating a wide-spread star formation.

The connection between shear and star formation in spiral galaxies
We present a sample of 33 galaxies for which we have calculated (i) theaverage rate of shear from published rotation curves, (ii) thefar-infrared luminosity from IRAS fluxes, and (iii) theKs-band luminosity from the Two Micron All Sky Survey(2MASS). We show that a correlation exists between the shear rate andthe ratio of the far-infrared to Ks-band luminosity. Thisratio is essentially a measure of the star formation rate per unit mass,or the specific star formation rate. From this correlation we show thata critical shear rate exists, above which star formation would turn offin the discs of spiral galaxies. Using the correlation between shearrate and spiral arm pitch angle, this shear rate corresponds to thelowest pitch angles typically measured in near-infrared images of spiralgalaxies.

Companions to Isolated Elliptical Galaxies: Revisiting the Bothun-Sullivan Sample
We investigate the number of physical companion galaxies for a sample ofrelatively isolated elliptical galaxies. The NASA/IPAC ExtragalacticDatabase (NED) has been used to reinvestigate the incidence of satellitegalaxies for a sample of 34 elliptical galaxies, first investigated byBothun & Sullivan using a visual inspection of Palomar Sky Surveyprints out to a projected search radius of 75 kpc. We have repeatedtheir original investigation using data cataloged in NED. Nine of theseelliptical galaxies appear to be members of galaxy clusters; theremaining sample of 25 galaxies reveals an average of +1.0+/-0.5apparent companions per galaxy within a projected search radius of 75kpc, in excess of two equal-area comparison regions displaced by 150-300kpc. This is significantly larger than the +0.12+/-0.42companions/galaxy found by Bothun & Sullivan for the identicalsample. Making use of published radial velocities, mostly availablesince the completion of the Bothun-Sullivan study, identifies thephysical companions and gives a somewhat lower estimate of +0.4companions per elliptical galaxy. This is still 3 times larger than theoriginal statistical study, but given the incomplete and heterogeneousnature of the survey redshifts in NED, it still yields a firm lowerlimit on the number (and identity) of physical companions. An expansionof the search radius out to 300 kpc, again restricted to sampling onlythose objects with known redshifts in NED, gives another lower limit of4.5 physical companions per galaxy. (Excluding five elliptical galaxiesin the Fornax Cluster, this average drops to 3.5 companions perelliptical.) These physical companions are individually identified andlisted, and the ensemble-averaged radial density distribution of theseassociated galaxies is presented. For the ensemble, the radial densitydistribution is found to have a falloff consistent withρ~R-0.5 out to approximately 150 kpc. For non-FornaxCluster companions the falloff continues out to the 300 kpc limit of thesurvey. The velocity dispersion of these companions is found to reach amaximum of 350 km s-1 at around 120 kpc, after which theyfall at a rate consistent with Keplerian falloff. This falloff may thenindicate the detection of a cut-off in the mass-density distribution inthe elliptical galaxies' dark matter halo at ~100 kpc.

Explosion energies, nickel masses and distances of Type II plateau supernovae
The hydrodynamical modelling of Type II plateau supernova (SNIIP) lightcurves predicts a correlation between three observable parameters(plateau duration, absolute magnitude and photospheric velocity at themiddle of the plateau) on the one hand, and three physical parameters(explosion energy E, mass of the envelope expelled and pre-supernovaradius R) on the other. The correlation is used, together with adopteddistances from the expanding photosphere method, to estimate and R for adozen well-observed SNIIP. For this set of supernovae, the resultingvalue of E varies within a factor of 6 (0.5 <~E/1051 erg<~ 3), whereas the envelope mass remains within the limits . Thepre-supernova radius is typically 200-600 Rsolar, but canreach >~1000 Rsolar for the brightest supernovae (e.g. SN1992am).A new method of determining the distance of SNIIP is proposed. It isbased on the assumption of a correlation between the explosion energy Eand the 56Ni mass required to power the post-plateau lightcurve tail through 56Co decay. The method is useful for SNIIPwith well-observed bolometric light curves during both the plateau andradioactive tail phases. The resulting distances and future improvementsare discussed.

A new catalogue of ISM content of normal galaxies
We have compiled a catalogue of the gas content for a sample of 1916galaxies, considered to be a fair representation of ``normality''. Thedefinition of a ``normal'' galaxy adopted in this work implies that wehave purposely excluded from the catalogue galaxies having distortedmorphology (such as interaction bridges, tails or lopsidedness) and/orany signature of peculiar kinematics (such as polar rings,counterrotating disks or other decoupled components). In contrast, wehave included systems hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) in thecatalogue. This catalogue revises previous compendia on the ISM contentof galaxies published by \citet{bregman} and \citet{casoli}, andcompiles data available in the literature from several small samples ofgalaxies. Masses for warm dust, atomic and molecular gas, as well asX-ray luminosities have been converted to a uniform distance scale takenfrom the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC). We have used twodifferent normalization factors to explore the variation of the gascontent along the Hubble sequence: the blue luminosity (LB)and the square of linear diameter (D225). Ourcatalogue significantly improves the statistics of previous referencecatalogues and can be used in future studies to define a template ISMcontent for ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence. The cataloguecan be accessed on-line and is also available at the Centre desDonnées Stellaires (CDS).The catalogue is available in electronic form athttp://dipastro.pd.astro.it/galletta/ismcat and at the CDS via anonymousftp to\ cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via\http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/5

Bar Galaxies and Their Environments
The prints of the Palomar Sky Survey, luminosity classifications, andradial velocities were used to assign all northern Shapley-Ames galaxiesto either (1) field, (2) group, or (3) cluster environments. Thisinformation for 930 galaxies shows no evidence for a dependence of barfrequency on galaxy environment. This suggests that the formation of abar in a disk galaxy is mainly determined by the properties of theparent galaxy, rather than by the characteristics of its environment.

Discrete dynamical classes for galaxy discs and the implication of a second generation of Tully-Fisher methods
In Roscoe (\cite{RoscoeA}), it was described how the modelling of asmall sample of optical rotation curves (ORCs) given by Rubin et al.(\cite{Rubin}) with the power-law Vrot=ARα,where where the parameters (A,alpha ) vary between galaxies, raised thehypothesis that the parameter A (considered in the form ln A) had apreference for certain discrete values. This specific hypothesis wastested in that paper against a sample of 900 spiral galaxy rotationcurves measured by Mathewson et al. (\cite{Mathewson1992}), but foldedby Persic & Salucci (\cite{Persic1995}), and was confirmed on thislarge sample with a conservatively estimated upper bound probability of10-7 against it being a chance effect. In this paper, webegin by reviewing the earlier work, and then describe the analyses ofthree additional samples; the first of these, of 1200+ Southern skyORCs, was published by Mathewson & Ford (\cite{Mathewson1996}), thesecond, of 497 Northern sky ORCs, is a composite sample provided by kindpermission of Giovanelli & Haynes published in the sequence ofpapers Dale et al. (\cite{Dale1997}, \cite{Dale1998}, \cite{Dale1999})and Dale & Uson (\cite{Dale2000}), whilst the third, of 305 Northernsky ORCs, was published by Courteau (\cite{Courteau}). These analysesprovide overwhelmingly compelling confirmation of what was already apowerful result. Apart from other considerations, the results leaddirectly to what can be described as a ``second generation ofTully-Fisher methods''. We give a brief discussion of the furtherimplications of the result.

Supernovae in isolated galaxies, in pairs and in groups of galaxies
In order to investigate the influence of environment on supernova (SN)production, we have performed a statistical investigation of the SNediscovered in isolated galaxies, in pairs and in groups of galaxies. 22SNe in 18 isolated galaxies, 48 SNe in 40 galaxy members of 37 pairs and211 SNe in 170 galaxy members of 116 groups have been selected andstudied. We found that the radial distributions of core-collapse SNe ingalaxies located in different environments are similar, and consistentwith those reported by Bartunov, Makarova & Tsvetkov. SNe discoveredin pairs do not favour a particular direction with respect to thecompanion galaxy. Also, the azimuthal distributions inside the hostmembers of galaxy groups are consistent with being isotropics. The factthat SNe are more frequent in the brighter components of the pairs andgroups is expected from the dependence of the SN rates on the galaxyluminosity. There is an indication that the SN rate is higher in galaxypairs compared with that in groups. This can be related to the enhancedstar formation rate in strongly interacting systems. It is concludedthat, with the possible exception of strongly interacting systems, theparent galaxy environment has no direct influence on SN production.

Supernovae in the nuclear regions of starburst galaxies
The feasibility of using near-infrared observations to discoversupernovae in the nuclear and circumnuclear regions of nearby starburstgalaxies is investigated. We provide updated estimates of the intrinsiccore-collapse supernova rates in these regions. We discuss the problemof extinction, and present new estimates of the extinction towards 33supernova remnants in the starburst galaxy M 82. This is done using Hiand H2 column density measurements. We estimate the molecularto atomic hydrogen mass ratio to be 7.4+/-1.0 in M 82. We have assemblednear-infrared photometric data for a total of 13 core-collapsesupernovae, some unpublished hitherto. This constitutes the largestdatabase of infrared light curves for such events. We show that theinfrared light curves fall into two classes, `ordinary' and `slowlydeclining'. Template JHKL light curves are derived for both classes. Forordinary core-collapse supernovae, the average peak JHKL absolutemagnitudes are -18.4, -18.6, -18.6 and -19.0 respectively. The slowlydeclining core-collapse supernovae are found to be significantly moreluminous than the ordinary events, even at early times, having averagepeak JHKL absolute magnitudes of -19.9, -20.0, -20.0 and -20.4respectively. We investigate the efficiency of a computerized imagesubtraction method in supernova detection. We then carry out a MonteCarlo simulation of a supernova search using K-band images of NGC 5962.The effects of extinction and observing strategy are discussed. Weconclude that a modest observational programme will be able to discovera number of nuclear supernovae.

Southern Isolated Galaxy Triplets
Seventy-six isolated triple systems of galaxies with declinatiosnδ<-3° were selected using ESO/SERC and POSS-I sky surveydata. The equatorial coordinates, configuration types, angular sizes,component angular separations, component morphological types, totalmagnitudes, and other parameters are reported for each triplet.Radial-velocity estimates are available for all components in 33 of the76 triplets. The median values of the main dynamicalparameters—radial-velocity dispersion, mean harmonic radius,absolute magnitudes of member galaxies, and mass-to-luminosityratios—are similar to those obtained earlier for 83 isolatedtriple systems with δ>-3°.

Nearby Optical Galaxies: Selection of the Sample and Identification of Groups
In this paper we describe the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, whichis a complete, distance-limited (cz<=6000 km s-1) andmagnitude-limited (B<=14) sample of ~7000 optical galaxies. Thesample covers 2/3 (8.27 sr) of the sky (|b|>20deg) andappears to have a good completeness in redshift (97%). We select thesample on the basis of homogenized corrected total blue magnitudes inorder to minimize systematic effects in galaxy sampling. We identify thegroups in this sample by means of both the hierarchical and thepercolation ``friends-of-friends'' methods. The resulting catalogs ofloose groups appear to be similar and are among the largest catalogs ofgroups currently available. Most of the NOG galaxies (~60%) are found tobe members of galaxy pairs (~580 pairs for a total of ~15% of objects)or groups with at least three members (~500 groups for a total of ~45%of objects). About 40% of galaxies are left ungrouped (field galaxies).We illustrate the main features of the NOG galaxy distribution. Comparedto previous optical and IRAS galaxy samples, the NOG provides a densersampling of the galaxy distribution in the nearby universe. Given itslarge sky coverage, the identification of groups, and its high-densitysampling, the NOG is suited to the analysis of the galaxy density fieldof the nearby universe, especially on small scales.

A Dynamical Study of Galaxies in the Hickson Compact Groups
To investigate dynamical properties of spiral galaxies in the Hicksoncompact groups (HCGs), we present rotation curves of 30 galaxies in 20HCGs. We found as follows: (1) There is no significant relation betweendynamical peculiarity and morphological peculiarity in HCG spiralgalaxies. (2) There is no significant relation between the dynamicalproperties and the frequency distribution of nuclear activities in HCGspiral galaxies. (3) There are no significant correlations between thedynamical properties of HCG spiral galaxies and any group properties(i.e., size, velocity dispersion, galaxy number density, and crossingtime). (4) Asymmetric and peculiar rotation curves are more frequentlyseen in the HCG spiral galaxies than in field spiral galaxies or incluster ones. However, this tendency is more obviously seen in late-typeHCG spiral galaxies. These results suggest that the dynamical propertiesof HCG spiral galaxies do not strongly correlate with the morphology,the nuclear activity, and the group properties. Our results also suggestthat more frequent galaxy collisions occur in the HCGs than in the fieldand in the clusters.

The Canarias Database of Nearby Type II Supernovae
Our aim is to present an atlas containing 35 low-resolution spectra thatcorrespond to 19 Type II supernovae. These spectra cover differentphases of postmaximum supernova evolution, ranging from ~2 weeks to>~1 yr after maximum brightness. The Canarias Database of Nearby TypeII Supernovae contains spectra obtained from two different programs: thefirst, the ``Supernova Monitoring Project,'' was carried out from 1990April to 1992 July; the second takes advantage of the ORM Service Timefacility and is currently active. In this paper we present the firstresults, mainly compiled from the Supernova Monitoring Project. Based onobservations made with the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope and the 4.2 mWilliam Herschel Telescope operated on La Palma by the Isaac NewtonGroups of Telescopes at Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of theInstituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

Box- and peanut-shaped bulges. I. Statistics
We present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of ~ 1350edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue ofBright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al. \cite{rc3}). A visualclassification of the bulges using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) inthree types of b/p bulges or as an elliptical type is presented andsupported by CCD images. NIR observations reveal that dust extinctiondoes almost not influence the shape of bulges. There is no substantialdifference between the shape of bulges in the optical and in the NIR.Our analysis reveals that 45% of all bulges are box- and peanut-shaped(b/p). The frequency of b/p bulges for all morphological types from S0to Sd is > 40%. In particular, this is for the first time that such alarge frequency of b/p bulges is reported for galaxies as late as Sd.The fraction of the observed b/p bulges is large enough to explain theb/p bulges by bars. Partly based on observations collected at ESO/LaSilla (Chile), DSAZ/Calar Alto (Spain), and Lowell Observatory/Flagstaff(AZ/U.S.A.). Tables 6 and 7 are only available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

An analysis of 900 rotation curves of southern sky spiral galaxies: is galaxy evolution constrained to occupy discrete states?
A rudimentary analysis of the 21 rotation curves given by Rubin et al.(1980) based on the hypothesis that Vrot=A R(alpha ) where(alpha , A) are constants particular to any given rotation curve, raisedthe further hypothesis that the distribution of the parameter ln A(estimated by linear regression on the rotation curves) has a discretestructure which, if representing an underlying real physical effect,would imply that the dynamics of spiral galaxies are constrained tooccupy discrete states. The availability of the very large H_alpharotation curve data base of spiral galaxies (Persic & Salucci, 1995;PS hereafter) has provided an opportunity to conduct a strong test ofthis idea, and we find it confirmed at a level of almost certainty onthe data analysed. Given the already well known strong relationshipbetween rotational kinematics and luminosity properties of galaxies,this result implies that the luminosity evolution of spiral galaxies isconstrained to occur on discretely defined surfaces so that, finally, aform of {` cosmic coherence'} for galaxy evolution appears to besuggested.

SN1987C in MRK 90 = UGC 4438: Evolution of a Type "IIn" to a Type IIP?
We describe three optical spectra and four photometric observations ofSN1987C. The light curve is best described by a Type II-P template. Thefirst spectrum of SN1987C, at day 53, is similar to spectra of othermembers of the "Type IIn" subclass. Spectra at 80 and 231 days appearessentially identical to late-time spectra of normal Type II-Psupernovae. The data provide clues to suggest that at least this exampleof a "IIn" object was a hidden Type II-P supernova during its earlyevolution. We believe that we have observed the effects of a transitionfrom emission dominated by the kinetic energy of an expanding shell toemission dominated by the radioactive decay of synthesized isotopes. Asfar as we know, this is the first time such a transition has beenobserved.

Bulge-Disk Decomposition of 659 Spiral and Lenticular Galaxy Brightness Profiles
We present one of the largest homogeneous sets of spiral and lenticulargalaxy brightness profile decompositions completed to date. The 659galaxies in our sample have been fitted with a de Vaucouleurs law forthe bulge component and an inner-truncated exponential for the diskcomponent. Of the 659 galaxies in the sample, 620 were successfullyfitted with the chosen fitting functions. The fits are generally welldefined, with more than 90% having rms deviations from the observedprofile of less than 0.35 mag. We find no correlations of fittingquality, as measured by these rms residuals, with either morphologicaltype or inclination. Similarly, the estimated errors of the fittedcoefficients show no significant trends with type or inclination. Thesedecompositions form a useful basis for the study of the lightdistributions of spiral and lenticular galaxies. The object base issufficiently large that well-defined samples of galaxies can be selectedfrom it.

The Southern Sky Redshift Survey
We report redshifts, magnitudes, and morphological classifications for5369 galaxies with m_B <= 15.5 and for 57 galaxies fainter than thislimit, in two regions covering a total of 1.70 sr in the southerncelestial hemisphere. The galaxy catalog is drawn primarily from thelist of nonstellar objects identified in the Hubble Space TelescopeGuide Star Catalog (GSC). The galaxies have positions accurate to ~1"and magnitudes with an rms scatter of ~0.3 mag. We compute magnitudes(m_SSRS2) from the relation between instrumental GSC magnitudes and thephotometry by Lauberts & Valentijn. From a comparison with CCDphotometry, we find that our system is homogeneous across the sky andcorresponds to magnitudes measured at the isophotal level ~26 magarcsec^-2. The precision of the radial velocities is ~40 km s^-1, andthe redshift survey is more than 99% complete to the m_SSRS2 = 15.5 maglimit. This sample is in the direction opposite that of the CfA2; incombination the two surveys provide an important database for studies ofthe properties of galaxies and their large-scale distribution in thenearby universe. Based on observations obtained at Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories,operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy,Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation;Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between theConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de laRepública Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata,Córdoba, and San Juan; the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile, partially under the bilateral ESO-ObservatórioNacional agreement; Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory;Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil; and the SouthAfrican Astronomical Observatory.

Catalogue of HI maps of galaxies. I.
A catalogue is presented of galaxies having large-scale observations inthe HI line. This catalogue collects from the literature the informationthat characterizes the observations in the 21-cm line and the way thatthese data were presented by means of maps, graphics and tables, forshowing the distribution and kinematics of the gas. It containsfurthermore a measure of the HI extension that is detected at the levelof the maximum sensitivity reached in the observations. This catalogueis intended as a guide for references on the HI maps published in theliterature from 1953 to 1995 and is the basis for the analysis of thedata presented in Paper II. The catalogue is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

A catalogue of spatially resolved kinematics of galaxies: Bibliography
We present a catalogue of galaxies for which spatially resolved data ontheir internal kinematics have been published; there is no a priorirestriction regarding their morphological type. The catalogue lists thereferences to the articles where the data are published, as well as acoded description of these data: observed emission or absorption lines,velocity or velocity dispersion, radial profile or 2D field, positionangle. Tables 1, 2, and 3 are proposed in electronic form only, and areavailable from the CDS, via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (to130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

An Einstein X-Ray Survey of Optically Selected Galaxies. I. Data
We present the results of a complete Einstein imaging proportionalcounter X-ray survey of optically selected galaxies from theShapley-Ames Catalog, the Uppsala General Catalogue, and the EuropeanSouthern Observatory Catalog. Well-defined optical criteria are used toselect the galaxies, and X-ray fluxes are measured at the opticallydefined positions. The result is a comprehensive list of X-ray detectionand upper limit measurements for 1018 galaxies. Of these, 827 haveeither independent distance estimates or radial velocities. Associatedoptical, redshift, and distance data have been assembled for thesegalaxies, and their distances come from a combination of directlypredicted distances and those predicted from the Faber-Burstein GreatAttractor/Virgocentric infall model. The accuracy of the X-ray fluxeshas been checked in three different ways; all are consistent with thederived X-ray fluxes being of <=0.1 dex accuracy. In particular,there is agreement with previously published X-ray fluxes for galaxiesin common with a 1991 study by Roberts et al. and a 1992 study byFabbiano et al. The data presented here will be used in further studiesto characterize the X-ray output of galaxies of various morphologicaltypes and thus to enable the determination of the major sourcescontributing to the X-ray emission from galaxies.

The universal rotation curve of spiral galaxies - I. The dark matter connection
We use a homogeneous sample of about 1100 optical and radio rotationcurves (RCs) and relative surface photometry to investigate the mainmass structure properties of spirals, over a range of 6 mag and out to<~1.5 and 2 optical radii (for the optical and radio data,respectively). We confirm the strong dependence on luminosity for boththe profile and the amplitude of RCs claimed by Persic & Salucci.Spiral RCs show the striking feature that a single global parameter,e.g. luminosity, dictates the rotational velocity at any radius for anyobject, so revealing the existence of a universal RC. At highluminosities, there is a slight discrepancy between the profiles of RCsand those predicted from the luminous matter (LM) distributions: thisimplies a small, yet detectable, amount of dark matter (DM). At lowluminosities, the failure of the LM prediction is much more severe, andthe DM is the only relevant mass component. We show that the universalRC implies a number of scaling properties between dark and luminousgalactic structure parameters: (i) the DM/LM mass ratio scales inverselywith luminosity; (ii) the central halo density scales as L^-0.7 (iii)the halo core radius is comparable to the optical radius, but shrinksfor low luminosities; (iv) the total halo mass scales as L^0.5. Suchscaling properties can be represented as a curve in the(luminosity)-(DM/LM mass ratio)-(DM core radius)-(DM central density)space, which provides a geometrical description of the tight couplingbetween the dark and the luminous matter in spiral galaxies.

The Atmospheres of Type II Supernovae and the Expanding Photosphere Method
The Expanding Photosphere Method (EPM) determines distances to Type IIsupernova (SNe II) by comparing the photospheric angular size with theexpansion velocity measured from spectral lines. The photospheres of SNeII are low density and are dominated by electron scattering, andconsequently the photospheric flux is dilute relative to a Planckfunction at the best-fitting continuum color temperature. Thereliability of EPM distances depends on understanding bow the dilutionis related to physical properties of the supernova atmosphere. To studythis, we have calculated 63 different model atmospheres relevant to SNeII. The excitation, ionization, and thermal structure are described forthe case of high effective temperature in which the atmosphere iscompletely ionized, and for the case of cooler effective temperatures inwhich the photosphere is formed in a region of recombining hydrogen. Thegeneral spectral features of both cases are discussed. We explore howthe computed spectrum changes with density structure, helium abundance,metallicity, expansion rate, and luminosity or effective temperature.The most important variable in determining spectral appearance is theeffective temperature. The amount by which the emergent flux is diluterelative to the best-fitting blackbody depends on a number of factors,most important of which are the temperature and, in short-wavelengthbandpasses, density at the photosphere. For each of the models we derivedistance correction factors for application in EPM, using the fourfilter combinations {BV}, {VI_c_}, {BVI_c_}, and {JHK}. The maindifferences may be expressed in terms of the observable colortemperature and a slowly varying dependence on density. Functional fitsto the distance correction factor are provided which can be used toestimate the photospheric angular size from broadband photometry. Theeffect of uncertain dust extinction on angular size is shown to besmall. This work places EPM on a firm theoretical foundation andsubstantiates the Hubble constant measurement by Schmidt et al. of H_0_= 73 +/- 7.

Recalibration of the H-0.5 magnitudes of spiral galaxies
The H-magnitude aperture data published by the Aaronson et al.collaboration over a 10 year period is collected into a homogeneous dataset of 1731 observations of 665 galaxies. Ninety-six percent of thesegalaxies have isophotal diameters and axial ratios determined by theThird Reference Cataloque of Bright Galaxies (RC3; de Vaucouleurs et al.1991), the most self-consistent set of optical data currently available.The precepts governing the optical data in the RC3 are systematicallydifferent from those of the Second Reference Catalogue (de Vaucouleurs,de Vaucouleurs, & Corwin 1976), which were used by Aaronson et al.for their original analyses of galaxy peculiar motions. This in turnleads to systematic differences in growth curves and fiducialH-magnitudes, prompting the present recalibration of the near-infraredTully-Fisher relationship. New optically normalized H-magnitude growthcurves are defined for galaxies of types SO to Im, from which new valuesof fiducial H-magnitudes, Hg-0.5, are measured forthe 665 galaxies. A series of internal tests show that these fourstandard growth curves are defined to an accuracy of 0.05 mag over theinterval -1.5 less than or equal to log (A/Dg) less than orequal to -0.2. Comparisons with the Aaronson et al. values of diameters,axial ratios, and fiducial H-magnitudes show the expected differences,given the different definitions of these parameters. The values ofHg-0.5 are assigned quality indices: a qualityvalue of 1 indicates an accuracy of less than 0.2 mag, quality 2indicates an accuracy of 0.2-0.35 mag, and quality 3 indicates anaccuracy of more than 0.35 mag. Revised values of corrected H I velocitywidths are also given, based on the new set of axial ratios defiend bythe RC3.

A Preliminary Classification Scheme for the Central Regions of Late-Type Galaxies
The large-scale prints in The Carnegie Atlas of Galaxies have been usedto formulate a classification scheme for the central regions oflate-type galaxies. Systems that exhibit small bright central bulges ordisks (type CB) are found to be of earlier Hubble type and of higherluminosity than galaxies that do not contain nuclei (type NN). Galaxiescontaining nuclear bars, or exhibiting central regions that are resolvedinto individual stars and knots, and galaxies with semistellar nuclei,are seen to have characteristics that are intermediate between those oftypes CB and NN. The presence or absence of a nucleus appears to be auseful criterion for distinguishing between spiral galaxies andmagellanic irregulars.

Distribution of supernovae relative to spiral arms and H II regions
We have studied the association of supernovae in spiral galaxies withsites of recent stars formation -- sprial arms and H II regions. It isshown that supernovae (SNe) of Types Ia, Ib, and II exhibitconcentration to spiral arms and their distributions over the distanceto the nearest spiral arm do not differ significantly. This result isconfirmed by a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test comparison with the distancedistributions, expected if SNe are distributed randomly inside the modelgalaxy. SNe of types Ib and II show a strong concentration towards H IIregions, while distribution of SNe Ia can be explained by chancesuperposition. All studied distributions of SNe Ib and II show strikingsimilarity, which suggests that their progenitors are massive stars withsimilar ages and initial masses. The association of SNe Ia with spiralarms suggests that their progenitors in spiral galaxies are likely to beintermediate mass stars.

Searching for supernovae--Visually and otherwise
The main features of visual searching for supernovae in other galaxiesby amateur astronomers are described, and an outline is given of theresults which have been achieved so far by this method. A shortcomparison is made between visual searching and photographic searching.A more extensive comparison is then made between visual searching forsupernovae in Australia, and the work of the Berkeley AutomaticSupernova Search at Leuschner Observatory, since 1986. Among theconclusions is the claim that a competent visual observer could producesimilar results to those produced by the Berkeley group if a telescopeof similar aperture was used for a similar amount of observing time, andfrom a good observing site. Indeed, visual searching might possiblyproduce more results, and such a search would only cost a small fractionof what was spent on this automatic search. It would be a worthwhileproject to conduct a visual search with a suitably desinged 76-cmtelescope, or a one metre telescope, over a period of a few years, tosee if this conclusion could be supported in practice.

A catalog of recent supernovae
A listing is given of all supernovae discovered between 1 Jan 1989 and 1Apr 1993. The data show no evidence for a significant dependence of thediscovery probability of supernovae on parent galaxy inclination to theline of sight. If no inclination corrections need to be applied then thesupernova rates in spirals are only about half as large as previouslybelieved. The mean linear separation of supernovae of Type II (SNe II)from the center of their parent galaxy increases with increasingdistance (Shaw effect). The Shaw effect appears less evident, or absent,for (more luminous) supernovae of Type Ia. The data are consistent with,but do not prove, the hypothesis that (presumably reddended) SNe II aremore likely to be discovered in the red than in the blue. Due tointensive surveillance, most bright SNe Ia tend to be found beforemaximum, whereas the majority of faint SNe Ia are discovered aftermaximum light.

Infrared imaging of spiral galaxies: Colors and luminosity profiles
We present surface photometry of 43 SO and spiral galaxies in the K bandwith a subset also observed in J. Most of the data are photometricallycalibrated. We combine our data with published optical major-axisprofiles to construct a set of galaxies with rJK colors, divide themajor-axis profiles into bulge-dominated and disk-dominated regions, andcompute mean colors and color gradients separately for bulges and disks.Typically the disk colors are measured from 0.8 to 1.8 scale lengths.The colors of the bulge and disk components are strongly correlated,indicating that both components have a red stellar content that issimilar in both age and metallicity. In the mean the disks are 0.1 magbluer in r - K than bulges; this color difference would arise if thedisks are 2-4 x 109 yr younger or have lower metallicities byDelta(Fe/H) is approximately equal to -0.1 to -0.2. Many of the bulgesexhibit negative color gradients (bluer outward), which indicate thatmetallicity gradients of order Delta(Fe/H) is approximately -0.2 may becommon in bulges. Bulges of late-type galaxies are bluer on average thanthose of early types, probably a consequence of lower metallicity. About25% of the galaxies have especially red bulge and disk colors, which weinterpret as arising from large internal extinction rather than from anenhanced star-formation rate.

The distances to five Type II supernovae using the expanding photosphere method, and the value of H0
We have used observations gathered at Cerro Tololo Inter-AmericanObservatory (CTIO) to measure distances by the expanding photospheremethod (EPM) to five Type II supernovae. These supernovae lie atredshifts from cz = 1100 km/s to cz = 5500 km/s, and increase to 18 thenumber of distances measured using EPM. We compare distances derived to11 Type II supernovae with distances to their galaxies measured usingthe Tully-Fisher method. We find that the Tully-Fisher distances average11% +/- 7% smaller. The comparison shows no significant evidence of anylarge distance-dependent bias in the Tully-Fisher distances. We employthe sample of EPM distances from 4.5 Mpc to 180 Mpc to derive a valuefor the Hubble constant. We find H0 = 73 +/- 6 (statistical)+/- 7 (systematic) km/s/Mpc.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:02h39m28.90s
Aparent dimensions:1.905′ × 0.55′

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NGC 2000.0NGC 1035

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